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though they cannot be expected lo abandon their politi-l school, on the part of the inbabitants, and all those oineal sentiments, yet it is obvious that any participationer particulars which go to form the character of the in measures to promote the success of any political par. sehool, and to determine the amount of mental and ly, will not only diminish their infiuence, and impair moral influence which it is to exercise on its inmates. their usefulness, by exciting suspicion of the objects of But if, from the number of districts which it is made bus their movements and measures, but will expose the of-duty to visit, he cunot accomplish this amount of lafice they hold to a vindictive hostility that will not cease bor, and at the same time faithfully discharge the addi. until it is abolished. The intelligence of our people litional obligations devolved upon him by the existing will not tolerate the idea of the agents of public in. law, it is far better that he should restrict bis visita. struction becoming the emissaries of partisan manage-tions to a number to which he can do full justice, than ment.

that he should nominally conform to the strict require. subordination of pupils, the good order of the llment of his instructions, by making a flying visi schools, and the success of the whole system, depend the districts, without leaving any abiding, permanent opon the harmonious co-operation of all the officers impression of utility upon any. Let what is accomchurged with the performance of dutiesounder it, and Iplished be accomplished thoronghly; what is done, be upon the maintenance of their authority in the respec. well done; and the temporary inconvenience which any tive spheres of their duty. The teacher must be re one or more districts may sustain from a failure on the spected by his scholars; and to insure this, they must part of the county superintendent to reach them in any he impressed with a conviction of his authority to go. I given period, will be more than counterbalanced by the vern them. The trustees of districts, and officers of liamount of good effected when he does appear among towns, are to be sustained, and their authority respect. I them. All embarrassments arising from this source, ed in their appropriate departinents, so as to insure the may, however, in most cases, easily be averted by the greatest degree of efficiency Organization, and a cen. appointment of two superintendents, under the section tral communication, will accomplish much in giving ferred to. uniformity and regularity to the system but after all, more is to be done by local efforts and public sentiment, especially in providing conpetent teachers and in filling

nument, '|| . Visiting the Districts and Inspecting the the schools. It she old, then, he the great object of the

Schools. county superintendents to encourage and sustain these The statute makes it the duty of every county superlocal efforts; to guide and enlighten the public opinion; intendent, to visit and examine all the schools, and and to interest parents in those institutions which are school districts committed to his charge, as often in so seriously to affect the moral and intellectual charac.

each year as may be practicable, having reference to the ter of their offspring.

number of such districts." This language is understood To attain these purposes, it will be advisable for them lio mean that the districts and schools are to be visited to avail themselves of every proper opportunity to deli. as often as their number will permit. rer familiar addresses in public, pon the importance The act regnires the superintendents to notify the of our primary schools, the necessity of attention to town superintendents of the towns, of the time appointthem, and the means of promoting their success. Inled to visit the schools; and to invite their attendance. their present condition, the points that seem to require|| The superintendents will also give notice to the trus. the most attention are, First, The employment or tees of the districts, of the time when their schools will good teachers : Second, The attendance of all the chil-llte visited. To enable them to comply with the e prodren in the schools during the whole time they are visions, they should make a previous arrangement of open; and, Third, The elevation of the standard of ed. ll their visits, in reference to the means of travelling, so ucation.

as to reach as many districts as possible in the shortest They should impress upon parents, that cheap teach-time; and for this purpose they will find it necessary to ers cannot be good teachers, until all the principles (fl divide their counties into sections. Having fixed the human action are reversed, and notil men cea:e to pur.ll time for visiting the schools in one or more sections, sue those employments whicb render the best returnslithey should at once give ample notice, by transmilting for their talent and industry. From the employment oflla copy of their arrangement to the town superintendents good teachers, other results will necessarily follow:ll of the towns embraced within it, and request them to particularly a more extended range, and a higher de. communicate to the trustees of districts, information of gree of instruction. These will, inevitably, fill the the time appointed for inspecting their sehools, or in schools, by drawing pupils from those private and sell some other way give nublicity to their plans. It is pre. lect establishments which are founded chiefly to supply Il sumed that publishers of newspapers would cheerfully the deficiencies of the common schools, and which ordi- linsert such notices gratuitously. They have ever been narily operate so much to their injury

found ready to render their assistance to disseminate By the fourth section of the late act, the board of su-l information calculated to promote the interests of the pervisors of any county in which there are more than

e are more than || common schools. one hundred and fifty school districts, (including those

The inhabitants of the district, and particularly pa. joint districts, the school houses of which are located rents who have children attending the school, should be within the county,) are authorized to appoint two coun-ll invited to be present at the inspection by the superinty superintendents; in which case they are to divide the ltendent: and trustees of districts are hereby required, coanty into two convenient districts, and to assign all whenever they receive information of an intended visit, superintendent to each. Each county in the State, is, lio communicate it as generally as possible to the inha. however, to have one county superintendent, upon re. ll bitants. Their attendance will afford an opportunity nalty of being deprived of its share of the public money, Il for the publie addresses of the superintendents, before unless otherwise directed by this department.

suggested. The appointment of two county superintendents wher.

2. Examination of the School.- Preparatory to this, ever the number of districts in any county shall exceed the superintendent should ascertain from the teacher one hundred and fifty, is strongly recommended. Noll the number of clasees; the studies pursued by each; tbe one person can do full justice in the supervision of all routine of the school, the successive exercises of each greater number of schools during the limited periods for class during each hotir of the day, the play spells al. which they are annnally kept open; and uuless the so- lowed, &c, and thus obtain a general knowledge of the pervision is thorough in all respects; less the coun-l school, which will be found greatly to facilitate his subiv superintendent has made himself familiarly and inti

sequent duties. Every superintendent is enjoined to Inately acquainted with the resources, administration.

call for and examine the list of scholars in the book and capabilities of every one of the schools which hell which the stante requires the te visits; unless he has been enabled to detect and remove

that he may see wbether the names are correctly and by judicious counsel and friendly advice, every materi. ll neatly entered. He will also examine the day roll and al obstacle to the prosperity and success of the school: ll the weekly roll, which by the preceding regulations, to develo) all its advantages, and to give to it the teachers are directed to preserve, and will ascertain means for attaining to an equality with those of the by the proper inquiries, whether they are exact in enter. highest grade, the great object for which his office was Iling all who are present. created. has not been accomplished. It is, on every acol The superintendent will then hear each class recite count, desirable that the county superintendent should, the ordinary lesson of the day. It will then be examin. once at least in every year, and oftener if practicale, lled on the subjects of study. Generally it will be better visit every district within his jurisdiction; thoroughly to allow the teacher to conduct the exercises and exam. inspect its school: satisfactorily ascertain the qualifi. llinations, as the pupils will be less likely to be intimications of the teacher, and the facilities for instruction dated, and an opportunity will be given of judging of at his command: the condition of the school house and ll the qualifications of the instructers. its appurtenances; the condition and prospects of the 'To enable him to compare the school with itself at library: the degrec of interest manifested towards the" another time, and with other schools, and to comply

chil intenditio

with the regulations hereinafier contained respecting should he informed that the omission of parents to rethe annual reports, the superintendent should kecil quire the regular and punctual attendajice of their chilnotes of his observations, and of the information he ob

Ildren will justify their exclusion, on account of the el. tains on all the subjects on which he is required to re-1 Tec

| fect of such irregularity upon the other pupils. port; and he should particularly note any peculiarities

The zuperintendents should also observe whether the which seem to require notice in the mode of instruc

inorul teachers are careful to preserve the respect of their pire tion, in the government and discipline of the school. llpils, not only by maintaining their authority, but by a and the appearance of the pupils' in respect to their Il becoming deportment, both in the school room and out cleanliness of person and neatness of apparel.

of it. 3. The superintendent will also examine the condition

3. With regard to the course of instruction, the ad. of the school house and its appurtenances; wherber.

all vice of the surerintendents will often be of great value the room has the means of ventilation, by lowering an

The usual order has heen found by long experience to upper sashor otherwise: whether it'is suthciently I be the best, viz: the alphabel, spelling, reading with detight to protect the children from currents of air, and

finitions, arithmetic, geography, bistory and grammar. to keep them warm in winter: whether there is a sup 1 No child should be put to any study beyond his capaci ply of good water; the condition of the privies, and

ly, or for which he is not already prepared. English whether they are provided for both sexes; and the ac

grammar particularly, demands so much exercise of commodations for physical exercise. Their attention

The intellect, that it ought to be delayed until the pupil will be given to the arrangement of the school room ;

bas acquired considerable strength of mind.. whether the seats and desks are placed most conveni

4. The books of elementary instruction. It is believed ently for the pupils and teachers, and particularly whe- !

that there are none now in ose in our schools that are ther backs are provided for the seats-a circumstance

very defective; and the difference between them is so very important to the comfort and health of the child. Il slight. that the gain to the scholar will not compensule ren. They should also inquire whether black-boards ||

for the heavy expense to the parent, caused by she suband alphabetical cards, or any apparatus to assist learn.

stitution of new books with every new teacher, and the ers, are furnished. .

capriciousness of change which some are apt to indulge The preceding topics of inquiry are suggested, rather

on this subject, cannot be too strongly or decidedly reas hints of the most important, than intended to em

sisted. Trustees of districts should look to this malbrace the whole field. The judgment and observation

ter wl en they engage teachers. of the superintendents will discover many other sub

One consequence of this practice is, the great variety jects deserving their attention.

of text books on the same subject, acknowledged by all 4. The superintendents will also inquire into the con

to be one of the greatest evils which afflicts our schools, dition of the district, in relation to its ability to main

It com pels the teacher to divide the pupils into as many tain a school; whetber its interest and the convenience

classes as shere are kinds of books, so that the time of its inhabitants can be promoted by any alterations,

I which might have been devoted to a careful and delibe. without injury to others; and they will suggest what.

rate hearing of a class of ten or twelve, where all could ever occurs to them, to the trustees.

have improved by the corrections and observations of In case of any gross deficiency or inconvenience,

the instructor, is almost wasted in the herried recitawhich the proper officers refuse or decline to remedy,

tions of len or a dozen pupils in separate classes; while the superintendents will note it in their annual reports in large schools, some must be wholly neglected. Wher to this department.

ever the superintendents find this difficulty existing, 6. They will also examine the district library, and ob they should not fail to point out its injurious conse. lain the information respecting it, hereinafter required

quences, and to urge a rernedy by the adoption of unito be stated in their reports.

form text books as speedily as possible. To accom

plish this, let the trustees, under the advice of the tenchII. Advising and consulting with the i

er, inspectors and superintendente, determine what

text books shall be used in each study, and require eve. - Trustees and other officers of School ry child thereafter coming to the school to be provided

with the designated books. This very desirable uni. Districts.

forn ity may, perbaps, be facilitated by exchanges beThis is made a special duty of the superintendents by tween different districts, of the books that do not cor. the act: they are to advise the trustees and other offi." respond with those in general use, for such as do. For cers in relation to all their duties; and to recommend instance, in one school the great majority of spelling to them and the teachers the proper studies, disci e, books may be those of Webster, with some of Mar. and conduct of the school; the course of instruction to shall's, while the latter may predominate in another be pursued, and the elementary books to be used. The district, in which there are also several of Webster's. In notes which the superintendents make during their in- ' such eases, an exchange of the differing books between spection of the school, will much facilitate the dis- the two would obviously be mutually beneficial. The charge of this portion of their duty.

superintendents might assist in the execution of such 1. In regard to proper studies: if they find any im-'an arrangement, by noting the proportions of the vari. portant on- omitted, or that pupils are hastened on with ous books in the different schools. out thoroughly understanding the preliminary or previ-15. The Erection of School Houses. The statute has ous branches, they should point out the error and its i enjoined upon the superintendents particular attention consequences. For instance, they should urge the ab-il to this subject. Whenever they learn that the building solute necessity of children being thoroughly and fre of a school house is contemplated, they should advise quently exercised in spelling, so that they make no mis. with the trustees respecting ils plan. He must be a sutakes in any words in common use. Without this it is perficial observer, who has not perceived how much the impossible for them to be good readers. And in the ex. health of pupils, the order and discipline of a school, ercise of reading, they should insist on clear and dis. i and the convenience of the teacher, depend upon the tinct articulation, more than any other quality, and ge-arrangements of the school room. This is not the nerally the ability of the superintendent is relied upon place to state the best models. Information upon that to detect bad habits in the manner of reciting, errone- \ point, collected with great care from Europe and Ameri. ous ideas of the subject, and superficial, has already been given, and will continue to be fur

2. The discipline and conduct of the school. It can nished in the District School Journal. Whenever rescarcely be necessary to remark on the importance of pairs are about to be made to school houses, the super. order and system in the schools, not only to enable the lintendents should avail themselves of the occasion to pupils to learn any thing, but to give them those habits recommend such improvement as may be desirable. of regularity so essential in the formalion of character. 1 6. In their consultations with trustees and teachers, Panctuality of attendance, as well as its steady conti-the superiotendents should be especially careful to nuance should be enforcedParents should be told how communicate their suggestions in a kind and friendly much their children lose, to what inconvenience they l spirit, as the most likely means of success, and as the expose the teacher, and what disorder they bring upon only mode of preserving those harmonious relations, the whole school, by not insisting upon the scholars be which are essential to their own happiness as well as ing punctually at the school room at the appointed hour; usefulness; and whenever they observe any thing in and above all, they should be warned of the injurious the mode of instruction, in the government or disci. consequences of allowing their children to be absent pline of the school, or in any other point, which in their from school during the term. By being indulged in ab- judgment, requires correction, they will make it a point sences, they lose the connexion of their studies; pro- to intimate their views to the teacher in private, and bably fall behind their class; become discouraged, and I never, on any occasion, suffer themselves to find fault then seek every pretext to play the truant. The habit with him in the presence of his pupils. Children canof irregularity and insubordination thus acquired, will not discriminate, and they will feel themselves at liber. be apt to mark their character through life Trustees bly to blamne, when the exam.ple has been set by others






III. Reports to the Superintendents."


The authority of the teacher should be preserved - Number of pupils beyond simple division. tire while he remains. If bis conduct is worthy of pub-1

studying geography: lic ceasure, he should be at once dismissed, rather


do History of the U. States. than be retained to become an object of the contempt of

othes history. his scholars

grammar. do

do use of globes.

engaged in other studies, specifying

thern and the number pursuing each study. 1. The time when they are to be inade.-By $ 39, of thell (3.) They are to report the result of their observa. act of 1841, (No. 173,) the county superintendents are|| tiuns : required an ually to make reports to the superintend Ist. In relation to the qualifications of the teachers cul, at such times as shall be appointed by him. The

generally. towa superintendents of common schools are required 20. In relation to the mode of teaching adopted in to file their reports with the county clerk, on or before

the schools. the first day of August in each year. The law made it || 3d. In relation to their government and discipline the duty of the county clerks to transmit certified co. And they will notice gross irregularities or imperfecpies of all such reports to the superintendent by the tions. hrst day of October in every year. This duty is now 5. Condition of the School Houses.-They will state to be performed by the county superintendeuts, who, the number built of stone; those of brick; of wood for that purpose, are to have access to the reports filed framed, and of logs: also the number having but one in the clerk's offices without charge. Although the time Il room : those having two rooms in which schools are thus fixed for transmitting the reports to the superin- I kept, and those having three or more rooms; the numtendent is longer than is necessary, in many counties, ber in good repair, and the number in bad or decaying yet for the purpose of giving ample opportunity to ren-ll condition. They will also state the number which have der the returns full and accurate, the same time is no privies; those which have one; and those which hereby appoiuted for the county superintendents toll have two or more. make their reports; but it is required that they shall| 5. Condition of the District. Any information hich be made and deposited in the post-office in season to may be obtained under the inquiries already suggested, reach the office of the Secretary of State by the first day and which may be deemed useful, or in respect to of October in each year. This is essential to enable the which any beneficial action of this department can be superintendent to prepare his annual report to the Le-ll had, will be stated in this report. gislature, for presentation at the proper period.

6. The state of the district libraries. The county sui2. Their contents.--The reports are required by the perintendents are required to examine the library of statute to be the same as those now made by county ll each district, and ascertain the whole number of books clerks, with such additional information as the superin purchased, and on hand, and their condition; and the tendent shall require. They will contain :

average number in circulation, i. e. the proportion usu. (1.) A statement of the whole number of towns and

ally kept out. They will state in their reports, the cities in the county, distinguishing those from which

whole number of books in all the district libraries in the necessary reports have been made, and those from the county, and the average of circulation obtained which none have been received :

from the averages of each district. They will state, (2.) A true and accurate abstract of all the reports i generally, the condition of the books, as far as seen by filed with the county clerk dur ng the year, or since the them, and the degree of care and attention apparently preceding annual report, by the town superintendents bestowed in their preservation by the trustees and libra. of common schools of the several towns, certihed by il rian. If they discover any improper books in the librathe county superintendents respectively, to be true and ries, they should suggest to the trustees their removal, accurate abstracts of said originals. To facilitate the land if they find them continued, notwithstanding, they performance of this duty, printed blanks will be trans- ll will report the facts to this department. mitted to the county superiutendents. The several co-li

he county superlutendents. The several co-i8. They will also report the whole number of persons lumns are to be footed, so as to exbibit an abstract of to whom they have given certificates of qualification as the reports for the whole county.

teachers, during the year, specifying their sexes and 3. They will also report the number of district

ages, viz: those under 18-those over 18 and under 21 schools visited by them during the year, and the num. -over 21 and under 25-over 25 and under 30- Over 30 ber of times each school has been so visited, specifying and under 40-over 40 and under 50-and those over 50. the number when they were accompanied by the town

It will be perceived that trustees of school districts superintendent. They will state the condition of the

They will state the condition of the are required to state in their reports the number of se. schools under the following heads:

|| lect schools, other than those that are incorporated, (1.) Teachers.-The number of males and their ages, within their respective districts, and the average numviz: the number under 18 years of age; those over 18 ber of pupils attending them. There are such schools and under 21 ; over 21 and under 25 ; over 25 and under in cities and villages, as in Utica, Schenectady, Pough30; over 30 and under 40; over 40 and under 50; and keepsie and other places, which are not within any over 50. The number of females and their ages in the school district. As the information desired has a very same manner. The length of time those of different |

of time those of different important bearing upon the common school system, the sexes have taught school, viz: the number of males

1, VIZ: the number of males county superintendents are required to ascertain the who have taught less than one year; the number who number of such schools and the pupils taught in them bave taught one year and less than two, two years and during the year, which are kept in such cities and villaless than four; four years and less than six; more than

ges and are not included in any school district, and six years; and the same in respect to females. They state them in their annual reportsThey will be care. will also state the monthly compensation of the teach-ll ful not to embrace any that are contained in the reers, specifying how many receive the different sumsports of the trustees; and to insure accuracy, they will that may be found to be paid ; thus, the number receive specify the city or village in which the select schools are ing $8.00 per month; the number receiving $10.00,&c. established. Those that are incorporated will be in. and arranging them according to the sex of the teach cluded in the reports to the Regents of the University. ers They will ascertain from the teachers respectively, the different portions of time they have kept any one school, and will coinmunicate the result in a table, showing how many teachers have kept the same school one year, two years, three years, four years, five years, more than five and less than ten, and more than ten! 1. Eramining and licensing teachers.--This authority, years.

Il it will be perceived, is given by sub. 2 of 0 36, of the (2.) The course and ertent of study pursued.-Underll act of 1841, (No. 171.). It being very desirable that all this head the report will state the Tollowing particu the teachers should be licensed by the county superiolarg :

tendents, so as to secure the competent talent and know. Number of pupils in attendance at each time of visi. ledge, and to produce uniformity in a county; and to tation.

afford every reasonable accommodation to those desirNumber of classes in the school,

ing to offer themselves, they should make their arrangeNumber of pupils learning the alphabet.

ments to examine applicants for licenses in the diffeNumber of pupils learning to spell without being able rent towns of their county, during their visitations in to read.

such towns. For tbis purpose, they should appoint a Number of pupils learning to rend.

particular day and place in each town, and when the do to define words.

town is very large, in different sectionsof it, when they Number of pupils studying arithmetic, but not beyond will be in readiness to examine teachers. Public notice simple division.

I of such appointment should be given. It is probable

ing their certificates.

ing then



that this will bring together several applicants, and the allegations against him, when it is proposed to anthus diminish the labors of the superintendent: par- nal his certificate, particularly when the alleged ground ticularly as a license by him will obviate the neces-1is deficiency of moral character; and he should have sity of early examinations, as well as prevent the necessity of a re-examination during the year. In ll superintendent may, at any time, examine any making such examinations, they should confine them. I holding a certificate, to ascertain his qualifications selves to the subjects specified in the statue in relation with respect to learning and ability: aid a refusal to to town saperintendents, $ 46, (No. 57,) and should as- submit to such examination, would be, in itself, sufficertain the qualifications of the candidates in respect, cient evidence of incompetency, to justify the annull. Ist, to moral character; 2d, learning; and third, ability. | ing his certificate.

first. They should require testimonials of moral 3. The form of the instrument annulling the certificharacter, from those aequainted with the applicant, I cate, may be as follows: which should be either verbal or written, and the latter

Form of instrument annulling a certificate. is to be preferred. This is not a matter to be neglected

To all to whom these presents may come. Whereas, or slighted.Those to whom the training of our youth is to be committed, should possess such a character as on

on or about the

day of

certificate of qualification to teach Common Schools, will inspire confidence in the rectitude of their prinei

was granted to A. B. by the town sy perintendent of the ciples, and the propriety of their conduct and it is toll

in the county of .

in the county of . be understood as a positive regulation of this departall town ot

] or [by ment, that no license is to be granted, witbout entire

the County Superintendent of Common Schools of ihe satisfaction on this point. This must be understood to

said county of

And whereas, on due exa

mination and inquiry by the County Superintendent relate to moral character-to the reputation of the applicants as good citizens, free from the reproach of

of the said county of

and the Towu Super. crime or immoral conduct. It does not extend to their

intendent of the town of

the said A. B. has

been found deficient and unqualified to teach Common belief, religious or political; but it may apply to their manner of expressing such belief or maintaining it.

Schools; Know ye, therefore, that we, the said County

and Town Superintendents, do hereby annul and declare If that manner is, in itself, boisterous and disorderly,

void the said certificate of qualification so given to the intemperate and offensive, it may well be supposed to indicate ungoverned passions, or want of sound princi

said A. B. ples of conduct, which would render its possessor ob || In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands. noxious to the inhabitants of the district, and unfit for this

day of

194 the sacred duties of a teacher of youih. who shonid in

County Supt. struck as well by example as by precept.

$ Town Supt. Second.-As to the learning of the applicants. It 4. A duplicate of this instrument should be served on should appear from their examination that they are the person whose certificate is annulled, although it good spellers, distinct and accurate readers, write good l will be valid without such service. It is not necessary and plain hands, can make pens, and are well versed to give notice of it to the trustees of the district where Ist. In the definition of words:

he may be employed, to render it effectual; but such 2d. In arithmetic, at least as far as the double role || notice should promptly be given, to prevent the loss by of three :

the district, of its portion of the public moueys, which 3d. In geography, as far as contained in any of the would ensue from the employment of a teacher not works in ordinary use :

holding a license. 4th. In the History of the United States, of England, 6. The county superintendents are required, at the and of Europe generally;

expiration of every three months, to state in a separate 5th. In the principles of English grammar: and, H report to this department, the names of all persons 6tb. In the use of globes.

whose certificates of qualification have been nnulled If they are found well acquainted with the other || by them, with the cause of such proceeding. In cases branches, a more slight knowledge of the 4th and 6th where it may be proper, such reports will be published heads, as above enumerated, may be excused.

in the District School Journal. Third.-The ability of the applicants to teach. Mere 6. They are also required to keep a register of the learning, without the capacity to impart it, wonld be of names of all persons to whom they grant certificates of no use. The deputies should satisfy themselves, by ge- ll qualification, with the date of such certificate, and the neral inquiries, and particularly by a thorough exami.ll town in which it was given; and also of the names of nation of the applicants respectively, of their qualifi- l) all persons whose certifieates are annulled by them, cations in this respect, of their tact in dealing with l with the date of the act and the general reasons there. children, and especially of their possessing the unwea for. ried patience, and invariable good nature, so necessary | Their proceedings in relation to the granting or art. to constitute useful teachers of youth.

nulling of certificates are subject to appeal to the suHaving satisfied themselves on these several points. Il perintendent, by any person deeming himselfaggrieved. the county superintendents will grant certificates of qualification in the following form:

V. Miscellaneous Duties. Form of certificate of qualification to be grant-|| 1. County superintendents are undoubtedly withia ed by County Superintendents.

the class of public officers required by the constitution TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME, BE IT

to take the oath of office. This oath should be filed KNOWN, That 1,

County Superintendent of Com

Into Snperintendent of Com- || with the county clerk previous to the performance of mon Schools for the county of having examined any duty. A B, and having ascertained his qualifications in re

2. Upon being duly qualified, they are directed to an spect to moral character, learning, and ability to in-lnounce the fact to this department, stating their places struct a Common School, Do HEREBY CERTIFY, that he is l of residence, and the post-offices to which communi duly qualified for that service, and accordingly he is

tions intended for them should be addressed. Tbey hereby LICENSED to teach Common Schools, in any town

to teach Common Schools. in any town ll will also state the most practicable mode of transmit. and district of the said county, until this certificate Il ting to them any books or packages. shall be annulled according to law.

3. It is recommended to them to assemble the teach Given under my hand, this

day of

ers of neighboring districts, as often as may be, at conin the year one thousand eight hundred and forty venient places, that they may communicate with him

County Superintendent.

and each other, on the best modes of promoting the

| success of their schools. By comparing their views It is conceived that 9 93 (No. 142,) applies only to the certificates of qualification therein specified, viz: those

respecting the manner of teaching, the government of

schools, ani the various topics of practical dnty, they granted by the town superintendents of common schools,

will eventually derive much benefit. Indeed there is no and that, while such certificates are valid only for

subject on which more light may be thrown than on that one year from their date, those granted by the comty superintendents, not being thus restricted and limit

of primary education, by lull and free discussion; not

for the purpose of maintaining preconceived opinions, ed by law, have full force and effect until they are re

but with the honest desire of improving by the experivoked or annulled by competent authority.

ence and observation of others. And if permanent as2. Annulling certificates of teachers. sociations of teachers can be formed in each county, or 1. This can be done only by a county superintendent, where the county is large in different portions of it, with the consent of the town superintendent, when they will not only promote the usefulness of the memgranted by such town superintendent. But a licensel bers, but will produce those feelings of reciprocal granted by him, can be annulled

kindness and good will, which should belong to a pro2. Previous notice should be given to the teacher or session of such importance, and enable them to preserve

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