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S T A T E
Province of Georgia,
Attested upon Oath, in the Court of Savannah, Nov, 10, 1740.
THE Province of Georgia lies from the most Northern Stream of the River Savannah (the Mouth of which is in the Latitude of 32 Deg.) along the Sea-coast, to the most Southern Stream of the Alatamha (the Mouth of which is 30J Deg.) and Westward from the Heads of the said Rivers, respectively in direct Lines to the South Seas.
This Province was Part of South-Carolina; but the Eastern and Southern Parts of it, inhabited by the Creek-Indians; the Northern by the Cherokees and Chickesaws; the Western by the Chactaws; the Blewmouths, and other Indian Nations, to the South-Sea. The Creek-Indians, who always acknowledged the King of England for their Sovereign, yet made War with the People of Carolina, to obtain Satisfaction for Injuries done by their pedling Traders: The War was concluded by a Peace, which obliged the People of Carolina not to settle beyond the River Savannah; and no Englishman was settled within this District, that we know of, when the first Colony of Georgia arrived. The Country was then all covered with Woods. Mr. Oglethorpe agreed with the Indians, and purchased of them the Limits mentioned in the Treaty.
The Town of Savannah was laid out, and began to be built, in which are now 142 Houses, and good habitable Huts. The Soil in general, when cleared, is productive of Indian Com, Rice, Peas, Potatoes, Pumpions, Melons, and many other Kinds of Gourds, in great Quantities; Wheat, Oats, Barley, and other European Grains, 'lis found by divers Experiments, may be propagated in many Parts (more especially in the Uplands toward Augusta) with Success. Mulberry-Trees and Vines agree exceeding well with the Soil and Climate, and so does the Annual Cotton, whereof large Quantities have been raised; and it is much planted: But the Cotton, which in some Parts is perennial, dies here in the Winter; which nevertheless the Annual is not inferior to in Goodness, but requires more Trouble in cleansing from the Seed. Cattle, Hogs, Poultry, and Fruit-Trees of most Kinds, have increased even beyond Imagination.
Ships of about three hundred Tons can come up to the Town, where the Worm (which is the Plague of the American Seas) does not eat; and the River is navigable for large Boats, as far as the Town of Augusta, which lies in the Latitude of 33 D. 5 M. and is 250 Miles distant from Savannah by Water; small Boats can go 300 Miles further, to the Cherokces.
There is already a considerable Trade in the River; and there is in this Town a Court-House, a Goal, a Store-House, a large House for receiving the Indians, a Wharf or Bridge, a Guard-House, and some other publick Buildings; a publick Garden of ten Acres cleared, fenced, and planted with Orange-Trees, Mulberry-Trees, Vines, some Olives, which thrive very well, Peaches, Apples, fyc.
It must be confessed, that Oranges have not so universally thriven with us, as was expected, by Reason of some severe Blasts by Frosts in the Spring; yet divers with proper Care have preserved them; and as we see them grow and thrive well, with many of our Neighbours of Carolina to the Northward, we are convinced that they will with us also, as soon as we are become more perfect in the Knowledge of propagating them in a right Manner ; in order to which freuqent Experiments are making; and we have already discovered not only what Kind of Soil agrees best with them, but also that they flourish most when they grow under Forest Trees, whereby we imagine they are protected from Blasts; and 'tis observed, that they take no Hariri from the Droppins of any, except the Pine, which suffers nothing to grow near it, unless of its own Kind.
Notwithstanding the Quantity of Silk, hitherto made, has not been great, yet it increases, and will more and more considerably, as the Mulberry-Trees grow, whereof there are great Numbers yearly planted.
Vines likewise of late are greatly increased, many People appearing to have an Emulation of outdoing their Neighbours; and this Year has produced a considerable Quantity of very fine Grapes, whereof one Planter in particular made a Trial, to see what Kind of Wine they would make, which he put into a large Stone-Bottle, and made a Present of it to the General; who upon tasting, said he found it to be something of the Nature of a small French White Wine, with an agreeable Flavour; and several Persons here, who have lived formerly in Countries where there are a Plenty of Vineyards, do affirm, that all young Vines produce small Wines at first, and the Strength and Goodness of it increases as the Vines grow older.
Three Miles up the River there is an Indian Town, and at six Miles Distance are several considerable Plantations: At ten Miles Distance are some more, and at fifteen Miles Distance is a little Village, called Abercorn.
Above that, on the Carolina Side, is the Town of Purytburgh, twenty-two Miles from Savannah; and on the Georgia Side, twelve Miles from Purysburgh, is the Town of Ebenezer, which thrives very much; there are very good Houses built for each of the Ministers, and an Orphan-House; and they have partly framed Houses and partly Huts, neatly built, and formed into regular Streets ; they have a great deal of Cattle and CornGround, so that they sell Provisions at Savannah; for they raise much more than they can consume.
Thirty Miles above Ebenezer, on the Carolina Side, lies the Palachocolas Fort: Five Miles above the Palachocolas, on the Georgia Side, lies the Euchee Town (or Mount Pleasant) to which about a hundred Indians belong; but few of them stay now in the Town, they chusing rather to live dispersed. All the Land from Euenczer to the River Briers, belongs to those Indians, who will not part with the same, therefore it cannot be planted.
One hundred and forty-four Miles above Mount Pleasant, on the Carolina Side, is Silver Bluff, where there is another Settlement of Euchee Indians: On both Sides of the River are Fields of Corn planted by them.
Thirty Miles above Silver Bluff is New Windsor, formerly known by the Name of Savannah Town, or Moore's Fort, where there are but two or three Families on the Carolina Side, and a small Fort.
Seven Miles above New Windsor, on the Georgia Side, lies i he Town of Augusta, just below the Falls; this was laid out by the Trustees Orders in the Year 1735, which has thriven prodigiously ; there are several Warehouses thoroughly well furnished with Goods for the Indian Trade, and five large Boats belonging to the different Inhabitants of the Town, which can carry about nine or ten thousand Weight of Deer-Skins each, making four or five Voyages at least in a Year to Charles-Town, for exporting to England; and the Value of each Cargo is computed to be from 12 to 1500Z. Sterling. Hither all the English Traders, with their Servants, resort in the Spring; and 'tis computed above two thousand Horses come thither at that Season; and the Traders, Packhorse-men, Servants, Townsmen, and others, depending upon that Business, are moderately computed to be six hundred white Men, who live by their Trade, carrying upon Packhorses all Kinds of proper English Goods; for which the Indians pay in Deer-Skins, Beaver, and other Furs; each Indian Hunter •s reckoned to get three hundred Weight of Deer-Skins in a Year. This is a very advantageous Trade to England, since it is mostly paid for in Woollen and Iron.
Above this Town to the North-West, and on the Georgia Side of the River, the Cherokees live, in the Valley of the Appe