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The reason is given in the chapter cited above ; and the reason shall be illustrated by examples. The first is a resemblance inftituted betwixt two objects so nearly related as to make little or no impression.

This just rebuke inflam’d the Lycian crew,
They join, they thicken, and th' assault renew;
Unmov’d th’embody'd Greeks their füry dare,
And fix'd support the weight of all the war;
Nor could the Greeks repel the Lycian pow'rs,
Nor the bold Lycians force the Grecian tow'rs.
As on the confines of adjoining grounds,
Two stubborn swains with 'blows dispute their

bounds;

They tugg, they sweat ; 'but neither gain, nor

yield, One foot, one inch, of the contended field: Thus obstinate to death, they fight, they fall; Nor these can keep, nor those can win the wall.

Iliad, xii. 505.

Another from Milton labours under the fame defect. Speaking of the fallen angels fearching for mines of gold:

A numerous brigade hasten'd: as when bands
Of pioneers with spade and pick-ax arm’d

Forerun

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70] Aut The next shall be of things contrasted that are of different kinds.

Queen. What, is my Richard both in shape and

mind Transform’d and weak? Hath Bolingbroke de

pos’d Thine intellect? Hath he been in thy heart? The lion, dying, thrusteth forth his

paw, And wounds the earth, if nothing else, with rage To be o'erpower'd : and wilt thou, pupil-like, Take thy correction mildly, kiss the rod, And fawn on rage with base humility ?

Richard II, act 5. sc. I,

This comparison has scarce any force. A man and a lion are of different species ; and there is no such resemblance betwixt them in general, as to produce any strong effect by contrasting particular attributes or circumstances.

A third general obfervation is, That abstract terms can never be the subject of comparison, otherwise than by being personified.

Shakespear

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Shakespear compares adversity to a toad, and slander to the bite of a crocodile; but in such comparisons these abstract terms must be imagined sensible beings.

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I now proceed to illustrate by particular instances the different means by which comparison can afford pleasure; and, in the order above established, I shall begin with those instances that are agreeable by suggesting some unusual resemblance or contrast:

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Sweet are the uses of Adversity,
Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous,
Wears yet a precious jewel in her head,

As you like it, aɛt 2. sc. I.

Gardiner. Bolingbroke hath seiz'd the wasteful

King. What pity is't that he had not so trimm'd And dress'd his land, as we this garden drefs, And wound the bark, the skin of our fruit-trees; Left, being over proud with sap and blood, ni With too much riches it confound itself.. Had he done fo to great and growing men, a They might have liv?d to bear, and he to taste Their fruits of duty. All superfluous branches

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We lop away, that bearing boughs may live:
Had he done so, himself had borne the crown,
Which waste and idle hours have quite thrown
down.

Richard H. a£t 3. sc. 7.

See, how the Morning opes her golden gates,
And takes her farewell' of the glorious sun ;
How well resembles it the prime of youth,
Trim'd like a yonker prancing to his love.

Second Pärt Henry VI. act 2. fc. 1.

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Brutus. O Callius, you are yoked with a lamb, That carries anger as the flint bears fire; Who, much inforced, shows a hafty spark, And straight is cold again.

Julius Cæfar, azt 4. fc. 3.

Thus they their doubtful confultations dark
Ended, rejoicing in their matchless chief :
As when from mountain-tops the dusky clouds,
Ascending, while the North-wind sleeps, o'erspread
Heav'n's chearful face, the lowring element
Scowls o'er the darkend landscape, snow, and

shower ;
If chance the radiant sun with farewell fweet
Extend his ev’ning-beam, the fields revive,

The

The birds their notes renew, and bleating herds Atteft their joy, that hill and valley rings.

Paradise Lost, book 2.

The last exertion of courage compared to the blaze of a lamp before extinguishing, Tasso Gierufalem, canto 19. 1. 22,

As the bright stars, and milky way,
Shew'd by the night, are hid by day:
So we in that accomplish?d mind,
Help'd by the night, new graces find,
Which, by the splendor of her view
Dazzled before, we never knew.

Waller.

None of the foregoing similes, as it appears to me, have the effect to add any lustre to the principal subject; and therefore the pleasure they afford, must arise from suggesting resemblances that are not obvious : I mean the chief pleasure; for undoubtedly a beautiful subject introduced to form the fimile affords a separate pleafure, which is felt in the fimiles mentioned, particularly in that cited from Milton.

The next effect of a comparison in the
VOL. III. B.

order:

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