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couragement, 'twill, by Dividing our Burthen, somewhat lighten it; If it fails, 'twill no further Disappoint us, than as it leaves us to do That alone, which might better, be done with the expected Assistance.
Of the Motives, and Foundation of the Undertaking.
p LANTATIONS of new Countries, says the Great Lord -". Bacon, arc among the Primitive, and most Heroick Works of Man. They are meritorious in a double Sense ; Religiously, as they illuminate the Souls of Heathens through the Darkness of their Ignorance, and Politically, as they strengthen the Dominion, which sends out the Colony, and wonderfully more than any other Mean* enrich the Undertakers.
But as such Attempts are Great, so also are they Dangerous. One early Caution easily secures their future Benefits; one little Error in Foundation overthrows the Building. It is to a Defect in setting out, that all our noble Colonies upon the Western Continent have ow'd their Disappointments; /b a want of due Precaution in their Forms of Settling, or rather, to their settling without any Form at all: The Planters grasp'd at an undue Extent of Land, exceeding their Capacity to manage, or defend: This scatter'd them to Distances unsafe, and solitary, so that, living in a Wilderness, incapable of mutual Aid, the necessary Artizans found no Encouragement to dwell among them; Their Woods remain'd unclear'd; their Fens undrain'd; The Air by that Means prov'd unhealthy, and the Roads impassable; For want of Towns, and Places of Defence, they suddenly became a Prey to all Invaders even the unformidable Indians took Advantage of the Oversight; and Carolina, is, at present, groaning under a most bloody Persecution, from a wild and despicable Kind of Enemy, who had not dar'd to think of the Attempt, but from an Observation daily made, how open and unguarded they might take the English.
From these Examples, and the Neighbourhood of the intended Settlement to Carolina thus distress'd, our future Eden, made early wise by Dangers, which she feels not, would not onlyfix her Foot upon a firm Foundation, so as to resist a Storm Herself, but she wou'd also spread her Win^s to a Capacity of Shadowing Others: A British Colony, shou'd like the Roman, carry with it always something of the Mother's Glory.
Excited therefore, by an earnest Inclination to establish such a Settlement, as may, by new Means, yield new Benefits, as well in Wealth, as Safety, and resolving to proceed upon a Scheme entirely different from any hitherto attempted, and which appears to promise great, and inexpressible Advantages ; the Grant on which we found the Undertaking, will be seen in the following Abstract.
44'pHE underwritten Palatine and Lords Proprietors of the * " Province of Carolina, do on the Considerations herein '; after mention'd, grant, sell, alien, release, and confirm to Sir '; Robert Mountgomry, Baronet, his Heirs, and Assigns, for "ever, all that Tract of Land, which lies between the Rivers "AUatamaha, and Savanna, together with the Islands, Ports, '• Harbours, Bays, and Rivers on that Part of the Coast, which "lies between the Mouths of the said two Rivers to the Sea"ward ; and moreover all Veins, Mines, and Quarries of Gold, "and Silver, and all other whatever, be they of Stones, Metals "or any other Things found, or to be found within that Tract "of Land, and the Limits aforesaid; With Liberty over and "above to make Settlements on the South Side of AUatamaha "River, which Tract of Land the said underwritten Lords do "' erect into a distinct Province, with proper Jurisdictions, Pri'; viledges, Prerogatives, and Franchises, Independent of, and "not Subject to the Laws of South Carolina, to be holden of "the said Lords by Sir Robert, his heirs, and Assigns for ever, "under the Name and Title of the Margravate of Azilia; at •• and under the yearly Quitrent of one Penny Sterling per "Acre, or its Value in Goods, or Merchandise, as the Land "shall be occupied, taken up, or run out; Payable yearly to the "Lords Proprietors Officers at Charles-Town, but such Pay"ment not to commence, till three Years after Arrival of the "first Ships there, which shall be sent over to begin the Set;; tlement; over and above which Penny per Acre, Sir Robert, "his Heirs, and Assigns, shall also yield, and pay to the Lords "Proprietors, one fourth Part of all Gold, or Silver Oar, be'• sides the Quota reserv'd to the Crown out of the said Royal "Minerals: Distinct Courts of Judicature to be erected, and "such Laws enacted within the Margravate, by and with the "Advice, Assent, and Approbation of the Freemen thereof in "Publick Assembly, as shall be most conducive to the Utility "of the said Margravate, and as near as may be conveniently '; agreeable to the Laws, and Customs of England, but so as "such Laws do not extend to lay Duties or Custom, or other "Obstruction upon the Navigation of either of the said Rivers, "by any Inhabitant of South, or North Carolina, or their free •' Commerce and Trade with the Indian Nations, either within, "or to the Southward of the Margravate, Sir Robert consenting "that the same Duty shall be charg'd on Skins within the "Margravate, which at this Time stands charg'd on such Skins "in South Carolina, and appropriated to the Maintenance of the Clergy there, so long as that Duty is continued in South Carolina, but the said Duty shall not be encreas'd in Azilia, tho' the Assembly of South Carolina shou'd think fit to encrease it there, nor shall it longer continue to be paid, than while it shall remain appropriated, as at present, to the Maintenance of the Clergy only: In Consideration of all which Powers, Rights, Priviledges, Prerogatives, and Franchises, Sir Robert shall Transport at his own Expence, a considerable Number of Families with all Necessaries for making a new Settlement in the said Tract of Land, and in Case it be neglected for the Space of three Years from the Date of this Grant, The then Grant shall become void, any Thing herein contain'd to the contrary notwithstanding. Dated June the Nineteenth, 1717. Cartaret, Palatine.
Ja. Bertie for the
Duke of Beaufort.
John Colleton, tyc.
A Description of the Country.
IT lies about the 3lst and 32d Degree of Northern Latitude, -*. is bounded Eastward by the great Atlanticlc Sea, To the West by a Part of the Apalachian Mountains, and to the North and South by the two great Rivers, mention'd in the Grant.
In the Maps of North America it may be taken Notice of, how well this Country lies for Trade with all our Colonies, and in Regard to every other Prospect, which can make a Situation healthy, profitable, lovely, and inviting; Florida, of which it is a Part, receiv'd that Name from its delightful, florid, and agreeable Appearance.
It has been commonly observ'd, that gay Descriptions of new Countries raise a Doubt of their Sincerity. Men are apt to think the Picture drawn beyond the Life, to serve the Interest of the Representer: To shun the Prejudice of this Opinion, whatever shall be said upon the Subject here, is all extracted from our English Writers, who are very numerous, and universally agree, that Carolina, and especially in its Southern Bounds, is the most amiable Country of the Universe; That Nature has not bless'd the World with any Tract, which can be preferable to it, that Paradise with all her Virgin Beauties, may be modestly suppos'd at most but equal to its Native Excellencies.
It lies in the same Latitude with Palestine Herself^That promis'd Canaan, wljicR was~pqlnte,d out by God's own Choice, tcTbless the ^Labours of a favourite People; It abounds with Rivers, Woods, and Meadows. Its gentle Fills arc full of Mines,
satisfie ourselves with building here and there a Fort, the fatal Practice of America, but so dispose the Habitations, and Divisions of the Land, that not alone our Houses, but whatever we possess, will be enclos'd by Military Lines, impregnable again: the Savages, and which will make our whole Plantation one continued Fortress.
It need not be suppos'd, that all the Lands will thus be fortified at once; The first Lines drawn will be in just Proportion to the Number of Men they enclose; As the Inhabitants encrease, New Lines will be made to enclose them also, so that all the People will be always safe within a well defended Lime of Circumvallation.
The Reader will allow, it is not necessary, that these Retrenchments be of Bulk, like those of Europe; small Defence is strong against the poor unskilful Natives of America; They have accomplish'd all their bloody Mischiefs by Surprizes, and Incursions, but durst never think of a Defyance to Artillery.
The Massacres, and frequent Ruins, which have fallen upon some English Settlements for want of this one Caution, have sufficiently instructed us, that Strength, producing Safety, is the Point, which shou'd be chiefly weigh'd in such Attempts as these; Solon had Reason when he said to Crcefus, looking on his Treasure—, You are rich indeed, and so far you are mighty; But if any Man shou'd come with sharper steel then Yours, how easily will he be made the Master of your Gold?
At the Arrival therefore of the first Men carried over, proper Officers shall mark, and cause to be entrench'd a Square of Land, in just Proportion to their Number; On the Outsides of this Square, within the little Bastions, or Redoubts of the Entrenchment, they raise light Timber Dwellings, cutting down the Trees, which every where encompass them: The Officers are quartered with the Men, whom they command, and the Governour in Chief is plac'd exactly in the Center: By these means the labouring People (being so dispos'd, as to be always watchful of an Enemies Approach) are themselves within the Eye of those, set over them, and All together under the Inspection of their Principal.
The Redoubts may be near enough to defend Each other with Musquets, but Field Pieces, and Patarero's will be planted upon Each, kept charged with Cartridge shot, and Pieces of old Iron; Within these Redoubts are the Common Dwellings of the Men who must defend them; Between them runs a Palisadoe'd Bank, and a Ditch, which will be Scour'd by the Artillery. One Man in Each Redoubt kept Night and Day, upon the Guard, will give alarm upon Occasion to the others at their Work. So they cultivate their Lands, Secure their Cattle, and follow their