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cable to this class of cases, will, it is believed, il REMARKS ON SEMINARIES FOR TEACHERS.
BY T. H. GALLAUDET.
No important result can be attained with reSuperintendent Common Schools.
gard to the accomplishment of any object which affects the temporal or eternal well-being of our
species, without enlisting an entire devotednessQUALIFICATIONS OF VOTERS AT to it of intelligence, zeal, fidelity, industry, inDISTRICT MEETINGS.
tegrity, and practical exertion. What is it, that
has furnished us with able divines, lawyers, and In addition to the qualifications necessary to physicians? The un livi led consecration of the entitle an inhabitant of a school district to vote talents and efforts of intelligent and upright indi. at elections and town meetings, he must possess viduals to these professions. How have these some one or more of the following qualifications talents been matured, and these efforts been to entitle him to vote at a school district meet trained, to their beneficial results? By a diligent ing, viz:
| course of preparation, and a long discipline in 1. He must be the owner or occupant of real
the school of experience. We have our theoloproperty within the district, subject to taxation;
gical, law, and medical institutions, in which our or
young men are fitted for the pursuits of these 2. He must own personal property liable to
respective professions, by deriving benefit from taxation in the district, exceeding fifty dollars in
the various sources of information which libravalue, over and above such as is exempt from
ries, lectures, and experiments afford. Unaided execution: or
by such auxiliaries, genius, however brilliant; 3. He must have paid a rate bill for teachers' invention, however prolific; observation, howwages in the district, within one year preceding:11
ever acute; ingenuity, however ready; and per.
severance, however indefatigable, have to grope or
4. He must have paid a district tax within twoll their way, through a long and tiresome process. years preceding the time of offering his vote.
I to the attainment of results which a little ac The possession of either of these qualificationsl quaintance with the labors of others in the same in addition to the qualifications entitling to all track of effort, would render a thousand times vote at town meetings and elections, will entitle| more easy, rapid, ani delightlul. Experienc an inhabitant of a school district to a vote at a
the store house of knowledge. Now why should district meeting. But some one or more of them
them ll not this experience be resorted to as an auxiliary is indispensable; and no person, although he may
in the education of youth? Why not make this be a legal voter at town meetings and elections,
department of human exertion, a profession, as is entitled to vote at school district meetings, un.
well as those of divinity, law, and medicine 1 less he possesses, in addition thereto, one or more
Why not have an Institution for the training up of these qualifications. He must have some pe.
of Instructers for the sphere of labor, as well cuniary interest in the common schools, either
as institutions to prepare young men for the duties by being taxable in the district, for district pur-1
of the divine, the lawyer, or the physician? poses, to some amount, for real or personal pro
Can a subject of more interest present itself to perty, or by having paid a tax or rate bil for
the consideration of the public? Does not the such purposes. Payment of, or liability to a high
future improvement of our species, to which the way tax, is not sufficient. It must be a tax for
philanthropist and the Christian look forward district purposes.
with such delightful anticipation, depend on the Aliens not naturalized, or who are not entitled
plans which are adopted for the development to vote at town meetings or elections, may ne.
and cultivation of the intellectual and moral pow. vertheless vote at school district meetings, pro
ers of man? Must not these plans begin with vided they are “ entitled by law to hold land in
infancy and childhood ? Do not the attainments this State," and actually "own or hire real pro
of the pupil depend upon the talents, the fidelity, perty in the district subject to taxation for school
and the integrity of those by whom he is taught? purposes." To entitle aliens to hold land in How will he learn to think, to speak, to read, this State, they must have files in the office of
and to write with accuracy, unless his instructers the Secretary of State a certificate, setting forth
are able to teach him? Shall their ability depend their intention to become citizens, anl that they
upon their in lividual experience and attainments ? have taken the incipient steps required by the
uired by the ||Are you satisfied with a divine, a lawyer, or a laws of the United States to obtain naturaliza
physician, who has qualified himself, or pretendtion.
ed to do so, for his profession, by solitary, un8. YOUNG,
aided, unadvised, untaught, inexperienced efforts ? Superintendent Common Schools.
You do not do this. Why not, then, require in the instructers of youth, to whom you commit
the training up of your offspring, an adequate PRONUNCIATION. -The difficulty of applying preparation for their most important and responrules to the pronunciation of our language may ||sible employment ? be illustrated in two lines, where the combina-ll But this preparatory discipline is considered tion of the letters ough, is pronounced in no less || in dispensable, not only for the learned professions, than seven different ways, viz : as o, eif, of, up, but for the ordinary occupations of life. A term ow, oo, and ock
of years is required to fulfil the duties of an apa Though the tough cough and hicoousto plough me | prenticesbip to any of the mechanical trades. Ad through,
lartisan does not venture to solicit the patronage D'er life's dark lough my course i nein parmio. of the public till be has undergone this appren.
ticeship. This training under the instruction of|| I am told that the Patent office at Washington experienced masters, is deemed of still more im- is thronged with models of machines, intended to portance in what are termed the liberal arts, such || facilitate the various processes of mechanical laas painting, sculpture, and engraving. To foster || bor; and I read, in our public prints, of the deep inthem, academies are formed; models are collect- terest which is felt in any of those happy discoed ; lectures are delivered; and the young novi-l veries that are made to provide for the wants, and tiate is willing to devote years of patient and comfort, and luxuries of man, at an easier and a assiduous labor, to fit himself for success in his cheaper rate; and I hear those eulogized as the profession. We hear, too, of what is termed a benefactors of our race, whose genius invents, regularly-bred merchant; and the drilling of the land whose patient application carries into effect counter and the counting-house is considered in-llany project for windowing some sheaves of wheat dispensable to prepare one for all the complicated a little quicker, or spinning some threads of cottransactions of trade and commerce. And if menton a little sooner, or propelling a boat a little are to be trained to arms, academies are estab-l faster, than has heretofore been done; and, lished, at which experience, ingenuity, and science this while, how comparatively few improvements are put in requisition, to qualify the young and are made in the process of educating the youthinexperienced for military exploits. In fact there||ful mind; and in training it for usefulness in this is scarce any pursuit connected with the business || life, and for happiness in the life to come! of life, but what men have endeavored to render || Is human ingenuity and skill to be on the alert successful, by a process predicated on well known in almost every other field of enterprise but this? principles of human nature ; by making it, in the | How can we reconcile our apathy on this subject first place, a distinct profession or calling; then, ll with the duties which we owe to our children, to by yielding to those who have long been engaged our country, and to our God? in it, the deference which their experience justly I Let the same provision, then, be made for giv. demands; and finally, by compelling those who ling success to this department of effort that is so would wish to adopt it, to devote themselves to it, liberally made for all others. Let an institution and to pass through all the preparatory steps be established in every state, for the express purwhich are necessary for the consummation of their pose of training up young men for the profession acquaintance both with its theory and practice. of instructers of youth in the common branches In this way only we hope to form good mechanics, of English education. Let it be so well endowed, painters,engravers, sculptors, farmers, merchants, II by the liberality of the public, or of individuals, physicians, and lawyers.
as to have two or three professors, men of talents Perhaps some of my illustrations may be con- and habits adapted to the pursuit, who should sidered of too humble a kind. But my subject devote their lives to the object of the “Theory is a very practical one, and I intend to treat it in and Practice of the Education of Youth," and a practical way. Permit me, then, to inquire of who should prepare and deliver, and print, a my readers, when they wish to get a shoe made, ll course of lectures on the subject. to whom they apply? Do they not take conside- || Let the institution be furnished with a library, rable pains to find a first-rate workman; one which shall contain all the works, theoretical and who has learned his trade well, and who can exe-l practical, in all languages, that can be obtained cute his work in the best manner? And when on the subject of education, and also with all the our wives and daughters want a new bonnet, or all apparatus that modern ingenuity has devised for new dress, will they not make a great many in- this purpose, such as maps, charts, globes, quiries, and take not a few steps, and consume no llorreries, &c. small portion of very valuable time, to as- Let there be connected with the institution, a certain the important fact, who is the most skilful school, smaller or larger, as circumstances might and tasteful milliner and seamtress within their dictate, in which the theories of the professors reach; and are they not willing to undergo many might be reduced to practice, and from which inconveniences, and to wait till their patience is daily experience would derive a thousand useful almost exhausted, and their wants very clamorous, I instructions. in order to obtain the precious satisfaction of hav. To such an institution let young men resort ing the work done by hands whose skill and inge-li who are ready to devote themselves to the businuity have been long tested, and on whose experi-lness of instructers of youth. Let them attend a ence and judgment in adjusting colors, and quali- regular course of lectures on the subject of eduties, and proportions, and symmetry, and shape, cation; read the best works; take their turns in they can safely rely?
the instruction of the experimental school, and Is a shoe, or a bonnet, to be put in competition after thus becoming qualified for their office, with an immortal mind!
leave the institution with a suitable certificate or In your very articles of dress, to clothe a frail, I diploma, recommending them to the confidence perishable body, that is soon to become the prey of the public. of corruption, will you be so scrupulous in the I have scarcely room to allude to the advantages choice of those whom you employ to make them ; / which would result from such a plan. It would and yet feel no solicitude in requiring of those to direct the attention, and concentrate the efforts, whom is entrusted the formation of the habits, ll and inspire the zeal of many worthy and intelliand thoughts and feelings of a soul that is to live gent minds to one important object. They would forever, a preparation for their most responsible excite each other in this new career of doing task; an apprenticeship to their important call-good. Every year would produce a valuable acing; a devotedness to a pursuit which involves | cession to the mass of experience that would be all that can affect the tenderest sympathies of a constantly accumulating at such a store-house of kind parent—the most ardent hopes of a true knowledge. The business of instructing youth patriot—the most expanded views of a sincere would be reduced to a system which would embrace philanthropist-the most benevolent wishes of a the best and the readiest mode of conducting it. devout Christian.
This system would be gradually diffused through. out the community. Our instructers would rank, friends and correspondents in various parts of the as they ought to do, among the most respectable country, to whom they will from time to time professions. We should know to whom we en- communicate the results of their speculations and trusted the care and education of our offspring. efforts, and to whom they will impart a portion These instructers, corresponding, as they natural of the enthusiasm which they themselves feel. ly would, with the institution which they had Such an institution, too, would soon become an left, and visiting it at its annual, and my imma object of laudable curiosity. Thousands would gination already portrays, delightful festivals, ll visit it. Its experimental school, if properly would impart to it, and to each other, the discov. conducted, would form a most delightful and ineries and improvements which they might indi. || teresting spectacle. Its library and various apvidually make in their separate spheres of em. paratus would be, I may say, a novelty in this ployment.
department of the philosophy of the human mind. In addition to all this, what great advantages | It would probably, also, have its public examinasuch an institution would afford, by the combined tions, which would draw together an assembly of talents of its professors, its library, its experi-l intelligent and literary individuals. Its students, mental school, and perhaps by the endowment or as they dispersed through the community, would two or three fellowships for this very object, for carry with them the spirit of the institution, and the formation of the best books to be employed in thus, by these various processes of communica: the early stages of education : a desideratum, tion, the whole mass of public sentiment, and which none but some intelligent mothers, and a feeling, and effort, would be imbued with it. few others who have devoted themselves to so
Another advantage resulting from such an inhumble, yet important an object, can duly appre
stitution would be, that it would lead to the in. ciate.
vestigation and establishment of those principles Such an institution, too, would soon become of discipline and government most likely to prothe centre of information on all topics connected mote the progress of children and youth in the with the education of youth ; and thus, the com. I acquisition of intellectual and moral excellence. bined results of those individuals in' domestic | How sadly vague and unsettled are most of the life; whose attention has been directed to the plans in this important part of education, now in subject. would be brought to a point, examined. | operation in our common schools. What is the weighed, matured, digested, systematized. pro- regular and well-defined' system of praise and mulgated, and carried into effect.
blame; of rewards and punishments; of exciting Such an institution would also tend to elevate
competition or appealing to better feelings; in the tone of public sentiment, and to quicken the
short, of cultivating the moral and religious temzeal of public effort with regard to the correct
per of the pupil, while his intellectual improve. intellectual and moral education of the rising
ment is going on, which now pervades our schools ?
Even the gardener, whom you employ to deck generation. To accomplish any great object, the co-opera.
your flower beds, and cultivate your vegetables, tion of numbers is necessary. This is emphati
and rear your fruit trees, you expect to proceed cally true in our republican community. Indi
upon some matured and well understood plan of vidual influence, or wealth, is inadequate to the
operation. On this subject I can hardly restrain task. Monarchs, or nobles, may singly devise||
my emotions. I am almost ready to exclaimand carry into effect Herculean enterprises. But||
se shame on those fathers and mothers who inquire we have no royal institutions; ours must be of
not at all, who almost seem to care not at all, more gradual growth, and perhaps, too, may as- |
with regard to the moral discipline that is pur.
sued by instructers in cultivating the temper and pire to more generous and impartial beneficence,
disposition of their children. On this subject, and attain to more settled and immovable stability. || Now to concentrate the attention, and interest, l.
every thing depends on the character and habits and exertions of the public on any important ob-h;
"ll of the instructer; on the plans he lays down for ject, it must assume a definite and palpable form.
himself; on the modes by which he carries these It must have“ a local habitation and name.” For ||
plans into effect. Here, as in everything else, instance, you may, by statements of facts, and I
system is of the highest importance. Nothing by eloquent appeals to the sympathies of others, ||
should be left to whim and caprice. What is to excite a good deal of feeling with regard to the
ll be this system? Who shall devise it? Prudence, deaf and dumb, or to the insane. But so long as
| sagacity, affection, firmness, and above all, experi. you fail to direct this good will in some particu- ||
llence, should combine their skill and effort to prolar channel of practical effort, you only play || posed, these requisites would be most likely to
:|| duce it. At such an institution as I have proround the hearts of those whom you wish to en list in the cause. They will think, and feel,
be found. Then might we hope to see the. and talk, and hope that something will be done ; ||
1: || heart improved, while the mind expanded ; and
:|| knowledge, human and divine, putting forth its deaf and dumb, and your retreat for the insane. Il
ae || fruits, not by the mere dint of arbitrary authori. Bring these objects of your pity together. Let||
ty, but by the gentler persuasion of motives ad. the public see them. Commence your plans of the
I dressed to those moral principles of our nature, relief. Show that something can be done, and
lll the cultivation of which reason and relation alike how and where it can be done, and you bring into
a inculcate. action that sympathy and benevolence which I “He that will inquire out the best books in would otherwise have been wasted in mere wishes, ll every science, and inform himself of the most maand hopes, and expectations. Just so with re-| terial authors of the several sects of philosophy gard to improvements in education. Establish an and religion, will not find it an infinite work to institution, such as I have ventured to recom-1) acquaint himnself with the sentiments of mankind mend, in every state. The public attention will concerning the most weighty and compresive be directed to it. Its professors will have their subjects."--[LOCKE.
REWARDS, PUNISHMENTS, PRAISE AND BLAME. I faultiness, of the offender ; not to the degree of
vexation he has occasioned ourselves. A child REWARDS and punishments, praise and blame, should be praised, reproved, rewarded, and are the main supports of authority, and its effect corrected, not according to the consequences, but will greatly depend on our dispensing these according to the motives, of his actions-solely with wisdom and caution.
with reference to the right or wrong intention A very frequent recourse to rewards does but which has influenced him. lessen their effect, and weaken the mind by Children, therefore, should not be punished accustoming it to an unnecessary stimulus; |for mere accidents, but mildly warned against whilst punishment, too freely alministered, similar carelessness in future. Whereas, some will fret tbe temper, or, which is worse, break! people show much greater displeasure with a the spirits.
child for accidentally overthrowing the table, or Locke remarks," that those children who are breaking a piece of china, than for telling an the most chastised, rarely prove the best men ; untruth; or, if he hang his head and will not .. and that punishment, if it be not productive of show off in company, he is more blamed than good, will certainly be the cause of much inju- for selfishness in the nursery. But does not
such treatment arise from preferring our own It is better therefore, if possible, to effect our gratification to the good of the child ? and can purposes by encouragements and rewards, rather we hope, by thus doing, to improve him in the than correction. But if this be impracticable, il government of his temper, or to instruct him in we should still keep in view, that punishment, the true standard of right and wrong? being in itself an evil, and intended simply to il Punishment, administered in anger, is no deter from what is wrong, and to induce sub- longer the discipline of love, but bears too much mission and penitence, ought never to be ex- the character of revenging an injury, and will tended beyond what is absolutely necessary to certainly excite in the sufferer a corresponding secure these objects, and, unless inflicted by pa. temper of mind. From sear, indeed, he may rents, or those who are possessed of the first yield externally, but the feelings of his heart "authority, should be of the mildest and least would lead him to resentment, rather than to alarming character.
penitence and submission. And let it never be When a child has been punished, he should forgotten, that if we desire to perform our duties be restored as soon as possible to favor; and to children, it is not to their outward conduct, • when he has received forgiveness, treated as if but to the heart that we must direct our chief - nothing had happened. He may be affection-i attention. ately reminded of his fault in private, as all To punish with effect, requires decision, and warning for the future ; but, alter peace has sometimes courage. If, in addition to this, our been made, to upbraid him with it, especially in' punishments carry with them the stamp of love; the presence of others, is almost a breach of if they are inflicted with an undisturbed serenity honor, and certainly, a great unkindness. Un of temper, with a simple view to the good of the der any circumstances, to reproach children in offender, " not for our pleasure, but for his company, is equally useless and painful to them, | profit," they will rarely fail in accomplishing and is generally done from irritability of temper, the intended purpose ; for children have a quick with little view to their profit.
sense of the motives that influence us, and their We are to remember that shame will not hearts are not unfrequently as much softened, effectually deter children from what is wrong ; and their affections as powerfully called forth and that in employing it too much as an instru-by such correction, as by the most gratisying rementof education, we have reason to apprehend | wards that could be bestowed upon them. we may lead them to act from the fear of man rather than from that of God. Every thing, too, I QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS. which may in the least injure the characters of children, is to be strictly avoided. To have the A teacher should not only be a learned man, name of a naughty child will produce so disheart- he should be able to communicate his knowledge ening an effect upon the mind, that the ill con- | with such directness and clearness that the child sequences inay probably be felt' through life. I would feel It is on this account desirable, that tutors, "As if the soul that moment caught governesses, and nurses, be cautious of enlarge Some treasure it through life had sought." ing upon the faults of those under their care, to An aptness to teach, united with a warm, genany but the parents.
erous fellow feeling for children, is indispensaBlame, and even praise, are to be dispensed bly requisite for him who is with nearly as much caution as punishments and "To aid the mind's development, to watch rewards ; for a child may be called “good," il The dawn of little thougtits-to see and aid “naughty," "troublesome," "kind," or " un Almost the very growth.”kind, till either his temper will be kept in con. A teacher should possess a good moral charactinual irritation, or he will listen with perfect ter. indifference.
He should be at all times under the most watchA child must not be punished or reproved from ful self-government. the impulse of temper; we may regulate his ac. He should possess a good judgment," that tions, but we cannot hope to subdue his will, or high, clear, round-about common sense," as Mr. improve his disposition, by a display of our own Locke calls it. wilfulness, and irritability; for our example He should have an even and uniform temper. will more than counteract the good effects of our' He should have decision and firmness. correction. If irritated, we should wait till wel He should be capable of surmouuting difficul. are cool, before we inflict punishment, and then ties, and of showing pupils the importance of do it as a duty, in exact proportion to the real knowledge.
DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL disturbance of physical order from the one cause,
as of moral order from the other. Dissolute MORAL EDUCATION.
company, gambling, intemperance, neglect of the
Sabbath, are the popular, because the apparent, We are suffering from the evils of neglectedll as oftentimes the proximate causes of moral de and imperfect education. Want, vice and crimel gradation; but to attribute it to each or all of in their myriad forras, bear witness against our linese educational institutions, and demand inquiry whe-l For why was the gaming table resorted to, the ther they can prevent or remedy the evils which Sabbath profaned, or dissolute company loved? are sapping the foundations of society. That|| Because the early impressions, the embryo tastes. the schools have not accomplished the object of the incipient habits were perverted by that false their creation, if that object were to norture a vir-Il system of education, which severs knowledge tuous and intelligent people, unfortunately re- from its relations to duty. And this false educaquires no proof. Their moral influence has un-lition is found in many of those schools, which are doubtedly ameliorated our social condition; but the favorite theme of national eulogy; the proud it has failed to give that energy to virtue, which|answer of the patriot and philanthropist, to all is essential to safety and happiness. It has also who doubt the permanence of free institutions, been an accidental effect, rather than a promi-llor the advancement of human happiness. Were nent and distinct object of school education; and|| we not misled by the great and increasing num. while by its agency, intellect has generally been ber of these primary institutions, and inquired developed, the moral sense has been neglected, Il more carefully into their actual condition, the and the common mind, though quick and scheme. tone of confidence would be more discrimina. ful, wants honesty and independence. The popu-ting and less assured.
| It may be said that too much responsibility is spring from selfishness, and lead on to wealth | charged on the se
to, Wealth || charged on the school; that admitting the perma and reputation, but not to well-being and happi-Il nence of impressions at that tender age, when nese. Were their source moral feeling, and their the mind is " wax to receive and marble to re object duty, they would not only distinguish thell tain,” when those physical, intellectual, and moindividual, but bless society. Man has lost faithral habits are formed, which constitute character in man; for successful knavery, under the garb of|and control life, that these impressions and habits
uness, unblushingly walks the street and depend as much, or more, on the influences of claims the sanction of society.
the fireside, the pulpit, and that great common It is said that the moral condition of a people school, the world. It might be inquired, what may be conjectured from the vices and virtues gave to these influences much of their peculiar that prevail, and the feelings with which they character? whence came the men who now un. are regarded. What must be the state of pub- || consciously act as teachers of each other in the lic sentiment, where frauds, robberies, and even || duties of daily life, strengthening or undermin. murders excite little more than vague surprise, lling the faith, the patriotism, and the prosperity but lead to no earnest investigation of the gene- of our country. They came from the common ral cause, or possible remedy. And the most school, and bear its power and spirit in their alarming consideration is, not that crime is so hearts. Their habits of industry, order and percommon as hardly to be a noticeable event in the severance, their self-respect and love of virtue, history of a day, but that from this state of pub-ll their sense of duty to God and man, were either lic feeling must be engendered a still greater and developed and fostered, or enfeebled and pervert more fearful harvest of social and public evils. Wed, by the influences of the school-room. Waiv.
If there is any truth in those familiar maxims,ling, however, all consideration of their comparawhich in every form and in every tongue, describe tive power, conceding even that either the firethe child as but the" father to the man,”then much || side or the pulpit more deeply affects the national of this moral degradation and social danger must character, yet what more powerful friend or danbe charged on the neglected or perverted culture of gerous foe can either have, than those instituthe schools. Indeed it is not unusual to refer in tions in which nineteen-twentieths of our youth general terms, the vices and misery of society to receive all their school education. If a bad ham this source; but it attracts little more attention || bit in childhood will re-appear a misfortune in than the statement of the philosophical fact that after life, if a mere error in youth often grows the fall of a pebble affects the motion of the into a vice in manhood, is there danger of overearth; and many would as soon anticipate the rating the power of those schools which today