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travelling at the rate of three miles the hour, the following distances are noted. 1h. 30m. Cross a creek running to the right, three feet
wide. The land, the whole distance, is poor,
broken and unfit for culture. 12m. Some settlements on the river bank, at We
at-lo-tuck-e. The land is stiff and rich. 58m. Cross Hātche Cānāne, (crooked creek,) run
ning to the right, ten feet wide ; the land stiff
and good; oak, hickory, and a few poplar. 39m. Chat-to-hat-che, (stony creek,) running to
the right ten feet wide; the land broken and poor. There is one settlement on the path, and
one at the creek. 49m. Woc-coo-che, (calf creek,) over broken
land; pine, willow-leaved hickory, and post oak; the land bordering on the creek is rich ; there is one plantation, on the left bank, under fence, and some peach trees around the houses. The creek is forty feet wide and runs to the
right. 41m. To a creek running to the right, bordered
with fine winter reed. 55. Hal-e-woc-ke, sixty feet wide, running to the
right. One plantation on the left bank of the creek; the land broken, chesnut, pine, post oak,
hickory, and red oak. 27m. To a branch running to the right. 8m. A reedy branch running to the right, the land
rich. 3m. A branch, reedy, running to the right. 11m. A reedy branch running to the right. 17m. O-sun-nup-pau, (moss creek,) sixty feet wide,
running to the right. The bottom rocky with moss; the land for this stage is broken; a mixed
growth of post and red oak, pine and hickory. On the left bank of the river at the falls, the land is level; and in approaching them one is surprised to find them where there is no alteration in the trees or unevenness of land. This level continues back one mile to the poor pine barren, and is fine for corn or cotton; the timber is red oak, hickory and pine ; the banks of the river
on this side below the falls are fifty feet high, and continue so, down below the town house; the flat of good land continues still lower to Hat-che thluc-co, (big creek.)
Ascending the river on this bank, above the falls, the the following stages are noted in miles.
21 miles, the flat land terminates; thence 34 miles, to Chis-se hul-cuh running to the left; thence
4 miles, to Chusse thluc-co twenty feet wide, a rocky bottom.
5 miles, to Ke-tā-le, thirty feet wide, a bold, shoally, rocky creek, abounding in moss. Four miles up this creek, there is a village of ten families, at Hat-che Uxau, (head of a creek.) The land is broken with hickory, pine and chesnut; there is cane on the borders of the creek and reed on the branches; there are some settlements of Cowetuh people made on these creeks; all who have settled out from the town, have fenced their fields, and begin to be attentive to their stock.
The town has a temporary fence of three poles, the first on forks, the other two on stakes, good against cattle only; the town fields are fenced in like manner; a few of the neighboring fields, detached from the town, have good fences; the temporary, three pole fences of the town, are made every spring, or repaired in a slovenly manner.
Mr. Marshall, the trader here, has set up a manufactory of cotton cloth, at the recommendation of the agent; the cotton raised by him the last season, is fine ; it is the green-seed; the experiment was commenced with the green-seed, and this year the black-seed of the seacoast has been tried; it is very good, but the season too short for it, although there was no frost this year, 1799, till the 13th of November. In light, rich, sandy land it will certainly succeed. The traders here adopted with spirit, the plan of the government'; they have made gardens, fenced their fields, and they have this year raised wheat, rye, and barley.
2. Cow-e-tuh Tal-lau-has-see; from Cow-e-tuh, Tallo-fau, a town ; and hasse, old. It is two and a half miles below Cowetuh, on the right bank of the river. In going down the path between the two towns, in half a mile cross. Kotes-ke-le-jau, ten feet wide, running to the left is a fine
little creek sufficiently large for a mill, in all but the dry
On the right bank, enter the flat lands between the towns. These are good, with oak, hard-shelled hickory and pine ; they extend two miles to Che-luc-in-te-getuh, a small creek five feet wide, bordering on the town. The town is half a mile from the river, on the right bank of the creek; it is on a high flat, bordered on the east by the flats of the river, and west by high broken hills; they have but a few settlers in the town; the fields are on a point of land three-quarters of a mile below the town, which is very rich, and has been long under cultivation; they have no fence around their fields.
Here is the public establishment for the Lower Creeks ; and here the agent resides. He has a garden well cultivated and planted, with a great variety of vegetables, fruits and vines, and an orchard of peach trees. Arrangements have been made, to fence two hundred acres of land fit for cultivation, and to introduce a regular husbandry to serve as a model and stimulus, for the neighboring towns who crowd the public shops here, at all seasons, when the hunters are not in the woods.
The agent entertains doubts, already, of succeeding here in establishing a regular husbandry, from the difficulty of changing the old habits of indolence, and sitting daily in the squares, which seem peculiarly attractive to the residenters of the towns. In the event of not succeeding, he intends to move the establishment out from the town, and aid the villagers where success seems to be infallible.
They estimate their number of gun men at one hundred; but the agent has ascertained, by actual enumeration, that they have but sixty-six, including all who reside here, and in the villages belonging to the town.
They have a fine body of land below, and adjoining the town, nearly two thousand acres, all well timbered; and including the whole above and below, they have more than is sufficient for the accommodation of the whole town; they have one village belonging to the town, Wetumcau.
We-tum-cau ; from we-wau, water ; and tum-cau, rumbling. It is the main branch of U-chee creek, and is twelve miles northwest from the town. These people
have a small town house on a poor pine ridge on the left bank of the creek below the falls; the settlers extend up the creek for three miles, and they cultivate the rich bends of the creek ; there is cane on the creek and fine reed on the branches; the land higher up the creek, and on its branches is waving, with pine, oak, and hickory, fine for cultivation, on the flats and out from the branches; the range is good for stock, and some of the settlers have cattle and hogs, and begin to be attentive to them ; they have been advised to spread out their settlements on the waters of this creek, and to increase their attention to stock of every kind. .
3. Cus-se-tuh ; this town is two and a half miles below Cow-e-tuk Tal-lau-has-see, on the left bank of the river. They claim the land above the falls on their side. In descending the river path from the falls, in three miles you cross a creek running to the right, twenty feet wide ; this creek joins the river a quarter of a mile above the Cowetuh town house ; the land to this creek, is good and level, and extends back from the river from half to three-quarters of a mile to the pine forest; the growth on the level, is oak, hickory and pine; there are some ponds and slashes back next to the pine forest, bordering on a branch which runs parallel with the river; in the pine forest there is some reedy branches.
The creek has its source nearly twenty miles from the river, and runs nearly parallel with it till within one mile of its junction; there it makes a short bend round north, thence west to the river; at the second bend, about two hundred yards from the river, a fine little spring creek joins on its right bank; at the first bend north there is a mill seat; the water might here be stopped with a dam, and taken across by a canal, at a little expense of labor, to the river, and the mills might be either here or at the river. About one mile up from the bend, there is another good mill seat in the neighborhood of the pine forest.
The flat of good land on the river continues two and a half miles below this creek, through the Cussetuh fields to Hat-che-thluc-co. At the entrance of the fields on the right, there is an oblong mound of earth; one quarter of a mile lower, there is a conic mound forty-five yards in diameter at the base, twenty-five feet high, and flat on the
top, with mulberry trees on the north side, and evergreens on the south. From the top of this mound, they have a fine view of the river above the flat land on both sides of the river, and all the field of one thousand acres; the river makes a short bend round to the right, opposite this mound, and there is a good ford just below the point. It is not easy to mistake the ford, as there is a flat on the left, of gravel and sand ; the waters roll rapidly over the gravel, and the eye, at the first view, fixes on the most fordable part; there are two other fords below this, which communicate between the fields, on both sides of the river; the river from this point comes round to the west, then to the east; the island ford is below this turn, at the lower end of a small island; from the left side, enter the river forty yards below the island, and go up to the point of it, then turn down as the ripple directs, and land sixty yards below; this is the best ford; the third is still lower, from four to six hundred yards.
The land back from the fields to the east, rises twenty feet, and continues flat for one mile to the pine forest; back of the fields, adjoining the rise of twenty feet, is a beaver pond of forty acres, capable of being drained at a small expense of labor; the large creek bounds the fieds, and the flat land to the south.
Continuing on down the river from the creek, the land rises to a high flat, formerly the Cussetuh town, and afterwards a Chickasaw town. This flat is intersected with one branch. From the southern border of this flat, the Cussetuh town is seen below, on a flat, just above flood mark, surrounded with this high flat to the north and east, and the river to the west; the land about the town is poor, and much exhausted; they cultivate but little here of early corn; the principal dependence is on the rich fields above the creek; to call them rich must be understood in a limited sense; they have been so, but being cultivated beyond the memory of the oldest man in Cussetuh, they are almost exhausted; the produce is brought from the fields to the town in canoes or on horses; they make barely a sufficiency of corn for their support; they have no fences around their fields, and only a fence of three poles, tied to upright stakes, for their potatoes; the land up the