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449. See also Kühner, $ 324. 3. In this place it implies a sort of consequence of the preceding statement; as if he intended to say that the vicious tricks of the birds were nothing more than might have been expected from the character of the man who sold them. Translate the whole line, And they accordingly were nothing but biting.

20. Kéxyvas, addressed to the jackdaw. - κατά των πετρών, , down the rocks.

22. åtparós, a track, or path ; ódós is a road, way, or street.

28. 'Ες κόρακας ελθείν. There is a pun upon the double meaning of the phrase, which is commonly used as a jocose imprecation, Go to the crows, but here alludes also to the intention of the two old men to visit the city of the birds.

29. "ETTELTU. For the use of this particle in questions of astonishment, see Kühner, S 314. 5 (e).

30. άνδρες .... λόγω. The expression is said to be borrowed from debates in the political assemblies; but it was as well applied to listeners to any discussion whatever, and is here familiarly transferred to the spectators of the comic representation.

31. Νόσον νοσούμεν. The common Greek construction of intransitive verbs taking an accusative of nouns with similar signification. — Eakậ. A common name for slaves and servants of barbarian origin, particularly Thracians ; here applied to a tragic poet named Akestor, on account of his being a foreigner. In the Cyropædia it is the name of the cupbearer of King Astyages.

32. cloßıácerai, is forcing himself in ; i. e. is constantly trying to thrust himself into the number of legal citizens. For an account of the care with which the rights and privileges of citizenship were guarded at Athens, see, besides other works, Smyth's Dict. Gr. and Rom. Antiq., art. Civitas.

33. pulê kai yével. For the political meaning of these terms, see Hermann's Political Antiquities.

34. goBoûvtos. This participle applies particularly to the scaring away of birds, though used metaphorically to express the act of frightening off, in general. 'Aventóuerba, in the following line, is also used in a similar way; and dupoiv Todoîv is a comic inconsistency with the previous expression. He could say, using language metaphorically, we flew away from the country, but instead of adding with both wings, he was obliged to substitute with both feet, they having not yet been accommodated with the wings.

36. ékeivnv, emphatically, “ that great city.”

37. un oủ. For the use of this double negative, “ when où or another word which may be considered a negative" occurs in a preceding clause, see K. § 318. 10 ; also Matthiæ, $ 513, who supplies, to complete the sense, some such word as vouićwv, not hating that city, as considering it not to be great and happy. 38. Kai .... évatorioal, And common to all

- to pay away their money in; i. e. to waste money in lawsuits, which is the more specific meaning of motively. The poet ingeniously and wittily combines in the ridicule of this line one of the great boasts of the Athenians, namely, the liberality with which the city's resources for instruction and amusement were opened to all comers (for a particular detail of which see the oration of Pericles in Thucydides, Lib. II., and the Panegyricus of Isocrates, pp. 15, 16, and notes, pp. 78, 79, Felton's edition), and the notorious love of litigation for which the Athenians were so often reproached, and which Aristophanes exposed with infinite spirit and drollery in the Wasps.”

39. τέττιγες. The chirping of the cicade or τέττιγες is a subject of frequent allusion in the Greek poets, from Ho. mer down. See Iliad, III. 151, and note upon the passage. For a description of the insect, and the ancient, though erroneous, idea of its habits, see Aristotle, Hist. An., Lib. IV. 7. 7. Particularly, he speaks of it as living on dew, — dpóσω τρέφεται, ,

- and in this is followed by Anacreon, Od. 43. See also the note of Strack, pp. 182 and 183 of his German translation of Aristotle. The manner in which the sound called singing by Aristotle and the poets is produced, is explained Lib. IV. c. 9. Swammerdam has the following statement: -“Cicada duobus gaudet exiguis tympanis peculiaribus, nostro auris tympano similibus, quæ duarum ope cartilaginum lunatarum percussa, aerem ita vibrant ut sonitus inde reddatur." Bibl. Nat., p. 504. Cited by Camus, Vol. II.

p.

230. 40. 'Em Tậv kpadôv dovol. Aristotle, Lib. V. 30, says of the cicade, " ου γίνονται δε τέττιγες όπου μη δένδρα εστίν ”; he adds, “ There are none in the plain of Cyrene, but there are many round the city, and chiefly where there are olivetrees."

41. των δικών. . See note to line 38. 44.

ản páyuova, free from trouble, particularly vexatious lawsuits.

45. καθιδρυθέντε διαγενοίμεθα. For the construction of the participle, see Kühner, 310. Here the participle and the verb are in the aorist, and both, in themselves, express the several acts as completed. See also Mtt. $$ 567,568. Dawes proposed the present diay.voipeða ; but when we consider that the idea of the verb may be conceived either as continuous or as completed, there seems no necessity for any change, unless upon the authority of some good manuscript.

46, 47. TÒV .... tóv. The repetition of the article, before both the name and the further designation, emphasizes them, the Tereus ; that ancient Tereus, well known to the Athenian people, who was changed into the Epops.

48. , used adverbially, where he has flown ; i. e. if he has ever seen such a city in all his travels.

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49, 50. πάλαι .... φράζει. By a common idiom, the present is used with an adverb of the past to mean has been doing and is still doing; here, has been this long time talking up.

51. ώσπερεί δεικνύς, as if he were showing.

52. Koủk . ... oủk. The combination of particles intensifies the expression, There is not how there are not ; i. e. It must be that there are.

53. Toinowjev. Observe the force of the aorist in the subjunctive to express a single act. The present here would imply a repetition.

54. oio 8 dpâoov. For a full and accurate explanation of this idiom, see Mt. § 511. 4. It occurs frequently in the Attic writers, especially the tragic poets. See Soph. Ed. Tyr., 543; Eurip. Med., 605, &c.

* The phrase,” says Matthiæ,“ seems to have arisen from a transposition.” Here, for instance, Apâoov olol' ; Do it, - dost know what? The third person of the imperative is also used in the same way. See the same expression, v. 80. - σκέλει .... trétpay. The Scholiast, cited by Bothe, says there was a proverbial expression among the boys, Δος το σκέλος τη πέτρα και πεσούνται τα όρνεα, Give your leg to the rock and the birds will fall; not unlike the modern notion of catching birds by sprinkling salt on their tails. 57. Tí .... OŮTos; What do you say, fellow ?

Tai, the common form of addressing a servant, and therefore considered as disrespectful to Epops.

58. έχρήν .... καλείν. The impersonal verb being in the past transfers the whole expression to the past, although the infinitive is present, therefore implying, perhaps, repeated calling.

61. Toû xaouņuatos, what a yawn! For genitive of exclamation, see K. , 274. c. Comp. also Clouds, v. 153, and note to the passage.

63. Ούτως .... λέγειν; Βοthe punctuates the line with. out the interrogation, Ουδε κάλλιόν εστι λέγειν τι ούτω δεινόν, Aliquid tam terribile ne nominare quidem decet ; “'T were better not even to mention so terrible a thing.” But the position of the words and the natural construction of de in oudé conflicts with the interpretation. Several other explanations are given. The Scholiast says,

« Ούτωσι τι δεινόν ουδε κάλλιον λέγειν, τουτέστιν, ούτω δεινόν έχομεν εκ της όψεως, ώστε ορνιθοθηραι νομίζεσθαι. Ουδε λέγειν σε τούτό έστι κάλλιον, őri éouer opvibodnpa"; i. e. We have something so fearful in our look as to be thought bird-hunters; but it is not very handsome for you to say that we are bird-hunters. Taking the present punctuation, which is upon the whole more suitable to the connection, we must refer the words to the alarm manifested and expressed by the Trochilos, and we may translate, interrogatively, Is there any thing so dreadful (i. e. in our appearance) and not handsomer to say ? i. e. Are we so frightful that you have nothing better to say to us than that ?

65. 'Ytodediás. A fictitious name for a bird ; further designated as a strange fowl by the following epithet, Acβυκόν. .

66. Oider légers, You say nothing to the purpose. You talk nonsense. For this sense of the phrase, see Clouds, v. 644.

- ερού .... ποδών. Roga illa quæ vides in cruribus meis, quæ testabuntur me esse avem timidam.” Bergler. The Scholiast

says, Λέγει δε ως υπό του δέους εναφεικώς.68. 'Etikexodás. Another name, similarly formed. “Ka τούτο ως όρνιθος έπαιξε παρά το φαίνεσθαι αυτού το σκώρ.” Sch. " Qui insuper etiam cacavit præ timore, ut prior ille." Bergler.

69. cú. Euelpides turns upon the bird. cú is emphatic, but you.

70, 71. Ηττήθης .... 'Aλεκτρυόνος ; It is stated by Voss,

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