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DEMONYM (bibliography).—Popular or ordinary qualification

taken as a proper name, as an "amateur,” a “ bibliophile.”

0. H. DIAMOND (typography). French, Diamant; German, Diamant

schrift. The smallest sized English type, useless, unless for curiosity ; 2,800 letters weigh a pound. It was first cast by the Dutch founders, and in England by Mr. Fry The French

have a size still smaller. DIRECTION WORDS (typography).—See Catch-Word. DOUBLE BOOK (printing).—A book printed on half sheets.

-HanneTT. DOUBLE DAGGER (printing).—German, doppel kreuz. A

reference mark (). See Miscellaneous, Art. Printers' Marks. DOUBLE PICA (typography). —

French, Le Gros Parangon; German, Text, or Secunda;

Dutch, Dubbelde Dessendiaan ; Italian, Due Linne e Filosofia. A type twice the size of Pica.

DRAWING-IN (binding).–Fastening the boards to the back

of the volume, with the bands on which it is sewn.—Han

NETT.

DUODECIMO (bibliography). English, twelvemo, 12mo ;

French, in-douze, in-12; German, duodez, zwölftelform, zwölftelgrosse. Size of a book printed on paper folded into twelve leaves, twenty-four pages. The signatures are B, B2, B 3, on the first, third, and ninth pages. The wire mark is horizontal, and the paper mark on the fore-edge. The usual sizes are 12mo and royal or long 12mo.

EDITION (bibliography).— French, l'édition ; German, auflage. EMERALD (typography).—The name of a type a size between

Nonpareil and Minion. A type that is now very little used. END-PAPERS (binding).—The blank leaves at the beginning

or end of a book.-HanNETT.

ENGLISH (typography).—

French, Saint Augustin; German, Mittel; Dutch, Augustyn; Italian, Silvio

A type the next size larger than *Pica; used for Church Bibles and works in folio

and quarto.

ENIGMATIC-PSEUDONYM (bibliography). — As Biblio

théque Bibliophile-Facétieuse, editée par les frères Gébéodé, i. e., Gustave Brunet and Octave Delpierre), thus G[ustave)

é b[runet] é, o[ctave] d[elpierrJe.-0. H. EVEN PAGE (printing).—The 2d, 4th, 6th, or any other even

numbered page. EXOTERIC BOOKS.-Those intended for the use of popular

and ordinary readers.—Rees' Cyclopædia. EXTRA or CALF EXTRA (binding).—A term applied to a

book when it is well forwarded, lined with good marble paper, has silk head-bands, and gilt with a narrow roll round the sides and inside the squares.—HANNETT.

FAC (typography).—Wooden or metal square blocks, with em

blematical figures, flowers, etc., pierced in the centre to admit a capital letter at the beginning of a chapter, intended to represent the illuminations of manuscripts.

" These ornaments,” says savage, were called Facs, an abbreviation, I believe, for

Facsimile." FILLETED (binding).—When the bands of a volume are

marked with a single gilt line only.-HANNETT, FINISHER (binding).—The workman who executes the color

ing, gilding, and other ornamental operations of binding.–

HanneTT. FIRST PROOF (printing). French, feuille d'épreuve; German,

abzug. The first impression of any matter after it is composed,

for the purpose of comparing it with the copy. FLY-LEAF (printing).- French, allonge; German, anzeigeblatt.

The blank leaf at the commencement or end of a book. FOLDER (binding).—The person who folds the book according to the pages previous to its being sewn. In large towns it is generally done by females.-HANNETT.

FOLIO (bibliography).—French, folio, in-folio; German, in-folio.

The size of a book printed on paper of whatever dimensions folded into two leaves making four pages-contraction, fol. A folio sheet may be known, if printed without signatures, by the water-marks being always perpendicular, and the paper

mark in the middle. FOLIOING (printing).— French, pagination ; German, paginir

ung. Pagination, paging, numbering. FOOLSCAP PAPER (the usual sizė 17 inches by 13).

French, papier écolier; German, schreibpapier.—Notes and Queries, 2d Series, Vol. I, p. 251. It is stated that when Charles I found his revenues short he granted certain privileges, amounting to monopolies, and among these was the manufacture of paper, the exclusive right of which was sold to certain parties. At this time all English paper bore in watermarks the Royal Arms. The Parliament under Cromwell ordered that the Royal Arms be removed from the

paper,

and the fool's cap and bell to be substituted. This statement requires authentication. See the Archeologia, Vol. xii, 117,

and Chambers' Book of Days, Vol. I, p. 533. FOOT-LINE (printing).—The line at the bottom of the first

page of each sheet, under which is placed the signature.

HANNETT. FORE-EDGE (binding). — The front edge of a book. FORMÆ LITERATUM (printing).—The expression used

by Cicero (De natura decorum) to types made of metal, and the very words used by the first printers to designate them.

REES' Cyclopædia, Art. Printing. FOR PRESS (printing). — These words are written in the cor

ner at the top of the last proof sent from the reader to the

“pressman,” to notify him that it is ready for printing. FORRELL (binding).—Rough undressed skins of beasts used

in early times for bindings. Specimens are to be seen some

times in old libraries.-HANNETT. FORWARDING (binding). --All the operations of bookbinding

up to coloring.-HANNETT. FOUL PROOF (printing). French, épreuve chargée ; Ger

man, schmutziger abzug. A proof with many corrections marked in it.

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GÄNSE-AUGEN — Geese-eyes (typography): — The German

nick-name for inverted commas, “an appellation by which they are known to both printers and writers in Germany.”—

Johnson's Typography, Vol. 11, p. 58, note. GALVANOGLYPHY.-A process patented by E. Palmer in

1841, for obtaining in relief on a copperplate, by means of galvanism, the copy of any etching, etc., first drawn on another plate by a peculiar process. For an account of which, see

Abridgment of Specification on Printing, p. 32. GALVANOGRAPHY.-A process which, by means of gal

vanism, reproduces an intaglio copy of the original (which is prepared by a peculiar process), which is in actual copperplate, representing an aquatint, and obtained without the assistance

of an engraver.Abridgment of Specification on Printing, p. 31. GEONYM (bibliography).–Name of a country, town, or vil

lage, as an Englishman, a Londoner, an American.-0. H. GILT (binding). —A book bound firm and strong, having plain

end papers and back gilt.—Hannett. GILT EDGES (binding).–French, doré sur tranche; German,

goldschnitt. Leaves of a book gilt on the edges; contraction,

8.e. GLAIRE (binding). —Name given to the white of eggs used in

the process of gilding.-HANNETT. GRAPHOTYPE (engraving).-A process in which the design

is drawn from chalk, spread upon a metal plate with chemical ink, and then hardens. The chalk is then brushed

away,

leaving the design on relief, from which a “a squeeze,” and afterwards an electrotype, can be taken and printed at press.—See

Journal of the Society of Arts, Vol. xiv, p. 51.
GREAT PRIMER (typography). -

French, Gros Romain, Gros Texte ;
German, Grosse Antiquaschrift, Tertia;
Dutch, Text; Italian, Testo. A type sometimes called Bible
Text, from its being used to print Bibles, and Primer for being
formerly used for those books. It is the largest size used for
books now.

GROLIER (binding).—A term applied to a

-A term applied to a particular kind of ornamental leather binding introduced by Jean Grolier, Viscount d’Aguisi, one of the four treasurers of France (born at Lyons in 1479, died in 1565), who collected a magnificent library, and had the books splendidly bound. In 1675 his library was dispersed. Gascon, the celebrated binder of the time, was chiefly employed by Grolier, but the designs are said to have been composed by himself in moments of leisure. Grolier's books were inscribed “Io Grolierii et amicorvm,” indicating that they were for the use of his friends as well as

himself. GROOVES (binding).—The projections formed on the sides of

the books in backing to admit of the boards laying even with

the back when laced in.-Hannett. GUTTER (binding).—The round front edge of a volume,

formed by Aattening the circular back previous to cutting.–

HANNETT. GUARDS (binding).--Shreds of strong paper interspersed and

sewn in a book for the insertion of prints or other matter, to prevent its being uneven when filled ; also the pieces project

ing over the end-papers.-HANNETT. GUILLEMETS (typography).—The French name for inverted

commas, so called from owing their origin to M. Guillemet.JOHNSON, P. 58.

HAGIONYM (bibliography).—The name of a saint taken as a

proper name.-G. H. HALF-BOUND (binding). - French, demi-reliure ; German,

halbfranzband. When the back and corners of a book only are covered with leather, and the sides with paper or cloth;

contraction, hf.-bd. HALF-EXTRA (binding). — Books forwarded carefully, and

lined with marble paper, having silk hand-bands and narrow

roll round the sides, but plain inside.-Hannert. HEAD (binding).—The top of a volume.—Hannett. HEAD-BAND (binding).—French, tranche-file; German, capital.

The silk or cotton ornament placed at the top and bottom of the back.-HANNETT.

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