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cook his food, and a little girl, a virgin, may cook for him ; his food is boiled grits. The fifth moon, any person may cook for him, but he must serve himself first, and use one spoon and pan. Every new moon, he drinks for four days the possau, (button snakeroot,) an emetic, and abstains for these days, from all food, except in the evening, a little boiled grits, (humpetuh hutke.) The twelfth moon, he performs for four days, what he commenced with on the first. The fifth day, he comes out of his house, gathers corn cobs, burns them to ashes, and with these, rubs his body all over. At the end of this moon, he sweats under blankets, then goes into water, and this ends the ceremony. This ceremony is sometimes extended to four, six, or eight moons, or even to twelve days only, but the course is the saine.

During the whole of this ceremony, the physic is administered by the Is-te-puc-cau-chau thluc-co, (great leader,) who in speaking of a youth under initiation, says, “I am physicing him," (Boo-se-ji-jite saut li-to-mise-cha,) or “ I am teaching him all that is proper for him to know, (nauk o-mul-gau e-muc-e-thli-jite saut litomise cha.) The youth, during this initiation, does not touch any one except young persons, who are under a like course with himsif, and if he dreams, he drinks the possau.

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War Physic, Ho-ith-le Hil-lis-so-wau.

When young men are going to war, they go into a hothouse of the town made for the purpose, and remain there for four days. They drink the Mic-co-ho-yon-e-jau and the pos-sau, and they eat the Sou-watch-cau. The fourth day, they come out, have their bundle ready, and march. This bundle or knapsack, is an old blanket, some parched corn flour, and leather to patch their moccasins. They have in their shot bags, a charm, a protection against all ills, called the war physic, composed of chitto gab-by and Is-te-pau-pau, the bones of the snake and lion.

The tradition of this physic is, that in old times, the lion, (Is-te-pau-pau,) devoured their people. They dug a pit and caught him in it, just after he had killed one of their people. They covered him with lightwood knots, burnt him and reserved his bones.

The snake was in the water, the old people sung and he showed himself. They sung again, and he showed himself a little out of the water. The third time he showed his horns, and they cut one ; again he showed himself a fourth time, and they cut off the other horn. A piece of these horns and of the bones of the lion, is the great war physic.

The opinion of Efau Haujo, great Medal Chief of Took

au-bat-che, and Speaker for the Nation in the National Council, on these Ceremonies, given in answer to some queries put to him.

1 st. What is the origin of the new fire, and of the Boosketau? Answer. I have been taught from my infancy, that there is an E-sau-ge-tuh E-mis-see, (master of breath) who gave these customs to the Indians, as necessary to them and suited to them ; and that to follow them, entitles the red people to his care and protection, in war and difficulties. It is our opinion that the origin of the Boosketau and our physics, proceeds from the goodness of Esaugetuh E-mis-see; that he communicated them in old times to the red people, and impressed it on them to follow and adhere to them, and they would be of service to them.

2d. Do the red people believe in a future existence ? Answer. The old notion among us, is, that when we die, the spirit, (po-yau-fic-chau,) goes the way the sun goes, to the west, and there joins its family and friends, who went before it.

3rd. Do the red people believe in a future state of rewards and punishments? Answer. We have an opinion that those who behaved well, are taken under the care of E-sau-getuh E-mis-see and assisted ; and that those who have behaved ill, are left there to shift for themselves; and that there is no other punishment.

4th. What is your opinion of retaliation, as practised among the Indians; can it be just to punish the innocent for the guilty; and do you believe that this custom of the Indians proceeded from E-sau-ge-tuh E-mis-see ? Answer. I believe our custom did not proceed from E-sau-ge-tuh E-mis-see, but from the temper of rash men, who do not consider consequences before they act. It is a bad custom.

5th. What is your opinion of the custom of the red people, to punish for accidental death, with the same severity, as where there has been a manifest intention to kill ? Answer. This custom of ours is a bad one, blood for blood; but I do not believe it came from E-sau-getuh E-mis-see, but proceeded from ourselves. Of a case of this sort, I will give you my opinion, by my conduct. Lately, in Tookaubatche, two promising boys were playing and slinging stones. One of them let slip his sling, the stone flew back and killed his companion. The family of the deceased took the two boys, and were preparing to bury them in the same grave. The uncles, who have the right to decide in such cases, were sent for, and I was sent for. We arrived at the same time. I ordered the people to leave the house, and the two boys to remain together. I took the uncles to my house, raised their spirits with a little rum, and told them, the boy was a fine boy, and would be useful to us in our town, when he became a man; that he had no ill will against the dead one; the act was purely accidental; that it had been the will of E-sau-ge-tuh E-mis-se to end his days, and I thought that the living one should remain, as taking away his life would not give it to the other. The two uncles, after some reflection, told me, as you have advised us, so we will act; he shall not die, it was an accident.

The Opinion of Tus-se-kiah Mic-co, on the Origin of the

Creeks, and the New Fire.

6. There are in the forks of Red river, (We-chā-te-hatche Au-fus-kee,) west of Mississippi, (We-o-coof-ke, muddy water,) two mounds of earth. At this place, the Cussetuh, Cowetuh and Chickasạws found themselves. They were at a loss for fire. Here they were visited by the Hi-you-yul-gee, four men who came from the four corners of the world. One of these people asked the Indians, where they would have their fire, (tote-kit-cau.) They pointed to a place; it was made; and they sat down around it. The Hi-you-yul-gee directed, that they should pay particular attention to the fire, that it would preserve them and let E-sau-ge-tuh E-mis see, (master of breath,) know their wants. One of these visitors took them and showed them the pas-sau; another showed them Mic-coho yon-ejau, then the Au-che-nau, (cedar,) and Too-loh, (sweet bay.) [There are one or two other plants, not recollected. Each of these seven plants was to belong to a particular tribe,] (E-mau-li-ge-tuh.) After this, the four visiters disappeared in a cloud, going from whence they came.”

“ The three towns then appointed their rulers. The Cussetuhs chose the Noo-coose-ul-gee, (bear tribe,) to be their Mic-ul-gee, (mic-cos,) and the Is-tau-nul-gee, to be the E-ne-hau-thluc-ul-gee, (people second in command.) The Cowetuhs chose the Thlot-lo-ul-gee, (fish tribe,) to be their Mic-ul-gee, (miccos.")

“ After these arrangements, some other Indians came from the west, met them, and had a great wrestle with the three towns; they made ball sticks and played with them, with bows and arrows, and the war club, (Au-tus-sau.) They fell out, fought, and killed each other. After this warring, the three towns moved eastwardly, and they met the Au-be-cuh at Coosau river. Here they agreed to go to war for four years, against their first enemy; they made shields, (Te-po-lux-o,) of Buffalo hides, and it was agreed that the warriors of each town, should dry and bring forward, the scalps (E-cau halpe) of the enemy and pile them; the Aubecuh had a small pile, the Chickasaws were above them, the Cowetuhs above them, and the Cussetuhs above all. The two last towns raised the scalp pole, (Itlo chāte, red wood,) and do not suffer

any other town to raise it. Cussetuh is first in rank.”

“ After this, they settled the rank of the four towns among themselves. Cussetuh, called Au-be-cuh and Chickásaw cha-chu-see, (younger brothers.) The Chickasaws and Aubecuhs, called Cussetuh and Cowetuh, chat-la-hau, (oldest brothers.) Au-be-cuh, called Chickasaw, Ummau-mau-yuh, (elders, or people a head of them.) Chickasaws sometimes use the same expression to Aubecuh.”

This being done, they commenced their settlements on Coo-sau and Tal-la-poo-sau, and crossing the falls of Tallapoosa above Tool-cau-bat-che, they visited the Chat-tohoche, and found a race of people with flat heads, in possession of the mounds in the Cussetuh fields. These people used bows and arrows, with strings made of sinews. The great physic makers, (Au-lic-chul-gee,) sent some rats in the night time, which gnawed the strings, and in the morning, they attacked and defeated the flats. They crossed the river at the island, near the mound, and took possession of the country. After this, they spread out eastwardly, to 0-cheese-hat-che, (Ocmulgee,) Oconee, O-ge-chee, (How-ge-chuh,) Chic-ke-tal-lo-fau-hat-che, (Savannah,) called sometimes Sau-va-no-gee, the name for Shaw-a-nee. They met the white people on the seacoast, who drove them back to their present situation.”

“ Cussetuh and Chickasaw consider themselves as people of one fire, (tote-kit-cau humgoce,) from the earliest account of their origin. Cussetuh appointed the first Micco for them, directed him to sit down in the big Savanna, where they now are, and govern them. Some of the Chickasaws straggled off and settled near Augusta, from whence they returned and sat down near Cussetuh, and thence back to their nation. Cussetuh and Chickasaw have remained friends ever since their first acquaintance.”

During the late war between the Creeks and Chickasaws, Cussetuh refused her aid, and retained her long established friendship for the Chickasaws; and when the Creeks offered to make peace, their offers were rejected, till Cussetuh interposed their good offices. These had the desired effect, and produced peace.

State of the War Party in September, 1813.



These towns formed a front of observation towards Cowetau.



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