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and Steele you must have patience and humanitie to manage their crooked nature to your form of civilitie: for as our proverbe is, Looke how you winne them, so you must weare them: if by way of peace and gentlenesse, then shall you alwaies range them in love to you wards, and in peace with your English people; and by proceeding in that way, shall open the springs of earthly benefits to them both, and of safetie to your selves.
Imitating the steppes of your wise and prudent Soveraigne, and preparing the way of peace (so much as lies in you) before the second comming of that King of peace, at whose first comming into this earthly region the world was all in peace, under the peaceable regiment of Augustus Caesar, who though an unbeleeving Heathen, yet of such excellent morall vertues, as might set to schoole many Christian Kings and Rulers, whose care and studie for the safety, peace and Common-wealth of his Empire, gat him such honour in his life, and love of all his subjects, that being dead, his losse was so lamented with excesse of griefe and sorrow, but most amongst the Romanes, that they wisht to God hee had never been borne, or being borne, he might never have died.
And so I come to you that be the Adventurers here in England: with which I will conclude, it is not much above an hundred yeeres agoe, that these Adventures for discoveries were first undertaken by the Sou theme parts of Christendome, but especially so seconded and followed by the Spanish nation both to the East and West Indies, that Mendoza (their countriman) in his treatise of Warre, extolleth King Philip and the Spanish nation above the skies, for seeking in such sort to inlarge their bounds by sea and land, seeming (as it were) with a secret scorne to set out the basenesse of our English and other nations in this, that they never intend any such attempts, but with a kind of sluggish contentment, doe account it their happinesse to keepe that poore little which they possesse. Indeed wee must acknowledge it, with praise to God, that when some of theirs had cast an evill eye upon our possessions, it was our happiness to prevent their longing, and to send them emptie home. But for that other part of inlarging their bounds, Ireland. in truth their praise is duly given, and well deserved; and it may justly serve to stirre us up by all our means to put off such reproachfull censures; and seeing when time did offer it, our nation lost the first opportunity of having all, yet now to make good that common speech, that English men are best at imitation, and doe soone excell their teacher'!.
It is knowne well enough to you, what need we have in this case to stirre up (if it were possible) our whole nation: for notwithstanding wee have in our Letters Patents, the names of many Lords and Knights, Gentlemen, Marchants and others, able in truth to performe a greater matter than this, if we were al of one mind; but as they are many, so I may divide them as thus into three equall parts: The one third part are such as tooke liking of the plantation, and brought in one adventure, expecting a while till they saw some disasters to accompanie the businesse, they looked for present gaine, and so they gave it over, bidding it adiew, and never lookt after it more. Another third part are such as came in, and with their own hands did underwrite to furnish three adventures in three yeeres: whereof some few of them have paid the first paiment, but refuse to pay the rest; yet most of them, notwithstanding they are tied by their owne hand writing (whereby a very great charge was undertaken by the Companie) doe utterly refuse to make any paiment at all: which if it proceeded out of their povertie it were not so much to be blamed; for wee presse no man out of his inability to wrong himselfe: but these are of the greater sort, such as would scorne to have it said they offer wrong in hazarding the losse of all, and the lives of many men. I doubt not but some reasonable course will be taken by your honourable wisedomes to make them see their error: in the meane time, 1 know not how to call this kinde of dealing. But I remember of one that takes upon him to describe king Richard usurper, and comming to his visage, he saith it was sterne, such as in Kings we call warlike, but in meaner men crabbed. Surely if this kind of fast and loose were plaid by men of meaner sort, I could scone tell how to tearme it: but if you will needes have it warlike, in respect of their sterne refusall, yet let it be crabbed too, because of their sower lookes when they see the Collectors come for mony.
So that of all our Adventurers, I may well say there is but one third part, which (to their praise) from the first undertaking to this day have not ceased to give their counsels, spend their times, and lay downe their monies, omitting no occasion to expresse their zeale for effecting (if it may be possible) so great a worke for their King and Countries honour, as our nation never tooke the like in hand. And for this cause, the burthen being heavier than may well be borne by the shoulders of so few willing mindes, wee do still provoke our private friends, and have now obtained the helpe of publike Lotteries to maintaine the same. Which though it bee no usuall course in England, yet very common in divers neighbour countries, for the publike service of most commendable actions, wherein no man being compelled to adventure lots further than his owne liking, and being assured of direct and currant dealing, though all his lots come blanke; yet if his minde be upright, he rests content in this, that his money goeth to a publike worke, wherein he hath his part of benefit, though he, never so meane and remote in his dwelling.
And if any man aske, what benefit can this plantation be to them that be no Adventurers therein, but only in the Lottery? First, we say, (setting aside their possibilitie of prize) what man so simple that doth not see the necessitie of employment for our multitude of people? which though they be our florishing fruits of peace and health, yet be they no longer good and holesome in themselves, then either our domesticke or forraine actions can make them profitable, or not hurtfull to the Common-wealth.
And as it is unpossible without this course of sending out the ofspring of our families, in so great a bodie of many millions, which yeerely doe increase amongst us, to prevent their manifold diseases of povertie, corruption of minde, and pestilent infection, so the burthen thereof in some proportion is felt by every man in his private calling, either in the taxe of their maintenance and daily reliefe, or in the taint of their vices and bodily plagues. And by this meanes only it may soone be eased, to the sensible good of every man, as in the greater safetie and freedom from infection, so in the price and plentie of all outward and necessarie things.
And besides the example of our neighbour countries, (that having laid their armes aside, and dwelling now in peace, to shunne the harmes of idlenesse at home, doe send out fleetes and hosts of men to seeke abroad) experience teacheth us, what need we have/to seeke some world of new employment, for so great a part of our strength, which not otherwise knowing how to live, doe daily runne out to robberies at home, and piracies abroad, arming and serving with Turkes and Infidels against Christians, to the generall damage and spoile of Merchants, the scandall of our nation and reproch of Christian name. As also for the wits of England, whereof so many of unsettled braines betake themselves to plots and stratagems at home, or else to wander from coast to coast, from England to Spaine, to Italy, to Rome, and to wheresoever they may learne and practise any thing else but goodnesse, pulling a world of temptations upon their bad dispositions, sorting so farre with that inchanting sorts of serpents, and yeelding to their lure, till getting the marke and stampe in their forehead, they become desperate and despiteful fugitives abroad, or else returning neutrals in religion, are never good for Church nor Commonwealth.
Let the words of that learned Master Ascham witnesse in this case, who above twentie yeeres agone, having farre lesse cause of complaint then we have now, did publish his censure of those
English Italionate travellers in these words: For religion, they get Papistrie, or worse: for leorning, /esse com
24 pas* of tea- 3 ;r.i .! . .J r I- • r
ehing the bring- m.only thm the,J. cam«« out •" for politic, a Joeing up of youth, tious heart, a discoursing head, a minde to meddle in all mens matters: for experience, plenty of new mischiefes, never knownc in England before: for manners, varietie of vanities, and change of filthy living. These be the inchantments of Circes, brought out of Italie to marre English mens manners, much by example of ill life, but more by precepts of fond bookes of late translated out of Italian into English, sold in every shop in London, commended by honest titles, the sooner to corrupt honest manners, dedicated over boldly to vertuous and honourable personages, the easier to beguile simple and innocent wits. Tenne Sermons at Pauls crosse doc not so much good for moving men to true doctrine, as one of those bookes do harme with inticing men to ill living: yea, I say further, those bookes tend not so much to corrupt honest living, as they do to subvert true religion; more Papists made by the merrie bookes of Italie, then by the earnest bookes of Lovaine.
These and many more are the flowing evils of those noisome streames, that may be stopped, or turned from us (though not altogether (which is unpossible) yet in some proportion, for the common good of every man) by these new discoveries, into so great a world, never yet knowne, nor inhabited by Christian men: and though that part of Virginea, wherein we seate, be nothing to the rest, not yet discovered, yet it is enough to men of sense rightly considering, to make them confesse so much as I have said.
If any shall object, want of meanes, or inabilitie for the subjects of our King, to undertake so great a worke in those remote and desert countries, it were too injurious: For first it hath been done by others, to whom wee are no way inferiour for multitude, strength and means to doe the like: and secondly, our provocations are now more than ever they were. For touching our multitude of men, as I remember, and I assure my selfe 1 did see the note, and am not mistaken, in that great yeere of 88, here was billed for the first, second and third service of the Queene (if need had required) of able persons, thirtie hundred thousand of English, Welsh, and Cornish men; since which time it cannot otherwise be thought, and the great inlargement of townes and buildings shew that we have much increased, besides that happie addition since of an entire kingdome, being a warlike, wise, and a stout nation, that were then no members of us. And for strength of shipping, skilfull men and meanes to furnish greater attempts then this, the world can witnesse (to the grief of some) that England hath no want at all. And for our provocations, what can be greater then from the highest? from God that hath given us the light of his word, that wee might enlighten this blind people: that did provide (when we despaired greatly and feared who should weld the Scepter) a King (with peerlesse branches) to sit over us in peace, whom the world cannot match, that hath bent his royall minde, and of his princely ofspring, to forward and advance the best l» Smtiand and most approoved actions, at home and abroad, "n( Ln*a" that hath given him to set his feete upon his enemies necks, and hath made the poyson of their infected * hearts to work their owne confusion, and the most bitter hearted adversarie to die for sorrow to see * The P0"" his prosperity: by which we are assured, that God persons,&c. doth reserve him to many excellent ends, and by whose wisedome we are daily invited under the shadow of our own vine, to repose ourselves in peace and rest.
How are they thus dejected then in their honourable thoughts, so many both English men and Scottish, which seeme not like themselves, that to so infinit good ends, and notwithstanding the forcible inticements and powerfull meanes to effect the same, will yet sit still, and neither helpe on this, nor any like publike action, with their persons, purse nor counsell? How far is this unlike their ancient guise in former times, when for the name of Christ, and honour of their nations, they adventured thorow the world to winne it with the sword? Well, if they will needs so much forget themselves, let this suffice to conclude them as unprofitable members, emptying and keeping drie the fountaine at home, when with others they might seek to fill it from abroad; suffering the wealth of the world, of this new world, which is knowne to abound in treasure, if not to sleepe in the dust, yet to slide away, and there to settle; where it reviveth the spirit of that viprous brood, which seek to heale againe that wounded head of Rome, by instigating therewith and anoint- jesuits^'nd ing the homes of such, as when time shall serve, odiet«. will seeke to pearce our hearts.
And if it be asked, what benefit shall any man reape, in Hew of his disbursements, by that barren countrie, which hath so consumed all our employments? It hath been alreadie declared to the world in sundrie discourses, containing sufficient encouragement to men of understanding, and therefore not needfull heere to lay out againe, the undoubted certaintie of minerals, the rich and commodious meanes for shipping, and other materials of great use, which if they were not alreadie publisht, wee would