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έβούλετο, ο δε τας αισχράς ηδονάς.” It is sufficient to say of the passage, that it is one of many in Aristophanes founded upon the unnatural vices which (unknown to Homer) marked the social morals of the historical ancients, and the increase of which, in progress of time, accelerated the downfall of both Greece and Rome. The subject is partially illustrated in Becker's Charicles. It is also discussed in its bearings upon the population of the ancient states by Zumpt, in an able essay entitled, “ Über den Stand der Bevölkerung und die Volkovermehrung im Alterthum,” pp. 13-17. See also, in the Classical Studies, pp. 314-354, Frederick Jacobs on the “ Moral Education of the Greeks,” and note, pp. 411 -413.
143. TÔV Kak@v. Genitive of exclamation.
145. Παρά .... θάλατταν. There is probably here some allusion to the profligate manners of the Orientals, like those of Sodom and Gomorrah. Bothe cites, in illustration of this view, Herod. III. 101, and adds, — “Id quidem certe significare voluit (i. e. Aristophanes), amores istos nefandos barbaris digniores esse quam Græcis.”
146, 147. 'Huîv .. Σαλαμινία. The Athenians had two sacred triremes, called the Paralos and the Salaminia, which were used on a variety of public occasions, and their crews were paid high wages at the public expense. (See Boeckh's Public Economy of Athens, p. 240.) They were sent on the theoria, and sometimes carried ambassadors to their place of destination. The Salaminia was employed, as it would appear from this passage
and from the remarks of a Scholiast on it, to bring to Athens persons ordered thither for trial. The Paralos was sometimes used for the same purpose. There is also here a special allusion to the recall of Alcibiades on a charge of having mutilated the statues of Hermes, he having already departed with the armament for the Sicilian Expedition. See Thirlwall's History of Greece, Vol. III. pp. 390, seq. - Kintñp. This officer acted usually as the witness to the fact, that the prosecutor in a case had personally served the summons upon the other party to make his appearance on a certain day in court. Special summonses were issued in cases where the accused party was beyond the sea; and these, as here, were served by the κλήτορες or κλητήρες, probably in their official character as servants of the courts. For the ordinary duties of these officers, see Clouds, 495, 496, note; also Hermann's Political Antiquities, § 140. Platner (Attische Process, I. p. 116) says that both the sacred triremes were employed for the purpose of summoning absent persons against whom a criminal process was to be brought. 66 That Alcibiades was thus summoned to Athens to answer the accusation is sufficient. ly evident from Plutarch, Isocrates, and Thucydides.” See the passage, with the authorities there cited. The ques
149. 'Hleiov Aétpeor. This city is mentioned in Pausanias, Eliaca, I. c. 5. Four years before this comedy was brought upon the stage, the town was occupied by the Lacedæmonians, who established some of their manumitted He. lots there. The old Athenians, fleeing from the oppression of the Attic democracy, are advised to take refuge in a city inhabited by liberated slaves. The name gives an opportunity for a pun in the following lines. 151.
τον Λέπρεον .... Μελανθίου. Melanthios, the tragic poet, is said by the Scholiast to have been ridiculed by the comic writers for his vices and for being afflicted with leprosy (nett pós). He is also said to have been a native of the Elean city.
152, 153. 'Οπούντιοι, 'Οπούντιος. The name of the Locrian Opuntians appears to have been selected merely for the opportunity of a punning sarcasm upon a man bearing the name of Opountios, said by the Scholiast to have been a stupid fellow with only one eye.
154. éì talávtą, at the rate of a talent. See Mtt. § 585. b. B.
157, 158. βαλαντίου. κιβδηλίαν. The idea of living without a purse, that is, without money, immediately sug. gests the other idea of falsification or adulteration of the coin; and so the word kipondía is naturally used in a metaphorical sense for fraud or dishonesty.
159 – 161. Νεμόμεσθα .... βίον. For an account of the festivities and rejoicings in celebration of marriage, see St. John's work above cited, Vol. II. pp. 18, seq. Bothe quotes, in illustration, from Ovid, Fasti IV. 869, “ Cumque sua domina date grata Sisymbria myrto."
164. ridowodé. Observe the particular force of the aorist, If you listen to my advice; not generally, but in the particular case now to be considered. The same specific limitation is to be noted in the repetitions of the word in the following line.
167. Aŭrika, for example. “Olov eüdéws,” says the Scholiast.
168. 'Ekel mapņuiv, there (i. e. at Athens, whence we have just fled) among us, men, or Athenians. τους πετομέvous, accusative for genitive with Tepi ; illustrated by the Scholiast, who cites a similar construction from Homer. The phrase is used in application to flighty persons.
169. Teléas. According to the Scholiast, he was a person much ridiculed for his inconstant character and his infamous vices.
170. "Ανθρωπος όρνις, according to Bothe = ορνίθειος άνApatos, a man-bird.
175. "Andes, Ha! sayest thou so? See Clouds, 841.
176. Kai sń. For the various senses in which these two particles are used in connection, see Hartung, Vol. I. pp. 253, 254. The spirit of the expression may be rendered here by Well then.
178. ei diaorpapńoopal, if I shall get a twist ; either a twisted neck or a squinting eye.
180. málos. This word is used in various senses as a scientific term. Here, it has its popular meaning of sky, heavens, vault of the heavens. It is introduced partly for the punning alliteration between πόλος, πόλις, and πολεϊσθαι, in this and the following lines.
186. Tapvórwv, locusts. This refers to them in the character of birds, which would naturally give them dominion over the insects.
187. λιμώ Μηλίω. For the particulars of the transaction here alluded to, see Thucydides, Lib. V. It took place B. C. 416. See Isocrates, Panegyricus, p. 32, and note, pp. 96, 97, Felton's edition.
190. BOL τους .... αιτούμεθα. The principal route from Attica to the northern parts of Greece lay through Bæotia. Without the permission of the Bæotians, the Athenians could not easily consult the oracle of the Pythian Apollo.
193. Toû xáovs. The word chaos is used here, as in the Clouds several times, in the sense of the air or the sky ; properly, the surrounding void ; but not in the modern sense of the term chaos. See Clouds, 424, 627.
196, 197. Mà . . . . w. Epops, in his ludicrous delight at the proposal and its immense benefits to the race of the birds, breaks into exclamations and oaths which have a comical relation to his position as a bird. Observe the use of the negative já, followed by a sentence which also implies a negative ; for which see Kühner, $ 317. 4. - vedéras. According to a Scholiast, a very light species of net was so called. — Mń. There is something very unusual in the hy. pothetical negative in this place. The commentators have not generally noticed it, with the exception of Bothe, who says, “Ellipsis verbi étendáynv vel cujusdam similis, vereor ut unquam callidius commentum andiverim.” But the mean. ing, with this construction, would be the opposite to that given by Bothe and required by the sense, - I am afraid lest
I have heard; whereas Epops clearly wishes to say, with more or less directness, that he never heard a better scheme. This would require the addition of oủ to the construction. Matthiæ (Gr. Gr., Vol. II. p. 886), to whom Bothe refers for the explanation of the use of the preterite indicative, only explains that usage in connection with dédulka or some such word, which is the same construction as that suggested by Bothe, but which gives the wrong sense. Sophocles (Gr. Gr. $ 229, N. 3) remarks, — “Not unfrequently uń is used where où might be expected ; on the other hand, où is sometimes used where uń would be more logical.” The first part of the remark applies to the present case. tion that remains to be decided is, why one negative is substituted for another and the usual one. The radical difference between the two negatives is, that où expresses a direct negation, — the certain non-existence of a thing or act; un, on the contrary, is hypothetical and subjective, expressing the opinion of the speaker that a thing or act is not, or intimating what others also may suppose not to be the case. With a participle, for instance, où declares an absolute negation; as, Æsch. Ag., 39, où uadowoi, to those who have not learned, as a matter of fact; whereas, v. 248, un dolócavtos Deow, on the supposition that God did not deceive.
Now, bearing in mind this distinction, and considering the state of mind into which the poet intends to throw Epops, we shall see perhaps a reason for the use of uń where où would at first sight have appeared more logical. Epops is suddenly struck with the mighty plan, and having been, as a quondam king, a schemer and warrior, runs rapidly over the projects of his life, and, comparing them with the present, doubts if any one of them was equal to it. This doubt, amounting to almost a negative certainty, may aptly be expressed by the hypothetical negative un. The ellipsis is not, then, esetláyny or dédouka, or any similar verb; for that, as