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that after the Persian wars cock-fighting was introduced into Athens, and that the birds were brought, as an article of commerce, from Ionia.
The conquered bird was called the dowlos. Voss, cited by Bothe. Becker (Charicles, p. 64, note 6, English translation) touches upon the subject, and gives the authorities. See also St. John's Manners and Customs of the Ancient Greeks, Vol. I. p. 190, and the references in the note, ib. The construction of the genitive is the same as after the comparative norwv, which is implied by the verb. The Scholiast says, « Φυσικόν τούτο εν ταις σομβολαίς των άλεκτρυόνων, τους ηττηθέντας έπεσθαι τοις νενικηκόσι.”
74. áp. The particle implies the ellipsis of some expression intimating surprise on the part of the speaker. Here the spirit of it may be rendered by What! does a bird, &c.
75. ye is here an emphasizing particle, implying that, whatever may be the case with others, Epops certainly, as having once been a man, cannot do without a servant.
76. ápúas. This name embraces several small species of fish, such as anchovies and sardines. For an account of them, see Aristotle, Hist. An., VI. 14. 2, 3. According to Archestratos, in Athenæus, those produced in the neighbourhood of Athens were most highly prized. Chrysippos, cited by the same author, says that they were used as articles of food only by the poorer classes of the Athenians, though in other cities those of an inferior quality were greatly admired. Athen. VII.
79. Tpoxios. There is here a play upon the name, in reference to tpéxw in the preceding lines, – the running bird.
80. οίσθ' ουν ο δράσον. See note to line 54.
84. "Οτι .... επεγερώ. After uttering these words, the Trochilos disappears in the woods to wake up Epops, and the dialogue continues between the two friends.
85. Kak@s ....déet. Addressed to the Trochilos as he
goes away. The fear, in this and in the reply of Euelpides, is caused by the tremendous opening of the beak of Trochilos.
86. μ' οΐχεται, i. e. μοι οίχεται, unless, indeed, ούχομαι may, like peúyw, be constructed with an accusative of the person. The latter is the view adopted by Kühner (Jelf's Tr.), § 548, Obs. 1.
90. yap. For this particle in questions, see K. 324. 2. Here it is equivalent to then; as, Where then is he?
91. åp' is to be understood as spoken in an ironical tone. - .... el, what a brave fellow you are !
92. "Ανοιγε .... ποτέ. The Voice of Epops is heard, giving orders, in a tone of ludicrous importance, to open, not the door, but the woods, that he, the king of the birds, may come out.
95, 96. oi .... 0€. The usual formula of introducing the twelve gods (by which are meant the twelve principal gods in the Attic worship) is in the invocation of blessings; but here, as the commentators remark, the tone is suddenly changed, and the ludicrous appearance of Epops, with his enormous crest and his feathers moulted, extorts from Euel. pides the exclamation, that the twelve gods must have been afoul of him. Eiçaoi = éolkaol. See Clouds, 341.
97. záp. The particle here introduces an explanation of some idea to be mentally supplied, such as, “Don't laugh, O strangers, for I was once a man.
99. Tò páupos. The jest consists in saying, “ We are not laughing at you ; your beak seems to us ridiculous.”
100, 101. Τοιαύτα .... Τηρέα. The subject of the metamorphosis of Tereus and Procne appears to have been treat. ed by the tragic poets more than once.
A Scholiast says that Sophocles employed it first, and Philocles, who is al-luded to in the present play (v. 280), handled it afterwards. There are remaining ten or a dozen fragments of the play
of Sophocles, the largest of which contains twelve lines. See Dindorf's Poetæ Scenici, Fragmenta 511-526. The poet, who was an ardent admirer of Æschylus and Sophocles, yet takes occasion to make a good-humored hit at both of them.
102. õpvis ñ raôs; The first means either bird in general, or specifically cock or hen. Something like the spirit of the question may be given by rendering it, Are you a cock or a peacock ? but the reply of Epops takes the word in its general sense.
105. Trávra. “Mentitur,” says Bothe,“ sed coram hominibus urbanis, quibus quidvis ejusmodi videtur persuaderi posse.” With regard to the plumage of Epops, the Scholiast says, “Παρ' όσον άνθρωπος εξελήλυθε, μη έχων πτερά πλην της κεφαλής έπτερωμένης όρνιθος,” referring to the manner in which the actor personated Epops.
108. “οθεν .... καλαί. The allusion is to the boast and pride of the Athenians, — their naval power. It has a special point here, because the splendid armament equipped for the Sicilian Expedition had so recently sailed from the Peiræus.
109, 110. ηλιαστά, 'Απηλιαστά. The Heliastic court was the most important among the judicial institutions of Ath
For a particular account of it, see Hermann's Political Antiquities, p. 265; Clouds, 863, note; Champlin's Demosthenes de Corona, Notes, pp. 109, 110; Schömann's Assemblies of the Athenians, § 92 ; also, Antiquitates Juris Publici Græcorum, pp. 262, seq. Epops, as soon as he has heard that his visitors are Athenians, immediately thinks of the most prominent characteristic of an Athenian citizen ; namely, his quality of member of a court. The word απηλιαστής expresses the opposite of ηλιαστής, and seems to have been made for the occasion, one who is averse to the courts. The point of the reply cannot be given briefly in English. Something like it would be this:-“Are you jurymen?"
“No; but, on the other tack, ex-jurymen." - Μάλλά = μα .... αλλά. . The elliptical use of já occurs generally with the article. Another reading here is Mά Δία • θατέρου τρόπου, &c.
110. yáp, in the question here, though strictly used in an elliptical way, is equivalent to the expression of surprise, what !
111. Tò otépu'. The language ascribed to Epops refers to his character of bird, though the word also means race,
as seed is often used in the Bible for race or descendants.
115-118. ωφείλησας, έχαιρες, επεπέτου. Observe the change from the aorist, expressing the completed fact, to the imperfect, indicating the habit or general fact.
120. Taut'. A common construction = dià taūta. See Clouds, 319.
122. éykatakhuvñvai ualdakýv, soft to repose in. The idi. om of the Greek here corresponds exactly with the English.
123. Kpavaớv. The epithet here applied to Athens has been variously explained : -1. As derived from the ancient mythical king, Kranaos. 2. As referring to the rocky surface of Attica. The latter is clearly its meaning in many places; here it is a jesting antithesis to pardakýv.
125, 126. 'Αριστοκρατείσθαι .... βδελύττομαι. There are two points intended to be made here. First, the imputation of aristocracy, which at Athens, as well as in republican France, was an efficient means of terror; and, second, a pun on the name of Aristocrates, the son of Skellias. This person was a man of much distinction at Athens, who passed through many vicissitudes in his life, for which his name is used as an illustration by Socrates in the Gorgias of Plato (p. 39, Woolsey's ed. See Woolsey's note to the passage). He was a member of the oligarchical party, and belonged to the government of the Four Hundred. In B. C. 407 he was associated with Alcibiades as one of the commanders of 1
the Athenian land forces. The next year, he was one of the generals who were brought to trial and put to death after the battle of Arginousai. He is mentioned by Demosthenes, Contra Theocrin., 1343, by Xenophon, Hellenica, I. 4. 5-7, and by many others.
127. Ποίαν τιν'. The interrogative and indefinite thus combined mean, What sort of a city, &c.
129. Apø, early.
131. "Οπως παρέσει. For the elliptical use of όπως with the future indic. in the sense of the imperative, see Kühner, $ 330, R. 4.
Bothe remarks, “ Hac formula vel simili apud Græcos utebantur illi, qui aliquem invitabant ad convivium quo sensu Latini quoque dicere solebant hodie apud me sis volo, vel una simus."
132. Mérlw.... gájovs, to give a marriage-feast, the construction being the cognate accusative. For an account of marriage-feasts, see St. John, Ancient Greeks, Vol. II. pp. 19, 174. For the marriage ceremonies in general, see Becker's Charicles, Scene XII., and Excursus to the same. Isæus, De Civ. Hered., has the expression, “Kal yápovs ei διττούς υπέρ ταύτης είστίασεν ή μή,” in speaking of the proofs of a marriage.
134. Μή .... κακώς. The Scholiast says this line is a witty perversion of the proverb against those who do not visit their friends in time of trouble; the proverb being Μή μοι τότ' έλθης, όταν εγώ πράττω καλώς, “Do not come to me then, when I am doing well.”
135. Talanópwv, miserable, ironically applied.
136. Sal. For the force of this particle, see Kühner, § 315. 7. — Tovútwv, such ; not referring, according to the general usage, to the preceding, but to the following, enumeration of objects to be desired. See K. $ 303, R. 1.
137 - 142. The Scholiast, in speaking of the wishes of the two old Athenians, says, "'Ouè tàs tñs yaotpos tpupàs