« PreviousContinue »
of the Mississippi, and that river spreads out on that side for a great distance, it is probable, the erection of mounds originated there; or from the custom of the Indians heretofore, of settling on rich flats bordering on the rivers, and subject to be overflowed. The name is o-cun-li-ge, mounds of earth, or literally, earth placed. But why erect these mounds in high places, incontestably out of the reach of floods ? From a superstitious veneration for ancient customs.
The Alabama overflows its flat swampy margins, annually; and, generally, in the month of March, but seldom in the summer season.
The people of Tuskogee have some cattle, and a fine stock of hogs, more perhaps than any town of the nation. One man, Sam Macnack, a half breed, has a fine stock of cattle. He had, in 1799, one hundred and eighty calves. They have lost their language, and speak Creek, and have adopted the custoins and manners of the Creeks. They have thirty-five gun men.
14. O-che-au-po-fau ; from Oche-ub, a hickory tree, and po-fau, in, or among, called by the traders, hickory ground. İt is on the left bank of the Coosau, two miles above the fork of the river, and one mile below the falls, on a flat of poor land, just below a small stream; the fields are on the right side of the river, on rich flat land; and this flat extends back for two miles, with oak and hickory, then pine forest; the range out in this forest is fine for cattle; reed is abundant in all the branches.
The falls can be easily passed in canoes, either up or down; the rock is very different from that of T:llapoosa ; here it is ragged and very coarse granite; the land bordering on the left side of the falls, is broken or waving, gravelly, not rich. At the termination of the falls there is a fine little stream, large enough for a small mill, called, from the clearness of the water, We-hemt-le, good ualer. Three and a half miles above the town are ten apple, trees, planted by the late General McGillivray; half a mile further up are the remains of Old Tal-e-see, formerly the residence of Lochlan McGillivray and his son, the general. Here are ten apple trees planted by the father, and a stone chimney, the remains of a house built by the
son, and these are all the improvements left by the father
These people, are some of them, industrious. They have forty gun men, nearly three hundred cattle, and some horses and hogs; the family of the general belong to this town; he left one son and two daughters; the son is in Scotland, with his grandfather, and the daughters with Sam Mac-nac, a half breed, their uncle; the property is much of it wasted. The chiefs have requested the agent for Indian affairs, to take charge of the property for the son, to prevent its being wasted by the sisters of the general, or by their children. Mrs. Durant, the oldest sister, has eight children. She is industrious but has no economy or management. In possession of fourteen working negroes, she seldom makes bread enough, and they live poorly. She can spin and weave, and is making some feebie efforts to obtain clothing for her family. The other sister, Sehoi, has about thirty negroes, is extravagant and heedless, neither spins nor weaves, and has no government of her family. She has one son, David Tale, who has been educated in Philadelphia and Scotland. He promises to do better.
15. We-wo-cau ; from we-wau, water and wo-cau, barking or roaring, as the sound of water at high falls. It lies on a creek of the same name, which joins Guc-cun-tallau-has-see, on its left bank, sixteen miles below that town. We-wo-cau is fifteen miles above 0-che-au-pofau and four miles from Coosau, on the left side; the land is broken, oak and hickory, with coarse gravel; the settlements are spread out, on several small streams, for the advantage of the rich flats bordering on them, and for their stock; they have cattle, horses and hogs. Here commences the moss, in the beds of the creeks, which the cattle are very fond of; horses and cattle fatten very soon on it, with a little salt; it is of quick growth, found only in the rocky beds of the creeks and rivers north from this.
The hills which surround the town are stoney, and unfit for culture; the streams all have reed, and there are some fine licks near the town, where it is conjectured salt might be made. The land on the right side of the creek, is
poor pine barren hills, to the falls. The number of gun men is estimated at forty.
16. Puc-cun-tal-lau-has-see ; from E-puc cun-nau, a mayapple, and tal-lau-has-see, old town. It is in the fork of a creek which gives name to the town; the creek joins on the left side of Coosau, forty miles below Coosau town.
17. Coo-sau ; on the left bank of Coo-sau, between two creeks, Eu-fau-lau and Nau-che. The town borders on the first, above ; and on the other below; they are a quarter of a mile apart at their junction with the river. The town is on a high and beautiful hill; the land on the river is rich and flat for two hundred yards, then waving and rich, fine for wheat and corn. It is a limestone country, with fine springs, and a very desirable one; there is reed on the branches, and pea-vine in the rich bottoms and hill sides, moss in the river and on the rock beds of the creek.
They get fish plentifully in the spring season, near the mouth of Eu-fau-lau-hat-che; they are rock, trout, buffaloe, red horse and perch. They have fine stocks of horses, hogs and cattle; the town gives name to the river, and is sixty miles above Tus-ke-gee.
18. Au-be-coo-che, is on Nau-che creek, five miles from the river, on the right bank of the creek, on a flat one mile wide. The growth is hard-shelled hickory. The town spreads itself out and is scattered on both sides of the creek, in the neighborhood of very high hills, which descend back into waving, rich land, fine for wheat or corn; the bottoms all rich; the neighborhood abounds in limestone, and large limestone springs; they have one above, and one below the town; the timber on the rich lands is oak, hickory, walnut, poplar and mulberry.
There is a very large cave north of the town, the entrance of which is small, on the side of a hill. It is much divided, and some of the rooms appear as the work of art; the doors regular ; in several parts of the cave saltpetre is to be seen in crystals. On We-wo-cau creek, there is a fine mill seat ; the water is contracted by two hills; the fall twenty feet; and the land in the neighborhood very rich ; cane is found on the creeks, and reed on the branches. From one or two experiments, tobacco grows well on these lands.
This town is one of the oldest in the nation; and sometimes, among the oldest chiefs, it gives name to the nation, Au-be-cuh. Here some of the oldest customs had their origin. The law against adultery was passed here, and that to regulate marriages. To constitute legal marriage, a man must build a house, make his
and gather it in, then make his hunt and bring home the meat ; putting all this in the possession of his wife, ends the ceremony and they are married, or as the Indians express it, the woman is bound, and not till then. This information is obtained from Co-tau-lau, (Tus-se-ki-ah Mic-co,) an old and respectable chief, descended from Nau-che. He lives near We-o-coof-ke, has accumulated a handsome property, owns a fine stock, is a man of much information, and of great influence among the Indians of the towns in the neighberhood of this.
They have no fences, and but a few hogs, horses and cattle; they are attentive to white people who live among them, and particularly so to white women.
19. Nau-chee ; on Nauchee creek, five miles ahove Aube-coo-che, below the fork of the creek, on a rich flat of land, of a mile in width, between two small mountains. This flat extends from the town three-quarters of a mile above the town house. The settlements are scattered on both sides of the creek for two miles ; they have no worm fences, and but little stock. One chief, a brother of Chin-a-be, has a large stock of hogs, and had ninety fit for market, in 1798.
This town is the remains of the Nat-chez who lived on the Mis-sis-sip-pi. They estimate their number of gun men at one hundred; but they are, probably, not more than fifty. The land, off from the mountains, is rich; the flats on the streams are large and very rich ; the high, waving country is very healthy and well watered ; cane grows on the creeks, reed on the branches, and pea-vine on the flats and hill sides. The Indians get the root they call tal-e-wau, in this neighborhood ; which the women mix with bears' oil, to redden their hair.
20. Eu-fau-lau-hat-che, is fifteen miles up that creek, on a ftat of half a mile, bordering on a branch. On the left side of the creek, the land is rich and waving; on the righi sides are steep hills sloping off, waving, rich
land; hickory, oak, poplar and walnut. It is well watered, and the whole a desirable limestone country; they have fine stocks of cattle, horses and hogs.
21. Woc-co-coie ; from woc-co, a blow-horn, and coie, a nest, these birds formerly had their young here. It is on Tote-pauf-cau creek, a branch of Po-chuse-hat-che, which joins the Coo-sau, below Puc-cun-tal-lau-has-see. The land is very broken, sharp-hilly and stoney; the bottoms and the fields are on the small bends and narrow strips of the creek; the country, off from the town, is broken.
These people have some horses, hogs and cattle; the range good; moss, plenty in the creeks, and reed in the branches. Such is the attachment of horses to this moss, or as the traders call it, salt grass, that when they are removed, they retain so great a fondness for it, that they will attempt, from any distance within the neighboring nations, to return to it.
22. Hill-au-bee ; on Col-luffa-de, which joins Hill-aubee creek, on the right side, one mile below the town. Hill-au-bee joins the Tallapoosa on its right bank, eight miles below New-yau-cau. One chief only, Ne-hau-thlucco Hau-jo, resides in the town; the people are settled out in the four following villages.
1st. Thlā-noo-che au-bau-lau ; from thlen-ne, a mountain, oo-che, little, and au-bau-lau, over. The name is expressive of its position. It is situated over a little mountain, fifteen miles above the town, on the northwest branch of Hill-au-bee creek ; the town house of this village is on the left side of the creek.
2d. Au-net-te chap-co ; from au-net-te, a swamp, and chapco, long. It is situated on Choo-fun-tau-lau-hat-che, which joins Hill-au-bee creek, three miles north from the town; the village is ten miles above the town.
3rd. E-chuse-is-li-gau ; (where a young thing was found.) A young child was found here, and that circumstance gives it the name. This village is four miles below the town, on the left side of Hill-au-bee crcek.
4th. Ook-tau-hau-cau-see ; from ook-tau-hau, sand, and zau-see, a great deal. It is two miles froin the town, on a creek of that name, a branch of Hill-au-bee, which it joins a quarter of a mile below Col-luffa-dee, at a great shoal.