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FREDERICK CONVERSE BEACH
SPECIAL NOTICE.-The signed articles in this Encyclopedia have been written especially for
Milo Roy MALTBIE
Secretary, Art Commission New York City MUSEUMS.....
FREDERIC A. LUCAS
Curator of the U. S. National Museum MUSIC....
LOUIS C. ELSON
Instructor at New England Conservatory of Music NATURE STUDY..
..L. H. BAILEY
Director, College of Agriculture, Cornell University NAVAL ARCHITECTURE ...W. L. CAPPS, U. S. N. D. W. TAYLOR, U. S. N.
Chief Constructor, U. S. Navy U. S. Naval Constructor, Washington NAVAL SERVICE .
ADMIRAL GEORGE DEWEY
Of the U. S. Navy NAVY OF THE UNITED STATES.
.. ROBERT M. THOMPSON
President Naval Academy Alumni Association NEBRASKA ....
Editor · Illustrated History of Nebraska' NERVOUS SYSTEM, EVOLUTION OF THE
SMITH ELY JELLIFFE
Editor · Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases NEW HAMPSHIRE
A. S. BATCHELLOR
Ex-Governor and Editor of State Papers NEW JERSEY
FRANCIS B. LEE
Editor 'New Jersey as a Colony and State' NEW MEXICO .
..F. W. HODGE
Of the Smithsonian Institution NEW ORLEANS ...
Associate Editor · Times-Democrat' NEW TESTAMENT THEOLOGY..
DAVID FOSTER ESTES Professor of New Test. Interpretation, Hamilton Theol. Sem. Colgate University NEW THOUGHT
C. H. A. BJERREGAARD
Librarian Astor Library, New York NEW YORK CITY
RUFUS ROCKWELL WILSON
Author of New York Old and New' NEW YORK STATE.
... HUGH HASTINGS
State Historian NIAGARA FRONTIER..
FRANK H. SEVERANCE
Secretary Buffalo Historical Society NITROGLYCERIN
CHARLES E. MUNROE
Professor of Chemistry, Columbian University NORTH CAROLINA .
Chief Justice Supreme Court NORTH DAKOTA
ANDREW A. BRUCE
Associate Dean, University of North Dakota NOVA SCOTIA ....
ARTHUR WENTWORTH EATON
Author of 'The Church of England in Nova Scotia NUTRITION OF MAN AND ANIMALS.
.... C. F. LANGWORTHY Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
DANIEL J. RYAN
Author of History of Ohio' OLD TESTAMENT
SYLVESTER BURNHAM, D.D.
Dean Hamilton Theol. Sem., Colgate University ORANGE INDUSTRY...
E. J. WICKSON
Of the University of California ORDERS, RELIGIOUS, ROYAL AND DECORATIVE.
JOHN R. MEADER
Editor N. Y. Year Book' OREGON QUESTION...
E. BENJAMIN ANDREWS
President of the University of Nebraska ORIENTAL RESEARCH
· JOHN P. PETERS, Ph.D., D.D., Sc.D. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates'
unicipal Accounting may be termed also a chronological, as well as summarized,
a by-product of increasing mu- statement of transactions pertaining to each nicipal activity. This began with administrative interest; and, through final sumwhat is commonly known as maries, exact knowledge may be brought to the the industrial revolution. The attention of the administrator of every relation
establishment of the factory that is important in the management of affairs. system, the abandoning of home production Judged, therefore, both from its methods and or the
domestic system,” the drift of from its results, accountancy has come to be a population away from country estates and agri- true science of financial record - a science cultural employment, the increased need for which is fundamental to controlling judgment, making provision for the health, comfort, con- both with respect to past operation, and as venience, and for the social order of crowded pertaining to provisions to be made for the settlements and fast growing cities have forced future, in enterprises that are too large for on local government activities which have made the personal contact of a single head. its officers responsible agents for great business In the development of methods which will corporations. Within a few decades the small properly record financial transactions and retrading towns on the coast and inland lines of duce these records to reliable statistical statetransportation in England and continental Eu- ments, accounting has followed all the transforrope had grown from mere villages, or a col- mations of business itself. With each advance lection of villages, to the proportions of cities; in complexity, and with each widening of the and the proper administration of government scope of enterprise the adoption of an improved came to involve expenditures of millions where system of records which will insure authentic before only hundreds or thousands of public results have been imperative. Private concerns revenues were required. In the borough or the have been able to survive under such conditions town the officer had immediate contact with only that those in control may have a complete every detail of public expense and his own ex- mastery over details. When intelligent direction perience was sufficient guide to administrative has become impossible the private institution control. Increase in municipal functions forced has failed and its business has passed to its him to rely on employees and agents, and he competitors. Scientific accounting methods soon came to be dependent on them for a know- were first worked out in private life as a matledge of details; an understanding of the finan- ter of survival. The public corporation, howcial transactions of the larger community could ever, has not been subject to this law. Peace be had only through a well devised system of and social order must be preserved at any cost; accounts.
public health must be protected; public conAccounting is a method of collecting, classi- venience has commanded service of the govfying and co-ordinating the financial data per- ernment as the only institution which could taining to an enterprise, public or private. "As properly represent the public welfare. The gova method of collection, accountancy attempts to ernment could not die and the corporation, emmake a complete record of financial transac- powered with governing activities, has been altions; as a method of classification it aims to lowed to pass on from generation to generation assign accurately each financial fact to an ad- inheriting methods which were inaugurated unministrative department or category to which der conditions that required little or no proit properly belongs; as a means of final co-or- vision made for authentic record of official dination its object is to finally bring all the data conduct. to a single subject of account into form for a Analogy with private business may still furcomplete understanding of related details. Thus ther illustrate present conditions of municipal by process of original record and restatement, accounts. From primitive to modern accounting not only does a system of accounts give a there have been three steps, namely: A system complete history of the business as a whole but of partial accounting and two systems of com