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the land is light, and fine for corn, cotton or melons. The creek has a little cane on its margins, and reed on the small branches; but the range is much exhausted by the stock of the town.
On the left bank of the river, at the falls, the land is broken pine forest. Half a mile below there is a small creek which has its source seven miles from the river, its margins covered with reed or canc. Below the creek the land becomes flat, and continues so to Talesee on the Eufau-bee, and half a mile still lower, to the hills between this creek and Ca-le-be-hat-che. The hills extend nearly two miles, are intersected by one small creek and two branches, and terminate on the river in two high bluffs ; from whence is an extensive view of the town, the river, the flat lands on the opposite shore and the range of hills to the northwest ; near one of the bluffs there is a fine spring, and near it a beautiful elevated situation for a set tlement. The hills are bounded to the west by a small branch. Below this, the flat land spreads out for one mile. It is a quarter of a mile from the branch on this flat to the residence of Mr. Cornells, (Oche Haujo,) thence half a mile to the public establishment, thence two miles to the mouth of Ca-le-be-hat-che. This creek has its source thirty miles to the east in waving, post oak, hickory and pine land; in some places the swamp is wide, the beach and white oak very large, with poplar, cypress, red bay, sassafras, Florida magnolia, and white pine. Broken piny woods and reedy branches on its right side; oak flats, red and post oak, willow leaved hickory, long and short leaf pine and reedy branches on its left side. The creek at its mouth is twenty-five feet wide. The ftat between it and the river is fine for corn, cotton and melons, oak, hickory, and short leaf pine. From this flat to its source, it is margined with cane, recd, and palmetto. Ten miles up the creek, between it and Kebihatche, the next creek below and parallel with this, are some licks in post and red oak saplin flats; the range on these creeks is apparently fine for cattle ; yet from the · want of salt or moss, the large ones appear poor in the fall, while other cattle, where moss is to be had, or they are regularly salted, are fat.
They have 116 gun men belonging to this town; they
were formerly more numerous, but have been unfortunate in their wars. In the last they had with the Chickasaws, they lost thirty-five gun men; they have begun to settle out in villages for the conveniency of stock raising, and having firewood; the stock which frequent the mossy shoals above the town, look well and appear healthy; the Indians begin to be attentive to them, and are increasing them by all the means in their power. Several of them have from 6fty to one hundred, and the town furnished seventy good beef cattle in 1799. One chief, Toolk-aubat-che Taujo, has five hundred, and although apparently very indigent, he never sells any; while he seems to deny himself the comforts of life, he gives continued proofs of unbounded hospitality; he seldom kills less than two large beeves a fortnight, for his friends and acquaintances.
The town is on the decline. Its appearance proves the inattention of the inhabitants. It is badly fenced ; they have but a few plum trees, and several clumps of cassine yupon; the land is much exhausted with continued culture, and the wood for fuel is at a great and inconvenient distance, unless boats or land carriages were in use ; it could then be easily supplied ; the river is navigable for boats drawing two and a half feet in the dry season, froin just above the town, to Alabama. From the point just above the town to the falls, the river spreads over a bed of flat rock in several places, where the depth of water is something less than two feet.
This is the residence of Efau Haujo, one of the great medal chiefs, the speaker for the nation at the national council. He is one of the best informed men of the land, and faithful to his national engagements. He has five black slaves, and a stock of cattle and horses ; but they are of little use to him; the ancient habits instilled in him by French and British agents, that the red chiefs are to live on presents from their white friends, is so riveted, that he claims it as a tribute due to him, and one that never must be dispensed with.
At the public establishment there is a smith's shop, a dwelling house and kitchen built of logs, and a field well fenced. And it is in the contemplation of the agent, to have a public garden and nursery.
The assistant and interpreter, Mr. Cornells, (Oche
Haujo,) one of the chiefs of the Creek nation, has a farm well fenced and cultivated with the plough. He is a half breed, of a strong mind, and fulfils the duties enjoined on him by his appointment, with zeal and fidelity. He has nine negroes under good government. Some of his family have good farms, and one of them, Zachariah McGive is a careful, snug farmer, has good fences, a fine young orchard, and a stock of hogs, horses and cattle. His wife has the neatness and economy of a white woman. This family and Sullivan's, in the neighborhood, are spinning.
3. Aut-tos-se, on the left side of Tallapoosa, below and adjoining Ca-le-be-hat-che. A poor, miserable looking place, fenced with small poles; the first on forks in a line and two others on stakes hardly sufficient to keep out cattle. They have some plum and peach trees; a swamp back of the town and some good land back of that, a flat of oak, hickory and pine. On the right bank of the river, just below the town, they have a fine rich cove of land which was formerly a cane brake, and has been cultivated.
There is, below the town, one good farm made by the late Richard Bailey, and an orchard of peach trees Mrs. Bailey, the widow, is neat, clean and industrious, and very attentive to the interests of her family ; qualities rarely to be met with in an Indian woman.
Her example has no effect on the Indians, even her own fainily, with the exception of her own children. She has fifty bee-hives and a great supply of honey every year; has a fine stock of hogs, cattle and horses, and they all do well. Her son, Richard Bailey, was educated in Philadelphia by the Government, and he has brought with him into the nation so much contempt for the Indian mode of life, that he has got himself into discredit with them. His young brother is under the direction of the Quakers in Philadelphia. His three sisters promise to do well, they are industrious and can spin. Some of the Indians have cattle ; but in general, they are destitute of property.
* January 1st, 1801. Mr. Cornells has a flock of sheep presented to him by the agent, of which he is very careful. His farm is in fine order, the sences well made and straight, his garden 150 feet square, well paled, laid off and planted with the variety usual in good gardens. He has a nursery of peach trees, and two bushels of peach stones to plant, by order of the ageni, for a public nursery. He is very attentive to all improvements suggested to him, and has now pepared a field of two acres for cotion. He has a field of rye which looks well, and is about to sow a field of oats. He retains his Indian dress, but has the manners of a well bred man.
In the year 1766 there were forty-three gun men, and lately they were estimated at eighty. This is a much greater increase of population than is to be met with in other towns! they appear to be stationary generally, and in some towns are on the decrease; the apparent difference here, or increase, may be greater than the real; as formerly men grown were rated as gun men, and now boys of fifteen, who are hunters, are rated as gun men; they have for two years past been on the decline ; are very sickly, and have lost many of their inhabitants ; they are now rated at fifty gun men only. *
4. Ho-ith-le Waule, from Ho-ith-le, war, and wau-le, to share out or divide. This town had, formerly, the right to declare war; the declaration was sent first to Took-aubat-che, and thence throughout the nation, and they appointed the rendezvous of the warriors. It is on the right bank of the Tallapoosa, five miles below Aut-tos-see. In descending the river on the left side from Aut-tos-see, is two miles across Ke-bi-hat-che; thence one mile and a half O-fuck-she, and enter the fields of the town; the fields extend down the river for one and a half miles; the town is on the right bank, on a narrow strip of good land; and back of it, under high red cliffs, are cypress ponds. It borders west on Autoshatche twenty-five feet wide.
These peeple have some cattle, and a few hogs and horses; they have some settlements up O-fuck-she; the increase of property among them, and the inconvenience attendant on their situation, their settlement being on the right side of the river, and their fields and stock on the left, brought the well-disposed to listen with attention to the plan of civilization, and to comment freely on their bad management. The town divided against itself; the idlers and the ill-disposed remained in the town, and the others moved over the river and fenced their fields. On this side the land is good and level, and the range out from the river good to the sources of O-fuc-she. On the other side, the high broken land comes close to the river. It is broken pine barren, back of that. The situation of the
* January 1st, 1801. Richard Bailey being dead, much of the Indian appears. The fifty bee-hives are reduced to one, and his son Richard is neither an Indian nor white man; yet he proniises to mend, as the agent for Indian affairs is soon to reside in his neighborhood. The date to the calculation of numbers, is here noted from a British return, but it is probably erroneous.
town is low and unhealthy; and this remark applies to all the towns on Tallapoosa, below the falls.
O-fuc-she has its source near Ko-e-ne-cuh, thirty miles from the river, and runs north. It has eight or nine forks, and the land is good on all of them. The growth is oak, hickory, poplar, cherry, persimon, with cane brakes on the flats and hills. It is a delightful range for stock, and was preserved by the Indians for bears, and called the beloved bear-ground. Every town had a reserve of this sort exclusively; but as the cattle increase and the bears decrease, they are hunted in common. This creek is sixty feet wide, has steep banks, and is difficult to cross, when the waters are high.
Kebihatche has its source to the east, and is parallel with Ca-le-be-hat-che; the margins of the creek have rich flats bordering pine forest or post oak hills.
5. Foosce-hat-che; from foo-so-wau, a bird, and hat-che, tail. It is two miles below Ko-ith-le-wau-le, on the right bank of Tal-la-poo-sa, on a narrow strip of flat land; the broken lands are just back of the town; the cornfields are on the opposite side of the river, and are divided from those of Ho-ith-le-wau-le by a small creek, Noo-coosechepo. On the right bank of this little creek, half a mile from the river, is the remains of a ditch, which surrounded a fortification, and back of this for a mile, is the appearance of old settlements, and back of these, pine slashes.
The cornfields are narrow, and extend down, bordering on the river.
6. Coo-loo-me, is below and near to Foosce-hat-che, on the right side of the river; the town is small and compact, on a flat much too low, and subject to be overflowed in the seasons of floods, which is once in fifteen or sixteen years, always in the winter season, and mostly in March; they have, within two years, begun to settle back, next to the broken lands; the cornfields are on the opposite side, joining those of Foosce-hat-che, and extend together near four miles down the river, from one hundred to two hundred yards wide. Back of these hills there is a rich swamp of from four to six hundred yards wide, , which, when reclaimed, must be valuable for corn or rice,