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brought over Servants indented to serve them, for a certain Number of Years, who being picked up in the Streets of London, or some such Manner, their Masters found them unfit for Labour, and many of them took such Opportunities as they could get, to desert and fly into Carolina, where they could be protected. Indeed, good and bad which came from England, were mostly Inhabitants of Towns there; but such seldom turn out good Husbandmen with their own Hands; yet some of them proved very useful in a new Colony, since they most readily compose Towns, which is the first Thing necessary to be a Receptacle for new Comers: And from thence, when all Demands of Labour, for Building anil Trade are supplied, the laborious People may enlarge into the Country, and raise Provisions for the Use of the Towns: Whereas, if the first were all labouring Countrymen they would naturally disperse to the most fertile Land, and perhaps succeed for a While ; but for Want of Neighbourhood and Markets, would force most of them to remove, and the Country remain little or nothing the better improved, as it happened in Virginia, till the Government, with great Difficulty at last, raised Towns in that Province.
It ought not here to be passed over, how ready the Country is to receive a Number of German Families, accustomed to Husbandry, such as usually come once a Year down the Rhine to Holland, and embark thence for America, or the East-Indies; some of these we have already had Experience of, insomuch that the People here would take off a good Number of them: And it would be of great Service (as we apprehend) to this Colony, at present, to send a Ship over, loaden with Germans, on the same Terms Mr. Hope does to Philadelphia, only taking Care that Provisions for them on their Passage be more plentiful, and that they are less crowded than on board his Ships: The Terms are, they pay Half their Passage themselves on embarking, and six Weeks after their Arrival, to pay the other Half, which they Generally do, with private Contracts to People; but in case they do not, then they may be bound by the Ship's Master for four or five Years, if they are above twenty-one Years of Age; but if under, they may be bound until the Age of twentyone if Men, and eighteen if Girls. It must be at the sam« Time confess'd, that divers of these Foreigners have, during the Time of their Servitude, shewn themselves of a dogged Disposition, surly and obstinate, discovering an Averseness to their Masters Orders, which proceeds (as we imagine) from a Dislike of their being subject to Strangers; whilst others again have behaved well; but it may be alledged with Truth, that when, or wheresoever among us, any of them have worked for their own Benefit, they are indefatigable, and out-done by none, which joined with great Parsimony, fits them for excellent Settlers when free.
To enable the industrious English Settlers to go on with Planting, who are truly desirous of Cultivating Land; we humbly conceive nothing could be a greater Inducement to it, than that the honourable Trustees would please to import yearly, so long as they see good, a Number of English or Weleh Servants, such as are used to hard Labour in the Country, and Strangers to London, to be contracted with in England to serve the Trustees for five Years, from two to four Pounds yearly Wages, according to their Ability, for finding themselves in Apparel. Those Servants, on their Arrival, to be hired by the Inhabitants for one Year, the Person hiring to pay over and above the contracted Wages, one Pound yearly to the Trustees, so that in five Years the Passage-Money will be paid. And to enable the Planters to pay the said Wages, it is humbly proposed, that a Bounty be settled on every Product of the Land, viz. Corn, Pease, Potatoes, Wine, Silk, Cotton, Flax, fyc. to what Value the honourable Trust shall judge meet to be limited in the following, or any other Manner, viz. For the first Years the said Bounty to
be payable for Corn, Pease, Potatoes, Sfc. only; and thenceforward to cease wholly, and the Residue of Years wherein any Bounty should be allowed, to be payable only for Silk, Wine, Oil, 8/-c. by which Means the Planter so assisted might be able to live, whilst at the same Time he propagates Vines, Mulberry-Trees, fyc. from which he can expect no immediate Benefit before they come to some Maturity. A Rule to be made, that they who hire the said Servants shall employ them only in Plantation-Work of their own. and not let thcm out at Hire to Work at handicraft Trades, or any other Business, fyc. That each Servant shall serve one whole Year; and if they part at the Year's End he shall find himself another Master within Days to serve for one Year also, and
so on to the End of their respective Times to serve ; by which Means good Masters will not want good Servants, and 'twill be a great Means to make other Masters become good, in order to get good Servants, or else be content with the bad, or none. If any Disputes arise between Masters and Servants, such to be determined by the Magistrates, according to the l^aws of England, wherein the Magistrate concerned as a Party shall not appear as a Judge, or oifer to interfere with the Opinion of the others, but acquiesce in their Determination, if it happens to be in Favour of the Servant, whom they ought to defend from cruel Usage, and where they fmd such evil Treatment either thro' too severe Correction, or want of sufficient wholsome Food, according to the Custom of the Colony, the Magistrates to have Power of vacating such Services, and obliging the Servants to find another Master.
The kind Intention of the honourable Trustees to extend the Tenure of Lands in the manner proposed (as signify'd to their Secretary here) gave great Satisfaction to all reasonable Persons who seem'd to desire no more, and only wish to find that ratify'd, which they apprehend to be not yet done, and that occasions some Anxiety about it.
Whether these Helps, or whatever other, the honourable Trustees shall be pleas'd to afford us, the Ability of the Inhabitants to support themselves must still in a great Measure depend on the Industry and Frugality of each. Divers in the Province who understand Planting, and are already settled, provided they can attain to some live Stock, can and do support themselves. Men working for Hire, Boat-men, Pack-horse-men, 8tC support themselves very well, if they will work; and more such would, were they to be found. Shopkeepers, Tradesmen, and Artificers, such as Tallow-Chandlers, Soap-Boilers, Brasiers, Sadlers, Shoe-makers, Tanners, fyc. live very well on their Business here, and many more might, were there more Merchants to import Goods for supplying the Indian Trader?, which would increase the Resort to Savannah; whereas those Traders are now obliged to get the greatest Part of what they want from CharlesTown in Carolina. New Planters, and such as go on upon particular Improvements, such as Wine. Silk, fyc. will need some Assistance. Magistrates, Constables, and Tything-men, and others whose Time is taken up in the publick Service, require some Allowance for the same. It is also needful for the Wellbeing of the Colony, that Roads should be maintain'd: Posts for communicating of Letters, and Forts upon the Frontiers, as well towards the Indians as Spaniards, be supported: As likewise other publick Works, which the People here are in no Decree able to bear.
When the East Part of the Province of Georgia was taken Possession of under the Trustees Charter by Mr. Oglethorpe, according to the Limits of the British Dominions in America, Forts were erected upon the Extremities to keep up Marks of Possession: The Strength and Materials were of such a Nature, as the Men he had with him could make, and sufficient for Defence against any Strength that could be brought against them by the neighbouring Indians, or Spaniards in Florida.
The first Foundation of the Colony was upon Tenures, by which each Lot was to be occupied by a Freeholder, obliged to take Arms for the Defence of the Colony; and this Militia, with the Assistance of our friendly Indians, held the Colony against all Attempts of the Spaniards from Augustine, who alarmed them almost every Spring, pretending a Claim, and therefore a Right to invade, without being said to infringe the Peace; but did not take one Foot of Ground from us.
In the Beginning of the Year 1738, great Preparations were made at the Havannah, and Troops were sent from thence and Old Spain to Augustine, for the taking Possession (as they call'd it) of that Part of Carolina in which Georgia was comprehended, and which they gave out belong'd to them. Upon the Trustees having early Notice of these great Preparations, they applied to his Majesty to take upon him the Protection of the Colony, which in its Infancy was unable to repel so great a Force. His Majesty thereupon ordered a Regiment to be raised, and posted on the Spanish Frontiers, since which the War is broke out, and that Regiment, with the Assistance of Troops and Indians raised in Georgia and Carolina, in Conjunction with a Squadron of Men of War, attack'd Augustine, and after raising the Siege of that Place, remain'd in the Possession of the Frontiers, as before the War; but for the Defence of the Colony now, it is necessary to have Vessels that can act in shoal Water, on so large and extended a Frontier towards the Sea, and Rangers who can ride the Woods; as also Artillery, and all other Things necessarily appertaining thereto, and Means for augmenting our Fortifications equal to the increas'd Strength of the Spaniards.
Savannah, Nov. 10, 1740.
WE whose Names are hereunto subscribed, being duly sworn in open Court, do declare, that the above State of the Province of Georgia is true, according to the best of our own Knowledge, and from the most certain Informations we could obtain from others; and do desire, that the Seal of this Court may bo affixed thereto.
* Pat. Graham George Johnson
* Jos. Fitzwalter Samuel Parker
* James Carwells Thomas Palmer
* Thomas Upton William Stephens
* Giles Becu Henry Parker
* Thomas Egerton Thomas Jones
* Thomas Cundell Samuel Mercer
Jos. Pavey Noble Jones
Robert Hainks Thomas Young
John Mellidge Thomas Ellis.
Tho. Bayley (Smith) N. B. Those seven mark'd with *, at their own voluntary Desire, were admitted to sign it, and were sworn before the Magistrates out of Court.