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These people have villages on the waters of Flint river; there they have fine stocks of cattle, horses and hogs, and they raise corn, rice and potatoes, in great plenty.
The following are the villages of this town:
1st. Au-muc-cul-le ; (pour upon me;) is on a creek of that name, which joins on the right side of Flint river, forty-five miles below Timothy Barnard's. It is sixty feet wide, and the main branch of Kitch-o-foo-ne, which it joins three miles from the river; the village is nine miles up the creek; the land is poor and flat, with limestone springs in the neighborhood; the swamp is cypress in hammocks, with some water oak and hickory; the pine land is poor with ponds and wire grass ; they have sixty gun men in the village; it is in some places well fenced; they have cattle, hogs and horses, and a fine range for them, and raise corn, rice and potatoes in great plenty.
2d. O-tel-le-who-yau-nau ; (hurricane town;) is six miles below Kitch-o-foo-ne, on the right bank of Flint river, with pine barren on both sides; they have twenty families in the village, which is fenced; and they have hogs, cattle and horses; they plant the small margins near the mouth of a little creek; this village is generally named as belonging to Che-au-hau; but they are mixed with Oose00-ches.
3. Che-au-hoo-che ; (little che-au-hau ;) is one mile and a half west from Hit-che-tee, in the pine forest, near Auhe-gee; a fine little creek, called at its junction with the river, Hit-che-tee; they begin to fence and have lately
built a square.
7. Hit-che-tee ; is on the left bank of Chat-to-ho-che, four miles below Che-au-hau ; they have a narrow strip of good land, bordering on the river, and back of this it rises into high, poor land, which spreads off flat. In approaching the town on this side, there is no rise, but a great descent to the town flat; on the right bank of the river the land is level, and extends out for two miles, is of thin quality; the growth is post oak, hickory, and pine, all small, then pine barren and ponds.
The appearance about this town indicates much poverty and indolence; they have no fences ; they have spread out into villages, and have the character of being honest and industrious; they are attentive to the rights
of their white neighbors, and no charge of horse stealing from the frontiers, has been substantiated against them. The villages are,
1st. Hit-che-too-che, (Little Hit-chetee,) a small village of industrious people, settled on both sides of Flint river, below Kit-cho-foo-ne; they have good fences, cattle, horses, and hogs, in a fine range, and are attentive to them.
2d. Tut-tal-lo-see ; (fowl ;) on a creek of that name, twenty miles west from Hit-che-too-che. This is a fine creek on a bed of limestone; it is a branch of Kitch-o-foone; the land bordering on the creek, and for eight or nine miles in the direction towards Hit-che-too-che, is level, rich, and fine for cultivation, with post and black oak, hickory, dogwood and pine. The villagers have good worm fences, appear industrious, and have large stocks of cattle, some hogs and horses; they appear decent and orderly, and are desirous of preserving a friendly intercourse with their neighbors; they have this year, 1799, built a square.
8. Pā-lā-chooc-le ; is on the right bank of Chat-to-hoche, one and a half miles below Che-au-hau, on a poor, pine barren flat; the land back from it is poor, broken, pine land ; their fields are on the left side of the river, on
This was formerly the first among the Lower Creek towns; a peace town, averse to war, and called by the nation, Tal-lo-wau thluc-co, (big town.). The Indians are poor, the town has lost its former consequence, and is not now much in estimation.
9. 0-co-nee ; is six miles below Pa-la-chooc-le, on the left bank of Chat-to-ho-che. It is a small town, the remains of the settlers of 0-co-nee; they formerly lived just below the Rock landing, and gave name to that river ; they are increasing in industry, making fences, attending to stock, and have some level land moderately rich; they have a few hogs, cattle and horses.
10. Sau-woo-ge-lo ; is six miles below O-co-nee, on the right bank of the river, a new settlement in the open pine foresti Below this, for four and a half miles, the land is flat on the river, and much of it in the bend is good for corn. Here. We-lau-ne, (yellow water,) a fine flowing
creek, joins the river; and still lower, Co-wag-gee, (partridge,) a creek sixty yards wide at its mouth. Its source is in the ridge dividing its waters from Ko-e-ne-cuh, Choctau hatche and Telāgue hatche; they have some settlements in this neighborhood, on good land.
11. Sau-woog-e-loo-che ; is four miles below Oconee, on the left bank of the river, in oaky woods, which extend back one mile to the pine forest; they have about twenty families, and plant in the bends of the river; they have a few cattle.
12. Eu-fau-lau ; is fifteen miles below Sau-woog-e-lo, on the left bank of the river, on a pine flat; the fields are on both sides of the river, on rich flats; below the town the land is good.
These people are very poor, but generally well behaved and very friendly to white people; they are not given to horse-stealing, have some stock, are attentive to it; they have some land fenced, and are preparing for more ; they have spread out their settlements down the river, about eight miles below the town, counting on the river path, there is a little village on good land, O-ke-teyoc-en-ne. Some of the settlements are well fenced ; they raise plenty of corn and rice, and the range is a good one for stock.
From this village, they have settlements down as low as the forks of the river; and they are generally on sites well chosen, some of them well cultivated; they raise plenty of corn and rice, and have cattle, horses and hogs.
Several of these Indians have negroes, tiken during the revolutionary war, and where they are, there is more industry and better farms. These negroes were, many of thern, given by the agents of Great Britain to the Indians, in payment for their services, and they generally call themselves “ King's gifts." The negroes are all of them, attentive and friendly to white people, particularly so to those in authority.
This gentleman lives on the right bank of Flint river, fifteen miles below Pad-je-li-gau. He has eleven children by a U-chec woman, and they are settled with and around him, and have fine stocks of cattle in an excellent range.
He has a valuable property, but not productive ; his farm is well fenced on both sides of the river; he has a peach orchard of fine fruit, and some fine nectarines, a garden well stored with vegetables, and some grape
presented to him by the agent. He is an assistant and interpreter, and a man who has uniformly supported an honest character, friendly to peace during the revolutionary war, and to.man. He has forty sheep, some goats, and stock of every description, and keeps a very hospitable house. He is not much acquainted with farming, and receives light slowly on this subject, as is the case with all the Indian countrymen, without exception.
The Creeks never had, till this
year, a national
government and law. Every thing of a general tendency, was left to the care and management of the public agents, who heretofore used temporary expedients only; and amongst the most powerful and persuasive, was the pressure of fear from without, and presents. The attempt, 'in the course of the last and present year, to establish a national council, to meet annually, and to make general regulations for the welfare of the nation, promises to succeed. The law passed at the first meeting, to punish thieves and mischief-makers, has been carried into effect, in a few instances, where the personal influence of the agent for Indian affairs, was greatly exerted. On a trying occasion, the chiefs were called on to turn out the warriors, and to punish the leaders of the banditti, who insulted the commissioners of Spain and the United States, on the 17th of September. "After this was repeatedly urged, and the agent agreed to be responsible for all the consequences, the chiefs turned out the warriors, and executed the law on the leader and a few of his associates, in an exemplary manner. While this transaction was fresh in the minds of the Indians, the agent for Indian affairs convened the national council, and made a report on the state of the nation to them, accompanied with his opinion of the plan indispensably necessary, to carry the laws of the nation into effect.
The council, after mature deliberation, determined that
the safety of the nation was at stake; that having a firm reliance on the justice of the President of the United States, and the friendly attention of his agent for Indian affairs, they would adopt his plan.
1st. To class the towns, and appoint a warrior over each class, denominated the warrior of the nation, to superintend the execution of the law.
2d. To declare as law, that when a man is punished by the law of the nation, and dies, that it is the law that killed him. It is the nation who killed him; and that no man or family is to be held accountable for this act of the nation.
3d. That all mischief-makers and thieves, of any country of white people, shall be under the government of the agent for Indian affairs, and that he may introduce the troops of the United States to any part of the Creek country, to punish such persons; and that, when he calls in the troops of the United States, he is to call for such number of warriors as he may deem proper, to accompany them, to be under pay: that, in apprehending or punishing any white person, if Indians should interpose, the red warriors are to order them to desist; and if they refuse, the agent may order them to fire, at the same time ordering the troops of the United States to make common cause.
Government of the Towns.
The towns, separately, have a government and customs, which they derive from a high source. They have their public buildings, as well for business as pleasure ; every town has a chief who presides over the whole; he is their Mic-co, called by the white people, “ King.” The grades from him are regular and uniform, throughout all the towns. In the description of the public buildings, these grades will be explained.
The Public Buildings.
Choo-co-thluc-co, (big house,) the town house or public square, consists of four square buildings of one story, facing each other, forty by sixteen feet, eight feet pitch ;