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deavor, every year, to clear as much new land as he possibly can, and sow it with such seed as he considers most suitable.

It is not necessary that the husbandman should take up much stock in the beginning, since clearing land and other necessary labor do not permit him to save much hay and to build barns for stabling. One pair of draft horses or a yoke of oxen only is necessary, to ride the planks for buildings, or palisades or rails from the land to the place where they are to be set.

The farmer can get all sorts of cattle in the course of the second summer, when he will have more leisure to cut and bring home hay, also to build houses and barns for men and cattle.

Before beginning to build, 'twill above all things be necessary to select a well located spot, either on some river or bay, suitable for the settlement of a village or hamlet. This is previously properly surveyed and divided into lots, with good streets according to the situation of the place. This hamlet can be fenced all around with high palisades or long boards and closed with gates, which is advantageous in case of attack by the natives, who heretofore used to exhibit their insolence in new plantations.

Outside the village or hamlet, other land must be laid out which can in general be fenced and prepared at the most trifling expense.

Those in New Netherland and especially in New England, who have no means to build farm-houses at first according to their wishes, dig a square pit in the ground, cellar fashion, six or seven feet deep, as long and as broad as they think proper, case the earth inside all round the wall with timber, which they line with the bark of trees or something else to prevent the caving in of the earth; floor this cellar with plank and wainscot it overhead for a ceiling, raise a roof of spars clear up and cover the spars with bark or green sods, so that they can live dry and warm in these houses with their entire families for two, three and four years, it being understood that partitions are run through those cellars which are adapted to the size of the family. The wealthy and principal men in New England, in the beginning of the Colonies, commenced their first dwelling-houses in this fashion for two reasons; first, in order not to waste time building and not to want food the next season; secondly, in order not to discourage poorer laboring people whom they brought over in numbers from Fatherland. In the course of three or four years, when the country became adapted to agriculture, they built themselves handsome houses, spending on them several thousands.

After the houses are built in the above described manner, or otherwise according to each person's means and fancy, gardens are made and planted in season with all sorts of pot-herbs, principally parsnips, carrots and cabbage, which bring great plenty into the husbandman's dwelling. The maize can serve as bread for men, and food for cattle.

The hogs, after having picked up their food for some months in the woods, are crammed with corn in the fall; when fat they are killed and furnish a very hard and clean pork; a good article for the husbandman who gradually and in time begins to purchase horses and cows with the produce of his grain and the increase of his hogs, and instead of a cellar as aforesaid, builds good farm-houses and barns. The following is the mode pursued by the West India Company

in the first planting of Bouweries. The Company, at their own cost and in their own ships conveyed several boors to New Netherland, and gave these the following terms:

The farmer, being conveyed with his family over sea to New Netherland, was granted by the Company for the term of six years a Bouwerie, which was partly cleared, and a good part of which was fit for the plough.

The Company furnished the farmer a house, barn, farming implements and tools, together with four horses, four cows, sheep and pigs in proportion, the usufruct and enjoyment of which the husbandman should have during the six years, and on the expiration thereof, return the number of cattle he received. The entire increase remained with the farmer. The farmer was bound to pay yearly one hundred gilders and eighty pounds of butter rent for the cleared land and bouwerie.

The country people who obtained the above mentioned conditions all prospered during their residence on the Company's lands.

Afterwards the cattle belonging to the Company in New Netherland were distributed for some years among those who had no means to purchase stock.

The risk of the cattle dying is shared in common, and after the expiration of the contract the Company receives, if the cattle live, the number the husbandman first received, and the increase which is

over, is divided half and half; by these means many people have obtained stock and, even to this day, the Company have still considerable cattle among the Colonists, who make use on the above conditions of the horses in cultivating the farm; the cows serve for the increase of the stock and for the support of the family. ..

D. Advice to Immigrants to Maryland, 1655 ? After having lived nineteen years in Virginia, John Hammond removed to Maryland, from which place he wrote the following account. It gives a trustworthy description of the conditions, as well as some good advice to immigrants.

When ye go aboard, expect the Ship somewhat troubled and in a hurliburly, untill ye cleer the lands end, and that the Ship is rummaged, and things put to rights, which many times discourages the Passengers, and makes them wish the Voyage unattempted: but this is but for a short season, and washes off when at Sea, where the time is pleasantly passed away, though not with such choise plenty as the shore affords.

But when ye arrive and are settled, ye will find a strange alteration, an abused Country giving the lye in your own approbations to those that have calumniated it, and these infalable arguments may convince all incredible and obstinate opinions, concerning the goodnesse and delightfulnesse of the Country, that never any servants of late times have gone thither, but in their Letters to their Friends commend and approve of the place, and rather invite than disswade their acquaintance from comming thither.

The labour servants are put to, is not so hard nor of such continuance as Husbandmen, nor Handecraftmen are kept at in England, as I said little or nothing is done in winter time, none ever working before sun rising nor after sun set, in the summer they rest, sleep or exercise themselves five houres in the heat of the day, Saturdayes afternoon is alwayes their own, the old Holidayes are observed and the Sabboath spent in good exercises.

The Women are not (as is reported) put into the ground to worke, but occupie such domestique imployments and houswifery as in England, that is dressing victuals, righting up the house, milking, imployed about dayries, washing, sowing, &c., and both men and women have times of recreations, as much or more than in any part of the world besides, yet som wenches that are nasty, beastly and not fit to be so imployed are put into the ground, for reason tells us, they must not at charge be transported and then maintained for nothing, but those that prove so aukward are rather burthensome then seryants desirable or usefull.

i Leah and Rachel, or, The Two Fruitfull Sisters Virginia and Mary-land. By John Hammond (London, 1656). Reprinted in Force, Tracts and Other Papers, III, no. xiv, 11-13, and in Original Narratives of Early American History, XI, 289-291.

The Country is fruitfull, apt for all and more than England can or does produce. The usuall diet is such as in England, for the rivers afford innumerable sortes of choyce fish, (if they will take the paines to make wyers or hier the Natives, who for a small matter will undertake it) winter and summer, and that in many places sufficient to serve the use of man, and to fatten hoggs. Water-fowle of all sortes are (with admiration to be spoken of) plentifull and easie to be killed, yet by many degrees more plentifull in some places than in othersome. Deare all over the Country, and in many places so many that venison is accounted a tiresom meat; wilde Turkeys are frequent, and so large that I have seen some weigh neer threescore pounds; other beasts there are whose flesh is wholsom and savourie, such are unknowne to us; and therefore I will not stuffe my book with superfluous relation of their names; huge Oysters and store in all parts where the salt-water comes.

The Country is exceedingly replenished with Neat cattle, Hoggs, Goats and Tame-fowle, but not many sheep; so that mutton is somewhat scarce, but that defect is supplied with store of Venison, other flesh and fowle. The Country is full of gallant Orchards, and the fruit generally more luscious and delightfull than here, witnesse the Peach and Quince, the latter may be eaten raw savourily, the former differs and as much exceeds ours as the best relished apple we have doth the crabb, and of both most excellent and comfortable drinks are made. Grapes in infinite manners grow wilde, so do Walnuts, Smalnuts, Chesnuts and abundance of excellent fruits, Plums and Berries, not growing or known in England; graine we have, both English and Indian for bread and Bear, and Pease besides English of ten several sorts, all exceeding ours in England; the gallant root of Potatoes are common, and so are all sorts of rootes, herbes and Garden stuffe.

E. An Invitation to Colonists for Carolina, 1666 1 The following extract is from a pamphlet written to attract colonists, setting forth the terms upon which they will be settled in the province of Carolina. It will be noticed that both free persons and indented servants are welcomed.

The chief of the Privileges are as follows. First, There is full and free Liberty of Conscience granted to all, so that no man is to be molested or called in question for matters of

1 A Brief Description of the Province of Carolina. By Robert Horne (?) (London, 1666). Reprinted in Original Narratives of Early American History. Edited by J. F. Jameson (New York, 1910), XII, 71-73. Printed by permission of the editor and the publishers, Charles Scribner's Sons.

Religious Concern; but every one to be obedient to the Civil Government, worshipping God after their own way.

Secondly, There is freedom from Custom, for all Wine, Silk, Raisins, Currance, Oyl, Olives, and Almonds, that shall be raised in the Province for 7. years, after 4 Ton of any of those commodities shall be imported in one Bottom.

Thirdly, Every Free-man and Free-woman that transport themselves and Servants by the 25 of March next, being 1667. shall have for Himself, Wife, Children, and Men-servants, for each 100 Acres of Land for him and his Heirs forever, and for every Woman-servant and Slave 50 Acres, paying at most žd. per acre, per annum, in lieu of all demands, to the Lords Proprietors: Provided always, That every Man be armed with a good Musquet full bore, rol. Powder, and 201. of Bullet, and six Months Provision for all, to serve them whilst they raise Provision in that Countrey.

Fourthly, Every Man-Servant at the expiration of their time, is to have of the Country a 100 Acres of Land to him and his heirs for ever, paying only id. per Acre, per annum, and the Women 50. Acres of Land on the same conditions; their Masters also are to allow them two Suits of Apparrel and Tools such as he is best able to work with, according to the Custom of the Countrey.

Fifthly, They are to have a Governour and Council appointed from among themselves, to see the Laws of the Assembly put in due execution; but the Governour is to rule but 3 years, and then learn to obey; also he hath no power to lay any tax, or make or abrogate any Law, without the Consent of the Colony in their Assembly.

Sixthly, They are to choose annually from among themselves, a certain Number of Men, according to their divisions, which constitute the General Assembly with the Governour and his Council, and have the sole power of Making Laws, and Laying Taxes for the common good when need shall require.

These are the chief and Fundamental privileges, but the Right Honourable Lords Proprietors have promised (and it is their interest so to do) to be ready to grant what other Privileges may be found advantageous for the good, of the Colony.

Is there therefore any younger Brother who is born of Gentile blood, and whose Spirit is elevated above the common sort, and yet the hard usage of our Country hath not allowed suitable fortune; he will not surely be afraid to leave his Native Soil to advance his Fortunes equal to his Blood and Spirit, and so he will avoid those

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