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river, above the fields, is fine for culture, with oak, hickory, blackjack and pine.
The people of Cussetuh associate, more than any other Indians, with their white neighbors, and without obtaining any advantage from it; they know not the season for planting, or if they do, they never avail themselves of what they know, as they always plant a month too late.
This town with its villages is the largest in the Lower Creeks; the people are and have been friendly to white people, and are fond of visiting them; the old chiefs are very orderly men and much occupied in governing their young men, who are rude and disorderly, in proportion to the intercourse they have had with white people; they frequently complain of the intercourse of their young people with the white people on the frontiers, as being very prejudicial to their morals ; that they are more rude, more inclined to be tricky, and more difficult to govern, than those who do not associate with them.
The settlements belonging to the town, are spread out on the right side of the river; here they appear to be industrious, have forked 'fences, and more land enclosed than they can cultivate. One of them desires particularly to be named, Mic E-maut-lau. This old chief has with his own labor, made a good worm fence, and built himself a comfortable house, they have but a few peach trees, in and about the town; the main trading path, from the upper towns, passes through here; they estimate their number of gun men at three hundred; but they cannot exceed one hundred and eighty.
Au-pul-tau-e ; a village of Cussetuh, twenty miles from the river, on Hat-che thluc-co; they have good fences, and the settlers under the best characters of any among the Lower Creeks; they estimate their gun men at fortythree. On a visit here the agent for Indian affairs was met by all the men, at the house of Tus-se-kiah Mic-co. Thát chief addressed him in these words : “Here, I am glad to see you ; this is my wife, and these are my children; they are glad to see you ; these are the men of the village; we have forty of them in all; they are glad to see you ; you are now among those on whom you may rely. I have been six years at this village, and we have
not a man here, or belonging to our village, who ever stole a horse from, or did any injury to a white man.”
The village is in the forks of Hatche thlucco, and the situation is well chosen; the land is rich, on the margins of the creeks and the cane flats; the timber is large, of poplar, white oak and hickory; the uplands to the south, are the long-leaf pine ; and to the north waving oak, pine and hickory ; cane is on the creeks and reed in all the branches.
At this village, and at the house of Tus-se-ki-ah Micco, the agent for Indian affairs has introduced the plough; and a farmer was hired in 1797, to tend a crop of corn, and with so good success, as to induce several of the villagers to prepare their fields for the plough. Some of them have cattle, hogs and horses, and are attentive to them. The range is a good one, but cattle and horses require salt; they have some thriving peach trees, at several of the settlements.
On Ouhe-gee creek, called at its junction with the river, Hitchetee, there is one settlement which deserves a place here. It belongs to Mic-co thluc-co, called by the white people, the “bird tail king.” The plantation is on the right side of the creek, on good land, in the neighborhood of pine forest; the creek is a fine flowing one, margined with reed; the plantation is well fenced, and cultivated with the plough; this chief had been on a visit to New York, and seen much of the ways of white people, and the advantages of the plough over the slow and laborious hand hoe. Yet he had not firmness enough, till this year, to break through the old habits of the Indians. The agent paid him a visit this spring, 1799, with a plough completely fixed,
and spent a day with him and showed him how to use it. He had previously, while the old man was in the woods, prevailed on the family to clear the fields for the plough. It has been used with effect, and much to the approbation of a numerous family, who have more than doubled their crop of corn and potatoes; and who begin to know how to turn their corn to account, by giving it to their hogs. This Micco and his family, have hogs, cattle and horses, and begin to be very attentive to them; he has some apple and peach trees, and grape vines, a present from the agent.
The Cussetuhs have some cattle, horses and hogs; but they prefer roving idly through the woods, and down on the frontiers, to attending to farming or stock raising.
The three towns just described, have had a powerful stimulus to their industry, in the regulations adopted by the agent for his supplies. Heretofore, there was no market for provisions. The wants of the traders were few, and those procured with beads, binding, thread or needles. There is now a regular inarket, and weights and measures are introduced. To call the supply of a single table a regular market, requires some explanation. The annual expenses of the agent's table, for the two last years, has been 2,750 dollars; and for 1799, the articles were paid for in money and merchandise; 1000 dollars of the former, and 1,750 of the latter; this was more than would be supplied by the three towns. The prices established were :
Pork, gross, per cwt. $3 00 Capons, per pair. 0 25 Pork, net, per hundred 4 00 Fowls, 4 for 0 25 Bacon,
do 10 00 Eggs, per dozen 0 121 Beef,
do 3 00 Butter per lb. in the Corn, per bushel 0 50 spring
0 25 Potatocs,
. 050 During summer 0 17 Pumpkins, 0 18 Cheese,
0 17 Ground Peas,
0 50 Oil of hickory nut per Field Peas, 1 00 bottle
4. U-chee ; is on the right bank of Chat-to-ho-che, ten and a half miles below Cow-e-tuh-tal-lau-has-see, on a flat of rich land, with hickory, oak, blackjack and long-leaf pine ; the flat extends from one to two miles back from the river. Above the town, and bordering on it, Uchee creek, eighty-five feet wide, joins the river.* Opposite the town house, on the left bank of the river, there is a narrow strip of flat land from ffty to one hundred yards wide, then high pine barren hills ; these people speak a tongue different from the Creeks; they were formerly settled in small villages at Ponpon, Saltketchers, (Sol-kechuh,) Silver Bluff, and O-ge-chee, (How-ge-chu,) and were
* The two forks eight miles up; on the right, We-tum-cau ; the left, Hosa-po-li-gee.
continually at war with the Cherokees, Ea-tau-bau and Creeks.
In the year 1729, an old chief of Cussetuh, called by the white people Captain Ellick, married three Uchce women, and brought them to Cussetuh, which was greatly disliked by his towns people; their opposition determined him to move from Cussetuh; he went down opposite where the town now is, and settled with his three brothers; two of whom, had Uchee wives; he, after this, collected all the Uchees, gave them the land where their town now is, and there they settled.
These people are more civil and orderly than their neighbors; their women are more ehaste, and the men better hunters; they retain all their original customs and laws, and have adopted none of the Creeks; they have some worm fences in and about their town, and but very few peach trees.
They have lately begun to settle out in villages, and are industrious, compared with their neighbors ; the men take part in the labors of the women, and are more constant in their attachment to their women, than is usual among red people.
The number of gun men is variously estimated; they do not exceed two hundred and fifty, including all who are settled in villages, of which they have three.
1st. In-tuch-cul-gau ; from in-tuch-ke, a dam across water ; and ul-gau, all ; applicd to beaver dams. This is on Opil-thluc-co, twenty-eight miles from its junction with Flint river. This creek is sixty feet wide at its mouth, one and a half miles above Timothy Barnard's; the land bordering on the creek, up to the village, is good. Eight miles below the village the good land spreads out for four or five miles on both sides of the creek, with oaky woods; (Tuck-au-mau-pa-fau ;) the range is fine for cattle ; cane grows on the creeks, and reed on all the branches.
They have fourteen families in the village ; their industry is increasing; they built a square in 1798, which serves for their town house; they have a few cattle, hogs and horses.
2d. Pad-gee-li-gau ; from pad-jee, a pidgeon; and ligau, sit; pidgeon roost. This was formerly a large town, but broken up by Benjamin Harrison and his associates,
who mur«lered sixteen of their gun men in Georgia; it is on the right bank of Flint river, and this creek, adjoining the river; the village takes its name from the creek; it is nine miles below the second falls of the river; these falls are at the Island's ford, where the path now crosses from Cussetuh to Fort Wilkinson ; the village is advantageously situated; the land is rich, the range good for cattle and hogs; the swamp is more than three miles through, on the left bank of the river, and is high and good canebrake; on the right bank, it is one mile through, low and flat; the cane, sassafras and sumach, are large; this extensive and valuable swamp extends down on one side or the other of the river, for twelve miles.
They have but a few families there, notwithstanding it is one of the best situations the Indians possess, for stock, farming and fish. Being a frontier, the great loss they sustained in having sixteen of their gun men murdered, discourages them from returning.
3d. Toc-co-gul-egau ; (tad pole ;) a small settlement on Kit-cho-foone creek, ncar soine beaver dams on branches of that creek; the land is good but broken; fine range, small canes and pea vines on the hills, and reeds on the branches; they have eight or ten families ; this establishment is of two years only, and they have worm fences. U-che Will, the head of the village, has some cattle, and they have promised to attend to hogs, and to follow the direction of the agent for Indian affairs, as soon as they can get into stock.
Some of the Uchees have settled with the Shaw-a-nee, at Sau-va-no-gee, among the Creeks of the upper towns.
5. Oose-oo-chee ; is about two miles below Uchee, on the right bank of Chat-to-ho-chee; they formerly lived on Flint river, and settling here, they built a hot house in 1794 ; they cultivate with their neighbors, the Che-au-hau, below their land in the point.
6. Che-au-hau ; called by the traders Che-haws, is just below, and adjoining Oosc-oo-che, on a flat of good land. Below the town, the river winds round east, then west, making a neck or point of one thousand acres of canebrake, very fertile, but low, and subject to be overflowed; the land back of this, is level for nearly three miles, with red, post, and white oak, hickory, then pine forest.