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and increase the public respect and confidence by the or even of the finally successful party, which is so insalutary restraint they may exercise over each other, dispensable to the efficient performance of their superund by the means they will thus possess of excluding | Visory duties. unworthy associates. The regular and steady increase It will be perceived by the eighth section of the new in the rate of ages paid to teachers, proves that their act, that county superintendents are authorized hereprofession is advancing in poblir estimation. The un- after to grant two classes of certificates of qualification natural augmentation of the numbers of those who have! to capdidates for teachers: the one similar to those heretofore devoted themselves to other professions, par. which they are now authorized to grant, and the other ticularly tbal of the law, has produced the usual effect of the same description with those which town superof a redundabcy; and many of the best educated young intendeuts muy graut. and that the consent of the town men in our State are now turning their attention to the superintendent is not requisite to the annulling of either business of instruction, as the pursuit of their lives
class. This diseretionary power will enable them to In this state of things more depends on the terchers discriminate between applicants of different qualificathemselves, than on any other cause, to elevate the stions, and at the same time to supply the demand for character of their profession, and with it, the standard | legally qualified teachers. A judicious exercise of the of education, and thus expand to the utmost extent the discretion thus vested in them, will speedily create a blessings of our schools.
desirable competition among teachers for the higher 4. The county superintendents should make them grade of certificate, which ought never to be granted selves familiar with the laws concerning common except to teachers of undoubted ability and qualifica. schools, the regulations of the Superintendent, and his litions, and should ordinarily be reserved until the coun. decisions and instructions in explanation of them, Ity superintendent has thoroughly tested such ability and which will be furnished to each. They will find this llqualifications by a visit to the school koowledge equally indispensable to the performance 6. By the tenth section, the State Superintendent is of their own duties, and to enable them to inpart the autborized, on the recommendation of the County Suinformation and furnish the advice for which they will i perintendent, or on such other evidence as he may deem be constantly solicited, and which is, indeed, one prin satisfactory, to grant certificates of qualification of the cipal object of their appointment.
highest grade This power must of necessity be spar5. No stronger or more gratifying evidence can be
ingly exercised: and will be reserved as the suitable reafforded of the approbation with which the Legislaturel ward of thoroughly tested superiority in teaching. The reg: rded the system of county supervision as al present
several County Superintendents are hereby directed in established, than is comprised in the fact of devolving
their next and each succeeding annual report to specily upon the officers charged or to be charged with these
the pumes and distinctive qualifications of any number functions, the duty and responsibility of deciding in be
or teachers not excceding five within their jurisdictions, first instance, upon all appeals now authorized to be ll whom they are willing to recommend as candidates for preferred to this departinent. Under ibis provision,
such State certificate; having particular reference to They are not only vested with most important powers
ability and success in the communication of mental and in reference to the settement of the numerous control!
moralinstruction, and of the power of self-culture and versies which spring up in the several districts, but en
the formation of ihose habits and principles best adaptabled to exert a prevading influence of permanent utility led to develop and strengthen the various physical, inas peace makers, in that extensive class of cases where I tellectual and moral inculties. the paramount interests of education are now too fre
7. In the discharge of the various duties imposed upon quently sacrificed to the attainment of a temporary tri-ll them by the late law, the several County Superintenumph, or the gratification of a domineering, avaricions dents will occasionally be called upon to receive and or selfish spirit. There can be no doubt tha: the pre-lanswer letters from inhabitants and officers of school sence and explanations and friendly counsels of one in
districts. The expense so incurred is made a legal whom all parties can contide-whose integrity is above! charge on the county ; and the respective Boards of suspicion-who comes to them, not with the dictatorial
Supervisors are authorized to audit and allow the same. assumption of power, but as one deeply interested in
As such allowance, however, is discretionary with the their welfare and that of their children, and anxious
Board, the Superintendents will find it advisable to curonly to restore barmony and peace where harmony and
tail the expenses which may accrue from this source peace are indispensable to the common welfare, will.
within as parrow bounds as possible. The facility with within the compass of a very short period, materially
which personal communication may in most instances yeduce the number of vexatious, protracted and unpro Il be had, and especially the opportunity which will be fitable school district controversies and dissensions. afforded by their periodical visitations of the districts, There will still, however, be leít a wide field for the
will obviate to a very great extent the necessity for exercise of sund judgment, nice discrimination and epistolary correspondenee. Cases will, however, fre. untiring patience and equanimity.
quently occur where such communications may be ne. To qualify themselves for the judicious and enlight- cessary: and when so certified under oath by the Counened discharge of the duties and responsibilities thus Ilty Superintendent, the requisite amount will doubtless devolved upon them, the county superintendents must promptly be allowed by Boards of Supervisors first render themselves familiar with the various laws 8. The power of removal from office rested in the Surelating to common schools and with the published de. I perintendent will, it can searcely be necessary to say, cisions of the department under those laws. In order | never be exercised unless tipon the most pressing exi. to secure as far as may be possible, perfect uniformity gency, and in cases of flagrant neglect, violation or of decision throughout the State, it is recommended to perversion of duty, where the action of the appointing the several county superintendents to refer at once to
power cannot be had in season to a vert the evil. While the head of the department, every questioni respecting
ihe Superintendent will, in no case undertake to review the proper interpretation of any given statnte or prin. I or in any manner to control, by the exercise of this ciple, not clearly apparent or specifically settled by the power, the designation hy the respective Boards of the published decisions. It is of the utmost importance
Il individual de med most suitable to discharge the duties ihat the administration of the system should be uniform
of the office of County Superintendent, he will take in every section of the State. Discordant principles and care that the confidence reposed in such individual, is clashing decisions in reference to the same point, must,
neither abused nor betrayed ; and especialiy that the it is obvious, fatally weaken the influence of that admi. I great interests of education, and the salutary provi. Table organization which now prevails, and introduce
sions of the legiglature for their advancement are not anarchy and confusion in the place of order and justice. Il rendered obnoxious to the people in consequence of the
In the settlement and disposition of the various ques.incompetency or ansaithfulness of the agent selected to lions which will come up before them, the county super- Il vindicate the one and enforce the other. intendents can preserve and extend their influence and promote their usefulness, only by a strict impartiality
UNIFORMITY OF TEXT BOOKS, between the contending parties, and a calm, temperate, 19. It is believed that the period has now arrived wlien dispassionate, but at the same time, firm and dignified) an earnest and systematic eftort should be made, under examination and decision of the points at issue. If the auspices of the Town and County Superintendents, they err, either in reference to the facts or the law, alto relieve onr institutions of elementary in truction prompt remedy is afforded by an appeal to this depurt. I from the serious embarrassments resulting from the diInent but if they have imprudently made themselves, Iversity and constant change of text books. The several either by an overweening confidence in their construc-County Superintendents are therefore enjoined to a vall tion of the law with reference to the particular facts of themselves of the earliest practicable opportunity to any given case, or otherwise, parties to the controversy: Il cause an uniform series of text books, embracing all they will find it exceedingly difficult to regain that in the elementary works ordinarily used in the common fluence qver the minds and feelings of the disappointed, scbools, to be adopted in each of the districts subject
the deletation of specifica nost impor
to their supervision, under the direction and with the
87, 99, 106, 160, 175 to 177
.. ..... 16
31 to 34, 179, 179(a)
, 41, 75, 112 to 114,
111, 172, 174, 174(d)
........ 163, 166, 157
....... 50, 89, 147
...: 171 to 174,
145, 154, 156 to 159
177, 180 to 183
........ 74, 76, 103, 123 to 126
General Deputy Superintendent,.................. 2
.... 107 to 114
..... 103, 104, 14
89, 103, 104, 107, 116, 123, 124, 160, 161, 175, 176
........ 25, 84, 143
... 179, 185
| Maps, .....
............ 76, 187
... 71, 72
School districts, ........ 24 to 34, 66 to 70, 92 to 97, 160
School Journal, a periodical, ...
School money, 5 to 10, 14 to 24, 27 to 35, 39 to 45,
103, 122, 135, 148 to 153, 166, 168, 179, 185
Scals, .............. ...... ....................... 105
Separate neighborhoods, ............... 24, 29, 141, 145
Site for school house,... 74, 76, 85, 86, 88, 90 to 94, 103
Special meetings, 71 to 74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 82, 89, 102,
103, 106, 160, 175, 176
...... 14, 174, 174(0)
Suits by and against trustees, 73, 89, 126, 133, 135, Qualifications of voters,......
...... 121 | Statement of unoccupied and unimproved lands, 137
...... 52, 53, 165 || Suits by and against trustees, ..
145, 160, 161, 165 to 168, 179, 179(a) ties, &c ........... ......... 131, 132, 137, 140, 141
83 to 91, 94 to 101, 103 to ill, 115 to 120, 122, 124 Tax list when to be made out,.....
170, 171, 179 to 184, 18 what property, .................................. 134
Taxes should be specifically voted, ................ 147
..... 71, 72, 7 l/Valuations of property how ascertained, and mode
Visiting the districts and inspecting the schools, . 164
When tares may be imposed by trustees without be.
ing specifically voted,........................... 136
When Annual Reports of trustees are to be made,
and wbat to contain, ..
.... 130, 140
TO TOWN SUP’TS OF COMMON SCHOOLS.
147 School Journal containing the act of last winter in re-
• 143 entitling the several school districts to their proportion
• 125 Hof the public money for the ensuing year, have in nu-
· 126 time having elapsed since the passage and publication
• 125 of the act referred to, and of the several acts and in.
Istructions relating to Common Schools, to enable the
· 126 officers and inhabitants of the several districts to be-
• 139 come acquainted with their provisions, the Superinten-
· 142 dent, in the exercise of the power conferred on him by
....... 145 the 2d 9 of the act of 1941, (No. 30, Laws, &c.) and by
.. 145 the latter clause of the 6th g of the act of 1839, relative
.. 145 to District Libraries, (No. 185,) hereby directs the Town
• 145 Superintendents to include in their apportionment of
.... 149 teachers' and library money for the ensuing year, every
33 reports shall be received, shewing either a substantial
... 144, 147 satisfactory excuse, under oath, for non-compliance :
to alteration of district, ......... ......... 127 tendent tusis that no future relaxation of the provi-
I officer charged with the performance of any duty under
Is that act, has been furnished with a copy of the law and
lection, ............................... 136 || ment: and there can hereafter be no valid excuse for
of assessment, rate-bill and warrant, ....... 139 || a neglect of its provisions. The efficiency and success
.... 143 ministration, and upon the prompt and punctual per
... 145 charged with that administration, that a rigid adherence
... 131 llin friture, to the requisitions of the law, will in all ca.
· 149 ses be insisted upon, where no unavoidable necessity
161 excuse will hereaster be received for a failure to comply
156 with the law, based upon ignorance of its provisions,
....... 137 or neglect or carelessness to carry them into effect :
... 1381) and the inhabitants of the several districts, desirous of
... 146 || securing a participation hereafter in the public money,
............ 127|| Department, will be furnished by the State, County and
in case of non-resident lands,.... .......... 138 | purpose: and those districts which have not been alrea.
5T Albany, January 1, 1944,
S. YOUNG, Supt.
chool law Wilmance of an the law and
DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL
OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK.
ALBANY, FEB., 1844.
|shall not have been appointed, unless by order of the Superintendent of Common Schools to the Le.l of the Superintendent of Common Schools." Algislature of the State of New York.
ter the ineffectual ballotting and final adjourn. ment of the board, an application for such an
order was made to this Department by the The undersigned, as Superintendent of Com.
clerk ot the board, under a resolution to that ef
pl|fect adopted by them. But upon full consideramon Schools, in pursuance of the provisions of law, respectfully submits the following
tion, it was believed that the whole responsibili.
ty, ought to rest upon the supervisors, who might REPORT.
liat any time before the first of February next, There are in this State fifty-nine counties, com-I meet and make the appointment; and that this prising nine cities, containing sixty-two wards Department ought not, without the strongest and and 835 towns: total towns and wards, 897. most satisfactory reasons, to sanction a nullificaEach county in the State, with the exception of tion of the laws of this State. The clerk of the Lewis, has now appointed a county superinten- | board of supervisors was accordingly apprised dent, under the act of 1841, as amended by the that unless the appointment should be made in act of 1843; and in the counties of Allegany, ll season, the distributive share of the School Fund Cattaraugus, Dutchess, Jefferson, Oneida, On-l for the present year, would not be apportioned ondaga, Monroe and Washington, each compri. Il to the county. sing more than one hundred and fifty school dis. From each of the counties in which superia. tricts, two county superintendents have been ap- ll tendents had been appointed under the act of pointed and these counties have been divided 1841. reports in accordance with law, and the ininto two convenient districts, to each of which alstructions of the Department, have been received, superintendent has been assigned, in pursuance and are herewith transmitted to the Legislature. of the 4th section of the act of 1843. In the county of Richmond, no superintendent)
Number of School Districts. was appointed until the late meeting of the board There were in the State on the first day of of supervisors in that county, consequently no October last, as appears from the returns, 10,875 other statistical report has been received than districts; showing a considerable diminution from that of the county clerk, transmitting copies of the number reported last year. This diminution the annual reports of the commissioners and town has been caused by the union or consolidation of superintendents of common schools; the aggre- small districts, and by the refusal on the part of gate footings of which, as well as those received the town superintendents generally, to increase from the clerk of Lewis county, have been trans- the number of existing districts by the formation ferred to the abstract of the annual reports of of new ones, excepting under peculiar circum. the several town superintendents, accompanying stances; and it is earnestly hoped that the same this report.
ll policy will be steadily pursued in future, in every The supervisors of the county of Lewis, not-ll practicable case, throughout the State. Small withstanding the positive and mandatory provi- and consequently inefficient districts have, heresions of the acts of 1841 and 1843, have entirely tofore for a long period, been the source of many neglected to comply with these provisions; and formidable evils. Miserable school houses, poor this county is now the only one in the State which and cheap teachers, interrupted and temporary is destitute of a guperintendent. No effort with-instruction, and heavy rate-bills, are among the in the knowledge of this Department has been permanent calamities incident to small school made by the supervisors, since the passage of districts. The ordinary pretext for the division the act of 1841, to appoint such an officer, until and subdivision of districts, is the greater proxOctober last; and the whole character of the pro-limity to be afforded to a portion of the inhabi. ceedings at that time, as communicated to this tants to the school house. To this single fancied Department by the clerk of the board of super-benefit, considerations of much greater impor. visors, the result of the three days' ballotting, tance are often sacrificed. The idea seems to be and the determination not to meet at any future entertained by many, that it is a great hardship period, nor to make any further effort to comply for children to travel a mile, or even half a mile, with the provisions of the statute, would seem to school; and that those individuals are the most to justify the belief, that a preconcerted under-favored, who find the school house nearest to their standing existing to put the law at defiance. Ilhomes. It is true that there are a few stormy
By the 4th section of the act of the 17th of||days in the year, when the nearness of the school April, 1843, it is provided that “no share of the house may be deemed a convenience. But all public money shall hereafter be apportioged to children of ten or twelve years of age, must, in any county in which a county superintendent order to maintain health, and secure the due de
velopment of their physical functions, exercise || ber thus under instruction, during the preceding daily, to a much greater extent than is produced year. by one or even two miles' travel. Unrestrained
Private and Select Schools. exercise in the open air is indispensable to the | The number of unincorporated select and pri. health of the young. It is one of the laws which ||vate schools in the State, exclusive of those in has been strongly impressed by the Creator upon the city of New York, from which no returns on the animal organization; and obedience to this this head have been received, is reported at 954; law is enforced by a powerful instinct which im- and the aggregate number of pupils in attendance pels the young of all animals, while in a state at such schools, at 34,105. The number so at. of growth, to daily muscular exertion. The hu- ||tending in the several private and select schools man race is as subject to this law, as any other in the city of New York, cannot, it is believed, part of animated nature: and it is a fact estab- l fall short of 30,000. Îished by all experience, that those children are||
Average period of Tuition. the most healthful in body and vigorous in mind, |The average length of time during which the whose corporeal motions are least constrained, I schools have been taught in the several districts and whose lungs are most in contact with the ||from which reports have been received, was eight pure and open air. The most aged and experi- ||months. In the city and county of New York, enced teachers will testify that, as a general and in the city of Brooklyn, in the county of rule. those children who live farthest from the Kings, the schools were kept open during the school house, are the most punctual in their daily lwhole year; in the county of Richmond, an ave. attendance, and make the greatest progress in srage period of eleven months; in the county of their studies.
Queens, an average period of ten months; in Number of Children taught.
each of the counties of Columbia and Rockland,
an average period of nine and a half months; The aggregate number of children between the
and in each of the counties of Dutchess, Monages of five and sixteen years, residing in the several districts from which reports were receiv- l Westchester, for an average period of nine months.
roe, Orange, Schenectady, Suffolk, Ulster, and ed, exclusive of those in the city of New York, was, as appears by the returns, 607,995; and
Attendance of Pupils. . the number of children of all ages, who have
The number of pupils reported as having atbeen in attendance in the several district schools, Istended their respective schools during the entire for a longer or shorter period, during the year / year, was 23,608; the number attending for ten ending on the first day of January, 1843, exclu- |months and upwards, 34, 896; eight months and sive of those in the city of New York, is report
ljupwards, 70,178; six months and upwards, 144,. ed at 610.354. There is reason to 'apprehend ||422; four months and upwards, 270,996; 2 months that these returns are in some instances defective: land upwards, 478,029; and the number in atten. but as the enumeration of the number of child ||dance for a less period than 2 months, 162,325. dren between the ages of five and sixteen is ll The aggregate number of children actually in made the basis of the annual distribution of the lattendance at the period of the visitations of the school moneys to the several districts, and the schools by the several county superintendents du. names and number of children between these ring the winter terms, is reported at 213,129; du. ages of the several inhabitants are required to be liring the summer terms at 189,048. specifically reported, with severe penalties for ||
Course and extent of Study. any intentional variation in point of accuracy, it of the number thus in attendance at the peri. is presumable that no serious error has occurred; llod of the winter visitations in 6,666 districts, 9,and after making due allowance on the one hand ||855 were in the alphabet; 28,056 in spelling; for the number of children under instruction in ||197,403 in reading; 99,032 engaged in the study academies and private schools of every grade, ll of arithmetic; 55,118 in the study of geography; and on the other for the considerable number of||11,139 in that of history; 42,301 in that of those over the age of sixteen and under that of||English grammar; 2,343 were in the use of globes twenty or twenty-one, who are permitted to par- land other scientific apparatus; 2,316 in the study ticipate in the benefits of common school instruc- l|of algebra; 644 in that of geometry, surveying tion, the number reported cannot, it is believed, and the higher mathematics; 4,712 in that of vary essentially from the truth. There are no natural philosophy; 558 in that of the philosomeans of ascertaining with precision the number | phy of the mind; 76 in that of physiology; 903 of children between the ages of five and sixteen || in that of book-keeping; 6,000 in composition; residing in the city of New-York; no returns on || 10,220 in vocal music; 189 in chemistry; 8,949 this head being required by law in that city; but in the definition of words; 217 in astronomy; and it is presumed, from the most accurate calcula. ||1,173 in other branches not specifically enu. tion which can be made from the materials fur. ||merated. nished by the last census, that the number does l of the pupils in attendance at the summer vi. not vary far from 75,000, of which 47,428 are sitations in 6,942 districts, 17,616 were in the returned as having been under instruction during || alphabet; 38,730 in spelling; 148,007 in reading: a longer or shorter period of time in the schools 51,229 in arithmetic; 50,335 in geography; 7,210 of the Public School Society, the several incor. l in history; 22,727 in English grammar; 3,283 in porated institutions entitled to participate in the the use of globes and other scientific apparatus; distribution of the public money, and the several|1,276 in algebra; 394 in geometry and the highdistrict schools organized in pursuance of law.er mathematics; 2,769 in natural philosophy; The aggregate number of children of all ages, || 386 in mental philosophy; 92 in physiology; 730 therefore, who have been under instruction in the in book-keeping; 4,499 in composition; 17,632 in several district schools of the State during the vocal music; 43 in chemistry; 9,975 in definition; year reported, may be stated at 657,782; showing ||191 in astronomy; and 1,814 in other branches an increase of upwards of 59,000 over the num- ll not enumerated.