Universities and Science in the Early Modern Period

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Mordechai Feingold, Victor Navarro-Brotons
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 9, 2006 - Education - 309 pages
This book includes most of the contributions presented at a conference on “Univ- sities and Science in the Early Modern Period” held in 1999 in Valencia, Spain. The conference was part of the “Five Centuries of the Life of the University of Valencia” (Cinc Segles) celebrations, and from the outset we had the generous support of the “Patronato” (Foundation) overseeing the events. In recent decades, as a result of a renewed attention to the institutional, political, social, and cultural context of scienti?c activity, we have witnessed a reappraisal of the role of the universities in the construction and development of early modern science. In essence, the following conclusions have been reached: (1) the attitudes regarding scienti?c progress or novelty differed from country to country and follow differenttrajectoriesinthecourseoftheearlymodernperiod;(2)institutionsofhigher learning were the main centers of education for most scientists; (3) although the universities were sometimes slow to assimilate new scienti?c knowledge, when they didsoithelpednotonlytoremovethesuspicionthatthenewsciencewasintellectually subversivebutalsotomakesciencearespectableandevenprestigiousactivity;(4)the universities gave the scienti?c movement considerable material support in the form of research facilities such as anatomical theaters, botanical gardens, and expensive instruments; (5) the universities provided professional employment and a means of support to many scientists; and (6) although the relations among the universities and the academies or scienti?c societies were sometimes antagonistic, the two types of institutionsoftenworkedtogetherinharmony,performingcomplementaryratherthan competing functions; moreover, individuals moved from one institution to another, as did knowledge, methods, and scienti?c practices.

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Contents

Introduction
1
Modern Attitudes Toward Ancient Problems
9
The University of Salamanca and the Renaissance of Astronomy During the Second Half of the 15th Century
29
Medical Science and Medical Teaching at the University of Salamanca in the 15th Century
37
Its Position in Renaissance Europe
65
The Cultivation of Astronomy in Spanish Universities in the Latter Half of the 16th Century
83
The Sphere of Jacques du ChevreulL Astronomy at the University of Paris in the 1620s
99
Lectures and Practices The Variety of Mathematical and Mechanical Teaching at the University of Uppsala in the 17th Century
111
Natural Philosophy and Mathematics in Portuguese Universities 15501650
153
Venetian Policy toward the University of Padua and Scientific Progress During the 18th Century
169
The Culture of Science in the Scottish Universities
183
The Sciences at the University of Rome in the 18th Century
201
Enlightenment and Renovation in the Spanish University
231
Building Up a New Genre of Scientific Literature
241
Botany in University Studies in the Late 18th Century The Case of University in 18th Century Barcelona
259
Scientific Education and the Crisis of the University in 18th Century Barcelona
273

Mathematical Research in Italian Universities in the Modern Era
127
Universities Academies and Sciences in Italy in the Modern Age
141
The Theories of Copernicus and Newton in the Viceroyship of Nueva Granada and the Audiencia de Caracas During the 18th Century
289
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