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the entrance at each corner. Each building is a wooden frame, supported on posts set in the ground, covered with slabs, open in front like a piazza, divided into three rooms, the back and ends clayed, up to the plates. Each division is divided lengthwise, into two seats ; the front, two feet high, extending back half way, covered with reedmats or slabs; then a rise of one foot, and it extends back, covered in like manner, to the side of the building. On these seats, they lie or sit at pleasure.

The rank of the Buildings which form the Square. 1st. Mic-ul-gee in-too-pau, the Mic-co's cabin. This fronts the east, and is occupied by those of the highest rank; the centre of the building is always occupied by the Mic-co of the town; by the agent for Indian affairs when he pays a vist to a town; by the Mic-cos of other towns, and by respectable white people.

The division to the right is occupied by the Mic-uggee, (Miccos, there being several so called in every town, from custom, the origin of which is unknown,) and the counsellors. These two classes give their advice, in relation to war, and are in fact the principal counsellors.

The division to the left, is occupied by the E-ne-hau Ul-gee, (people second in command, the head of whom is called by the traders, second man.) These have the direction of the public works appertaining to the town, such as the public buildings, building houses in town for new settlers, or working in the fields. They are particularly charged with the ceremony of the ā-ce, (a decoction of 'the cassine yupon, called by the traders black drink,) under the direction of the Mic-co.

The Mic-co of the town' superintends all public and domestic concerns; receives all public characters; hears their talks ; lays them before the town, and delivers the talks of his town. The Mic-co of a town is always chosen from some one family. The Mic-co of Tuck-aubat-che is of the eagle tribe, (Lum-ul-gee.) After he is chosen and put on his seat, he remains for life. On his death, if his nephews are fit for the office, one of them takes' his place as his successor ; if they are unfit, one is chosen of the next of kin, the descent being always in

the female line. They have, in this town, a Mic-co of another family, the Is-po-co-gee Mic-co, the ancient name of the town.

When a Mic-co, from age, infirmity, or any other cause, wants an assistant, he selects a man who appears to him the best qualified, and proposes him to the counsellors and great men of the town, and if he is approved of by them, they appoint him as an assistant in public affairs, and he takes his seat on this cabin accordingly.

The Micco of a town generally bears the name of the town, as Cussetuh Mic-co. He is what is called by the traders the Cussetuh King.

2d. Tus-tun-nug-ul-gee in-too-pau, the warriors' cabin. This fronts the south; the head warrior sits at the west end of his cabin, and in his division the great warriors sit beside each other. The next in rank sit in the centre division, and the young warriors in the third. The rise is regular, by merit, from the third to the first division. The Great Warrior, for that is the title of the head warrior. He is appointed by the micco and counsellors, from among the greatest war characters.

When a young man is trained up and appears well qualified for the fatigues and hardships of war, and is promising, the Mic-co appoints him a governor, or as the name imports, a leader, (Is-te-puc-cau-chau,) and if he distinguishes himself, they give him a rise to the centre cabin. A man who distinguishes himself, repeatedly, in warlike enterprises, arrives to the rank of the Great Leader, (Is-te-puc-cau-chau thlucco.) This title, though greatly coveted, is seldom attained ; as it requires a long course of years, and great and numerous successes in war.

The second class of warriors is the Tusse-ki-ul-gee. All who go to war, and are in company, when a scalp is taken, get a war name. The leader reports their conduct, and they receive a name accordingly. This is the Tus-se-ki-o-chif-co, or war name. The term leader, as used by the Indians, is the proper one. The war parties all march in Indian file, with the leader in front, until coming on hostile ground; he is then in the rear.

3d. Is-te-chāguc-ul-gee in-too-pau, the cabin of the beloved men. This fronts the north.

There are great men who have been war leaders, and

who although of various ranks, have become estimable in a long course of public service. They sit themselves on the right division of the cabin of the, and are his cousellors. The family of the Mic-co, and great men who have thus distinguished themselves, occupy this cabin of the beloved men.

4th. Hut-te-mau-hug-gee in-too-pau, the cabin of the young people and their associates. This fronts the west.

The Convention of the Town.

The Micco, counsellors and warriors, meet every day, in the public square ; sit and drink a-cee, a strong decoction of the cassine yupon, called by the traders, black drink ; talk of news, the public and domestic concerns, smoke their pipes, and play Thla-chal-litch-cau, (roll the bullet.) Here all complaints are introduced, attended to, and redressed. They have a regular ceremony for making, as well as delivering the ā-cee, to all who attend

the square.

5th. Chooc-ofau thluc-co, the rotunda or assembly room, called by the traders,“ hot-house." This is near the square, and is constructed after the following manner : Eight posts are fixed in the ground, forming an octagon of thirty feet diameter. They are twelve feet high, and large enough to support the roof. On these, five or six logs are placed, of a side, drawn in as they rise. On these, long poles or rafters, to suit the height of the building, are laid, the upper ends forming a point, and the lower ends projecting out six feet from the octagon, and resting on posts five feet high, placed in a circle round the octagon, with plates on them, to which the rafters are tied with splits. The rafters are near together, and fastened with splits. These are covered with clay, and that with pine bark; the wall, six feet from the octagon, is clayed up; they have a small door into a small portico, curved round for five or six feet, then into the house.

The space between the octagon and the wall, is one entire sopha, where the visiters lie or sit at pleasure. It is covered with reed, mat or splits.

In the centre of the room, on a small rise, the fire is made, of dry cane or dry old pine slabs, split fine, and laid

in a spiral circle. This is the assembly room for all people, old and young ; they assemble every night, and amuse themselves with dancing, singing, or conversation. And here, sometimes, in very cold weather, the old and naked sleep.

In all transactions which require secrecy, the rulers meet here, make their fire, deliberate and decide. When they have decided on any case of death or whipping, the Micco appoints the warriors who are to carry it into effect; or he gives the judgment to the Great Warrior, (Tustunnuggee thlucco,) and leaves to him the time and manner of executing it.


This is always determined on by the Great Warrior. When the Micco and counsellors are of opinion that the town has been injured, he lifts the war hatchet against the nation which has injured them. But as soon as it is taken up,

the Micco and counsellors may interpose, and by their prudent councils, stop it, and proceed to adjust the misunderstanding by negotiation. If the Great Warrior persists and goes out, he is followed by all who are for war. It is seldom a town is unanimous, the nation never is ; and within the memory of the oldest man among them, it is not recollected, that more than one half the nation have been for war at the same time ; or taken, as they express it, the war talk. · The Great Warrior, when he marches, gives notice where he shall encamp, and sets out sometimes with one or two only. He fires off his gun and sets up the war whoop. This is repeated by all

who follow him, and they are sometimes for one or two nights marching off.


This is always determined on and concluded, by the Mic-co and counsellors; and peace talks are always addressed to the cabin of the Mic-co. In some cases, where the resentment of the warriors has run high, the Micco and council have been much embarrassed.

Marriage. A man who wants a wife never applies in person ; he sends his sister, his mother, or some other female relation, to the female relations of the woman he names. They consult the brothers and uncles on the maternal side, and sometimes the father, but this is a compliment only, as his approbation or opposition is of no avail. If the party applied to; approve of the match, they answer accordingly, to the woman who made the application. The bridegroom then gets together a blanket, and such other articles of clothing as he is able to do, and sends them by the women to the females of the family of the bride. If they accept of them the match is made; and the man may then go to her house as soon as he chooses. And when he has built a house, made his crop and gathered it in, then made his hunt and brought home the meat, and put all this in the possession of his wife, the ceremony ends, and they are married ; or as they express it, the woman is bound. From the first going to the house of the woman, till the ceremony ends, he is completely in possession of her.

This law has been understood differently, by some hasty cuckolds, who insist, that when they have assisted the woman to plant her crop, the ceremony ends, and the woman is bound. A man never marries in his own tribe.


This is at the choice of either of the parties; the man may marry again as soon as he will; but she is bound, till all the Boosketau of that year are over; excepting in the cases of marriage and parting in the season when there is no planting, or more properly speaking, during the season the man resides at the house of the woman and has possession of her, during the continuation of the marriage ceremony ; in that case the woman is equally free to connect herself as soon as she pleases.

There is an inconsistency in the exception above; since in fact, in such season, there can be no marriage; but the chiefs, on their report on this article, maintained it as an exception, and this practice, in these cases of half

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