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had one visiter sorely afflictive, a severe attack in my left leg and foot of the gout or rheumatism, for eight or ten nights, sometimes not able to turn in my blankets, yet constantly crowded with visiters, and obliged to attend to the head men and warriors of twelve towns, invited to convene at Cowetuh, a neighboring town.
I have one faithful assistant in Mr. Barnard, one of the interpreters. The white and red men are much indebted to his constant, persevering and honest exertions to do justice to all applicants. It sometimes falls to the lot of one man, though apparently in the humble walks of life, to render more effectual service to his fellow creatures, than thousands of his neighbors. This has been the case with Mr. Barnard. He was a trader in this nation before the war, and remained in it during the whole progress of it, constantly opposing the cruel policy which pressed these people to war with the Americans, and urged their being neutral. He repeatedly risked his life and fortune in the cause of humanity, and he remains to witness that the purity of his actions has given him a standing among the red people, which could not be purchased with money.
I have, since I left you, seen much of the western country, witnessed the downfall of a character whom I highly valued, when I first had the pleasure of knowing you, and seen a check given, I hope an effectual one, to a base system for the destruction of the Four Nations by the E-cun-nau-nux-ulgee, (people greedily grasping after all their lands,) and I have the happiness to know, that I have contributed much to the establishment of the well grounded confidence which the Four Nations have in the justice of the United States; and this confidence is so well grounded, that the malice or wickedness of the enemies of our Government cannot destroy it.
I may here introduce some of the appellations and epithets applied by the Creek Indians to white men, one of which is used in the foregoing letter.
E-cun-nau-nux-ulgee : People greedily grasping after the lands of the red men, against the voice of the United States.
Tucke-mico: The Dirt King, applied to Governor Blount of Tennessee. The Cherokee naine of this gentleman is
Dirt Captain ; and in both nations it arose from their opinion of his insatiate avidity to acquire Indian lands.
Chesse-cup-pe-tun-ne : The Pumpkin Captain ; a name given to Captain Chisholm.
E-cun-nau-au-po-po-hau : Always asking for land. This name was given to Governor Clark of Georgia.
Iste-chale-lige-osetate-chemis-te-chaugo : The beloved man of the Four Nations ; a name given to Colonel Hawkins.
Iste-chate : Red man.
Extract of a letter to James Burgess, Crcek Interpreter.
CUSSETUH, NOVEMBER 27, 1797. I have received your letter of the 14th of this month, in answer to mine of the 30th October. It is the first I have had from you. This letter you send me, I have read with attention; and if you had not informed me you were sick, I should have supposed you were deranged in mind. Perhaps it is a delirium arising from sickness; in that case it is a misfortune, not a fault. If I did not believe something of this sort really to affect you, I would let you know, that if you do not know your duty, I know mine.
Whoever heard of your being talked of about what was done at Coleraine ? Nobody but your own imagination! You were only an interpreter, and I know the Indians never fault them, for doing their duty faithfully. I can tell you another thing. You overrate your standing, when you say the Indians blame you. , 'The fact is they have not blamed you, and for a very obvious reason. The Indians do not suffer the white men in their land even to mention, much less to influence them in their treaties.
Another thing. You talk of Chulapockey, and the complaint of the Indians about it, and the trifle of goods ; that these things must be settled before I leave the land. What do you mean by this stuff? Do you not know the Chulapockey line was settled by Mr. Gillivray and the Indians who went to New York ? Don't you know that this nation appointed agents to go and run the line, and that
Bowles's* coming, prevented it ? Did you not hear the chiefs tell me this publicly at Coleraine; and did you not know they told the truth?
What do you mean when you say if the Indians suffer you must suffer ? Have you not, as it was your duty to do, told them boldly and plainly, what all the interpreters at Coleraine were ordered to do, that the Indians have now nothing to fear. The United States have guarantied their country to them. Did you not hear the plan of government explained at Coleraine, to better the condition of the Indians ? And don't you know I am here to carry that plan into execution ? Don't you know the Indians took part with Great Britain against the United States, and did us much injury; and that the retaliation on our part is to forgive them, because they were a poor, deluded people; to enlighten their understandings and to better their condition, by assisting them with tools and implements of husbandry, and teaching them the use of them, by furnishing them with blacksmiths, and spinning wheels, cards, looms and weavers. Where have you been that you have forgotten these things? Don't you
know that we have placed an army, at great expense, to protect the Indians in the enjoyment of their rights, and that we established two stores, to supply the Indians at cost and charges ?
You want me to clear you. Of what? Can you clear yourself, if you have not explained these things faithfully to the Indians ? You cannot. You ask me to send you a certificate of what is done here, signed by two or three chiefs. What do you mean by this ? Must Iste-chatelige-osetat-chamis-te-chaugo have a certificate from three Indians ? You are surely dreaming,
One piece of information I can give you. The Indians have appointed seven commissioners to see the line run, agreeably to the treaty of New York, and it will be run just after the new year.
You must visit me about the 25th of next month, at the store on Oconee, there to explain your conduct, and receive you salary
* This man Bowles, was at one time a portrait painter in Savannah.
THE CREEK CONFEDERACY.
All tradition among the Creeks points to the country west of the Mississippi, as the original habitat of those tribes. This universal tradition is confirmed by Du Pratz, Bernard Romans, Adair, Bartram and Hawkins. Our author asserts their migration, on the authority of Tusseloiah Micco, from the forks of Red river, Wechate-hatche Aufuskee. We may entirely defer to the result of Mr. Gallatin's investigation of this subject, as the most correct. His comprehensive research and powerful analysis, have presented to the scientific world, all that can be known, perhaps, of that which is involved in the cimmerian darkness of ante-historical periods. In the second volume of the “ Archæologia Americana,” he says: “In the year 1732, when Gcorgia was first settled, the territory of the Creek Confederacy, including at that time the Seminoles, was bounded on the west by Mobile river, and by the ridge that separates the waters of the Tombigbee, from those of the Alabama; on the north by the Cherokees, on the northeast by the Savannah, and on every other quarter by the Atlantic and the gulf of Mexico. It is believed, that at the end of the seventeenth century, the Creeks occupied south of the 34th degree of north latitude, the eastern as well as western banks of the Savannah.
“ It is not possible to ascertain, when the Confederacy was consolidated to that extent. It now consists of several tribes, speaking different languages. The Muskhogees are the prevailing nation, amounting to more than seven-eights of the whole. The Hitchittees who reside on the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers, though a distinct