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Dr. Bigelow seems aware of this, but it may still be necessary to remind him occasionally of his own remarks.

Dr. Barton's first number contained
Chimaphila umbellata (Pipsissewa.)
Sanguinaria canadensis (Puccoon.)
Cornus florida (Dogwood.)
Triosteum perfoliatum (Feverwort.)
Gillenia trifoliata (Indian physic.)
Gillenta stipulacea (small flowered Indian physic.)

· His second number contains
Diagnolia glauca (small magnolia) very like Michaux's plate.
Liriodendron tulipfera (Tulip tree.)
Cornus sericea (Swamp dogwood.)
Symplocarpus fætida (Skunk cabbage.)
Symplocarpus fætida angustispatha (Purple-skinned skunk cab.
bage.)
Cassia marilandica (American Senna.)

Dr. Bigelow's first volume contains.
Datura stramonium (Thorn apple.)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (Thorough-wort.)
Phytolacca decandra (Poke.)
Arum triphyllum (Dragon root.)
Coptis trifolia (Gold thread.)
Arbutus uva ursi (Bear berry.)
Sanguinaria canadensis (Blood root.)
Geranium maculatum (Common crane’s-bill.)
Triosteum perfoliatum (Fever root.)
Rhus vernix (Poison suinach or dogwood.)

The only plants therefore described by both these gentlemen, are the Sanguinaria canadensis, blood root or puccoon, and the Triosteum perfoliatum, feverwort, or fever root.

Let us see what is the value of the medical information presented by Dr. Barton's second and Dr. Bigelow's first number.

Magnolia glauca. It is an agreeable aromatic tonic bitter. So is the Aristolochia serpentaria: the Contrayerva: the Cortex eleutheria: the Angustura: the Columbo: the Zedoary, and many more equally trifling and useless; which of these does the Magnolià supersede either in quality or price?

Liriodendron Tulipfera. “A tonic and sudorific. Sudorifics so frequently owe their virtues to the warm water employed in the decoction, that they possess, for the most part, very uncertain claims to their title. Is this plant better, if equal to the common decoction of the woods; sassafras, sarsaparilla, and mezerion? Dr. J. T. Young says, “ I can assert from experience, there is not in all the materia medica a more certain, speedy, and effectual remedy in the hysteria, than the poplar bark combined with a small quantity of laudanum.” So it is that young physicians write. In nine cases out of ten, what is usually called hysteria, arises from mere indigestion; sometimes, but seldom comparatively, from proper hysteric affections wherewith the digestive organs sympathise. At any rate, is not the active medicine here, the laudanum? Nei.

ther the one nor the other in a hysteric fit, is to be compared to a glass of hot toddy with nutmeg and ginger. Will the tulip tree do more than sage, or guiacum?

Cornus sericea: a stimulant and tonic. Have we not at least twenty of equal power in use at present? Is it to be compared to the common barks, cinchona, eleutheria, winteranus, angustura, or even the common oak bark, neglected because it is so common?

Symplocarpus fætida. An expectorant; and from its stinking character, an antispasmodic. We are already in possession of assafætida, camphor, and musk. As to the Rev. Dr. Cutler's reports of it in asthma, unless the Rev. gentleman had informed us what was the description of asthma to which it was applied, it amounts to nothing. It is but rarely that we can place full reliance upon the professional relations even of medical men: the relations of gentlemen, who are not of the medical profession, do not carry with them any authority.

Symplocarpus fætida angustispatha. The same remarks apply as to the preceding species.

Cassia marilandica. This amounts at best to a medicine of equal virtues with the common senna of the shops. If it can be afforded, as Dr. Barton says, at a fourth of the price, it would be of use; but of this, those who know the value of labour in this country will

greatly doubt. Hitherto, Dr. Barton's work has not presented us with any medicine that will supersede those of the same class commonly employed; and whose virtues and doses are well ascertained by extensive practice, and long experience. It may be of use, however, to show us, that the popular reputation of many plants highly spoken of, rests but on a very slight foundation, and that in the present state of the shops, they may well be neglected.

Dr. Barton's descriptiones uberiores, are still liable to the same observations in this number, that were called forth in the review of the last.

If he does not attend to the advice we took the liberty to offer, he may rely on it the character of the work will suffer.

Dr. Bigelow commences with the Datura stramonium, a plant of very decided properties as a poisonous narcotic, and likely therefore to be made useful in the hands of a cautious and judicious practitioner. But we have already so many medicines of this class, opium and its preparations, the poppy, hyoscyamus, belladonna, hemloc, digitalis, tobacco, arnica montana, hops, laurocerasus and others, that we have quite choice enough. It is however of some consequence to know that the use of Datura stramonium has relieved symptoms of the (spasmodic) asthma, unequivocally in the eastern states: and that it has been attended with success in chorea. Dr. Chapman's testimony to its use in dysmenorrhæa and siphilitic and scrophulous ulcers, is entitled to great consideration from the talents and extensive practice of the relator. The popular use of it in a salve, we well know to be inefficacious, nor is there any well settled reason for preferring it to the other medicines of the same class at present in use.

But it is so power

ful and so common, that experiments upon the application and exhibition of it, would still be desireable.

Euprtorium perfoliatum. This appears to be one of the feeble tonics and diaphoretics; without any decided character, and not worth further notice. We have already too many of them; medicines, that if they do you no good, will do you no harm, as the saying is, But the truth is, that few medicines are worth notice, that are not dangerous if incautiously exhibited. They promise to be useful in proportion to their violence and activity.

Phitolacca decandra. This is slightly emetic and cathartic; so slightly as to be worthless. We have taken it and seen it taken in large doses, as a remedy for rheumatism, with little effect. Its colour as ink, is an indelible dirty, dark brown, as we know. The red colour is fugitive with every known mordant. In page 43 it is said from the experiments of M. Braconnot, that the ashes when the plant is incinerated, afford 67 per cent of dried alkaline carbonat, and 42 of pure caustic potash. This is utterly incredible.

Arum triphyllum. It is impossible to say for what purpose this plant is introduced. The late Dr. Barton's recommendation of it in pthisis, had better have been omitted. He was apt to extol new articles of the vegetable materia medica, without much experience, or discrimination.

Coptis trifolia, Inferior to gentian and probably equal to columbo; not better than wormwood, or chamomile. It is no acquisition. We have cheap medicines of the same class, more efficacious. Columbo is of the same milk and water character with its introducer, Dr. Percival.

Arbutus uva ursi. This has been extolled in nephritic complaints, but without much reason. We have tried it largely. It is not quite so good as parsley root, or water-melon seeds, or daucus.

Sanguinaria canadensis. An unpleasant emetic, in large doses, not to be compared to ipecacuanha. It is used in the back country, infused in whiskey as a bitter: and as an excuse for dramdrinking in the morning.

Geranium maculatum, possesses virtues, about equal to those of kino, but far inferior to catechu. How can Dr. Bigelow say (p. 89,) that its doses are similar to those of kino and catechu, when the latter is so much more powerful and efficacious than kino? It ranks with the common blackberry root.

Triosteum perfoliatum produces the same effects with less certainty, and in an inferior degree to the ipecacuanha of the shops, and therefore will be no acquisition, until ipecacuanha fails to be supplied.

Rhus Vernix. Poison vine. Not useful as a medicine, possessing some of the qualities of a vegetable ink, and a black varnish: but inferior to the substances hitherto used for similar purposes. fart, the publications of Dr. Barton and Dr. Bigelow, so

have gone, only show that the substances they have to our acquaintance, are little entitled to further notice. monium may be an exception; we doubt, however, whether this plant also, is not nearly worthless. On comparing these works with Woodville's, we see no cause of complaint. There is more care, more caution, more knowledge in the Ameri-, can works now under review. If our country does not produce plants of superior efficacy to those imported, it is not the fault of Dr. Barton or Dr. Bigelow; and it is of importance that we should know all that is worth knowing of the vegetables of our own country to which medicinal virtues are usually ascribed.

There are more chymical experiments on the plants introduced in Dr. Bigelow's than in Dr. Barton's work: but in fact, very little can be known of medicinal virtues from chymical analysis. Chymical investigations for the most part, are of use only to the pharmacopæist—the apothecary—the compounder of medicines: they are of use to indicate the methods of procuring and preserving the medical qualities of the plants in question, not to indicate those qualities. The chymical effects of a medicine on dead substances out of the body, is very different indeed from what they appear on living substances within the body. When a plant is introduced, however, in these works, the experiments that indicate its probable uses in the arts as well as in medicine, would be very acceptable. In this point of view Dr. Bigelow's book promi. ses more than Dr. Barton's. The plates coloured under the inspection of the latter gentleman, are decidedly more delicate and artist-like than those of Dr. Bigelow, wherein the tints are laid on with a very heavy hand.

Dr. Barton and Dr. Bigelow have both described the plants Sanguinaria canadensis, and Triosteum perfoliatum. Our readers will require of us to enable them to judge of the comparative merits of these two publications, and therefore we present them with Dr. Barton's and then with Dr. Bigelow's, account of the latter plant.

TRIOSTEUM PERFOLIATUM.

FEVERWORT...RED-FLOWERED FEVER-ROOT. Fever-root. Gentian. Bastard Ipecacuanha. Wild-Coffee. Dr. Tinker's weed.

False Ipecacuan. White Gentian. Sweet-Bitter. Cinque. Perfoliate Feve

root. TRIOSTEUM PERFOLIATUM. Lin. Sp. pl. 250. Amoen. acad. 4. p. 516. Dill.

elth. 394. t. 293. f. 378. Mill. Dict. n. 1. Vahl. Symb. 3. p. 37. Gron. virg. ed. n. 31. Cold. noveb. 244. Willd. Sp. pl. Tom. i. p. 990. Shæpf. Mat. Med. Am. p. 23. Pers. vol. 3. p. 214. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 3. Vol. i. p. 381. Mich. Fl. Boreal. Am. vol. i. p. 107. Muhl. cat. Am. Sep. p. 23. Pur. il. Am. Sep. vol. i. p. 162. Barton's “ Collections,” &c. vol. i. p. 29. Coxe's Am. Disp. ed. i. p. 679. ed. 3d. p. 634. Barton's Prod. fl. Phil. p. 31. Elliot, fl. car. &c. Nuttall, Genera Am. Plants.

TRIOSTEUM. TRIOSTEUM. Lin. Cor. monopetala, subacqualis. Cal. longitudine corollae.

Bacca 3-locularis, 1-sperma, infera. Nat. Syst. Juss. Caprifolia. Classis XI. Ordo III. TRIOSTEUM. L.* Calix 5-fidus, laciniis lanceolatis persistentibus, basi bractea.

tus. Corolla vix calice longior, tubulosa 5-loba inæqualis. Stamina 5, non exserta. Stigma crassiusculis. Bacca coronata obovata 3-locularis, 3-sper

ma.

rea.

Herbæ erectæ; foliorum petioli infra juncti; flores plurimi arillares sest siles. Gen. Plant. de Juss. p. 211.

Classis Pentandria. Ordo Monogynia. Lin. Syst. TRIOSTEUM PERFOLIATUM. T. foliis ovalibus acuminatis, basi abrupte angustatis, latius angustiusve connatis: axillis uni-plurifloris: corolla obscure purpuMich. Fl. Boreal. Am. sub. synon. T. maji.

SYNONYMA. TRIOSTEUM majus. Micb. Fl. Boreali-Am. Vol. i. p. 107. TRIOSTEUM foliis connatis, floribus sessilibus verticillatis. Vahl. symb. 3. p. 37. TRIOSTEUM floribus verticillatis sessilibus. Mill. dict. n. 1. TRIOSTEOSPERMUM, latiore folio, flore rutilo. Dill. eltb. 394. t. 293. f. 378. Houttuyn Lin. PA. Syst. 5. p. 612. Breitblättriger Dreystein. Willd. (German.) Habitat in America Septentrionali. 2 Folia perfoliata. Willd. Sp. pl. Vol. i. p. 990. Pharm. Triostei Radix. Qual. amara. odor. pl. nauseosus; sapor herbaceous. Vis. emetica. Usus: febres intermittentes, pleuritis. Schepf. Mat. Med.

DESCRIPTIO UBERIOR. PLANTA bi vel tri-pedalis, aliquanto rara, et tota interdum purpurascens. Radix

perennis, horizontalis, elongata Caules multi, simplices, erecti, cylindrici. Folia magna, oblongo-ovalia, acuminata et fere connata, in basi panduriforma terminata. Versus apicem, basi attennuata et amplexicaules; omnes subtus dense pubescentes, cum nervis et costis conspicue prominentibus. Folia in summitate, sub florescentia, minora sunt, et convoluta; postquam magna et purpurascentia. Flores in axilis foliorum, venticillatæ apparentes. Corolla fix calice longior, tubulosa, curvata, basi gibbosa, et apice in quinque lobis auriculatis, incisa; lacinia cordatse et clause. Stamina quinque, in tubo corollæ tecta: Pistillum ultra corollam; stigma crassiusculum. Laciniæ calicis quinque, persistentes, lineares, ciliatæ, et omnino plerumque purpurascentes." Germen inferius, uno-bracteatum. Baccæ coronatæ, obovatæ, purpureo-coccineæ, tri-loculares, et semina tria dura complectens.

Barton's Flora Philadelphica, M. S. The root of Triosteum perfoliatum is perennial, horizontal, about eighteen inches or two feet long, three quarters of an inch in diameter, and nearly of a uniform thickness from the extremity to within two or three inches of the origin of the stems. At this place it is contorted, tuberculated, or gibbous, and of a brownish colour. The colour of the horizontal caudex is yellow-ochre without, and whitish internally; and the fibres which proceed from it, are of an ochroleucous hue. These are sometimes so large, that they may be considered rather as branches or forks of the main root. The plant is from two to three feet high, and bushy, several stems arising from the same root. In favourable situations I have seen it near four feet tall. The stems are about 3-8ths of an inch in diameter, simple, erect, cylindrical, pubescent, and of a green colour. The leaves are large, oblong-oval, acuminate, somewhat panduriform towards their base, where they become suddenly narrowed. They are mostly connate, until they approach the fourth pair from the top: these upper ones are more attenuated at their bases, and rather amplexicaule. The under surface of all the leaves is covered with a soft dense bluish-white pubescence, conspicuously apparent on the middle rib and nerves. On their upper surface, though the pubescence cannot be observed readily by the naked eye, it is discernible by the glass, more sparse than below. The nerves are numerous, and commonly al

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