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and all his immediate predecessors very early displayed themselves; and, were distinguished men. His grand to use the words of a most respectable father, while he was yet only a student gentleman, his contemporary, “ He at the Temple, was entrusted with a was distinguished by a successful comnegociation in Holland ; and so suce petition for academical honours with cessfully acquitted himself, that he several young men, who afterwards was honoured and rewarded by King became the ornaments of the Irish William for his services. Having been Senate and Bar.” It appears that at called to the Irish bar about 1700, he his outset he had laid down to himself became one of the most eminent bar those rules of study to which he ever risters that have ever appeared in that afterwards steadily adhered. His purcountry. His professional fame has suits were various, but they were not only been eclipsed by that of bis eldest desultory. He was anxious for geneson, the still more celebrated Anthony ral information, as far as it could be Malone, whose superiority has not, accurately obtained ; but had no va. however, been universally acknow. lue for that superficial smattering ledged. To any one, who is even which fills the world with brisk and slightly acquainted with the history empty talkers. When sitting down to of Ireland, it would be superfluous to the perusal of any work, either an. point out the extraordinary qualities tient er modern, his attention was which adorned the character of An drawn to its chronology, the history thony Malone. As a lawyer, an ora and character of its author, the feel. tor, and an able and upright states ings and prejudices of the times in man, he was confessedly one of the which he lived ; and any other collamost illustrious men that his country teral information which might tend to has produced. Edmond, the second illustrate his writings, or acquaint us son of Richard, and the father of the with his probable views, and cast of late Mr. Malone, was born on the thinking. In later years he was more 16th of April, 1704. He was called particularly engrossed by the literato the English bar in 1730, where he ture of his own country; but the continued for ten years to practise ; knowledge he had acquired in his and, in 1740, removed to the Irish youth had been too assiduously colbar. After having sat in several par. lected, and too firmly fixed in his Jiaments, and gone through the usual mind, not to retain possession of his gradations of professional ravk, he memory, and preserve that purity and was raised, in 1766, to the dignity of elegance of taste which is rarely to be one of the Judges of the Court of met with but in those who have early Common Pleas in Ireland, an office derived it from the models of classiwhich he filled till his death in 1774. cal antiquity. He appears frequently He married, in 1736, Catherine, only at this period, in common with some daughter and heir of Benjamin Col- of his accomplished contemporaries, lier, esq. of Ruckholts, in the county to have amused himself with slight of Essex, by whom he had four sons, poetical compositions ; and on the Richard, now Lord Sunderlin; Ed marriage of their present Majesties mond, the subject of our present Me contributed an Ode to the collection moir; Anthony and Benjamin, who of congratulatory verses which issued died in their infancy; and two daugh
on that event from the University of ters, Henrietta and Catherine.
Dublin. In 1763 he became a student Edmond Malone was born at his fa. in the 'Iuner Temple; and in 1767 was ther's house in Dublin, on the 4th of called to the Irish bar. It might na. October, 1741. He was educated at turally have been expected that the the school of Dr. Ford, in Moles. example of his distinguished relatives, worth-street ; and went from thence, et puter Æneas et avunculus Hector, in the year 1756, to the University of would have stimulated him to pursue Dublin, where he took the degree of the same career in which they had Batchelor of Arts. Here his talents been so honourably successful; and
that he would have attained to the volume of Archdall's Peerage of Ire highest rank in a profession for which land, which, it is believed, was drawn up he was so admirably fitted by bis na. by Mr. Malone himself, and which con lural acutevess and steady habits of tains å full and interesting delineation application; and accordingly, at his of his grandfather and uncle.
first appearance in the Courts, he
gave every promise of future emi. Mr. Steevens having published a
But an independent fortune second edition of his Shakspeare, in having soon after devolved upon him, 1778; Mr. Malone, in 1750, added he felt himself at liberty to retire two supplementary volumes, which from the bar, and devote his whole contained additional notes, attention in future to those literary Shakspeare's poems, and seven plays pursuits which have laid the founda- which have been ascribed to "hiin. tion of his fame, and have entitled. There appears up to this time to have him to the gratitude of every English been no interruption to their friendscholar. With a view to those supe: ship; but, on the contrary, Mr. Steerior opportunities for information and vens, having formed a design of relinstudy, and the society which London quishing all future editorial labours, affords, he soon after settled in that most liberally made a present to Mr. metropolis ; and resided there with Malone of his valuable collection of very little intermission for the re old plays, declaring that he himself mainder of his life. Such society, in was now become “ a dowager comdeed, as he met with there must have mentator.” It is painful to think that been a perpetual feast of intellectual this harmony should ever have been enjoyment to one so well-qualified to disturbed, or that any thing should appreciate its value. It is no exag- have created any variance between geration to say that centuries may two such men, who were su well qua. elapse before two such men as Burke lified to co-operate for the benefit of and Johnson can be brought together; the literary world. Mr. Malone, have and how long may we look in vain for ing continued his researches into all such a combination of various and the topicks which might serve to ilsplendid talent as was collected by the lustrate our great Dramatist, discoliberal and tasteful hospitality of Sir vered, that although much had been Joshua Reynolds, himself one of the done, yet that much still remained for brightest ornaments of the age in critical industry; and that a still more which he lived. Among the many accurate collation of the early.co. eminent men with whom he becanie pies than had hitherto taken place carly acquainted, he was naturally was necessary towards a correct and drawn by the enthusiastic admiration faithful exhibition of the author's which he felt for Shakspeare, and
text. His materials accumulated so the attention which he had already fast, that he determined to appear bepaid to the elucidation of his works, fore the world as an Editor in form. into a particularly intimate inter- From that moment he seems to have course with Mr. Steevens. The just been regarded with jealousy by the views which he himself had formed elder Commentator, who appears to led him to recognize in the system of have sought an opportunity for a rupcriticism and illustration which that ture, which he soon afterwards found, gentleman then adopted, the only or rather created. But it is necessary means by which a correct exhibition to go back for a moment, to point of our great Poet could be obtained, out another of Mr. Malone's produce Mr. Steevens was gratified to find that tions. There are few events in liter one so well acquainted with the sub- rary history more extraordinary in all ject entertained that high estimation its circumstances than the publication of his labours which Mr. Malone ex. of the poeins attributed to Rowley, pressed ; and very soon discovered the Mr. Malone was firmly convinced that advantage he might derive from the the whole was a fabrication by Chat. communications of a mind so richly terton; and, to support his opinion, stored. Mr. Malone was ready and published one of the earliest pamliberal in imparting his knowledge, phlets which appeared in the course which, on the other part, was most of this singular controversy. By exgratefully received. In one of Mr. hibiting a series of specimens from Steevens's letters, after acknowledg- early English writers, both prior and ing in the warmest terms the value of posterior to the period in which this Mr. Malone's assistance, he adopts the supposed Poet was represeuted to have language of their favourite, Shaks. lived, he proved that his style bore no peare :
resemblance to genuine antiquity i Only I have left to say, and by stripping Rowley of bis anMure is thy due than more than all can tique garb, which was easily done by pay;"
the substitution of modern sypony.
mous words in the places of those ob- Mr. Ritson (of whose seeming maligsolete expressions which are sprinkled nity of temper it would be cruel to throughout these compositions, and speak with harshness, as it is now well at the same time intermingling some known that it proceeded from a disarchæological phrases in the acknow- turbed state of mind which terminated ledged productions of Chatterton, he at last in the most deplorable calaclearly showed that they were all of mity that can afflict human nature,) the same character, and equally bore appeared against it in an angry and evident marks of inodern versifica- scurrilous pamphlet. The misrepretion, and a modern structure of lan- sentations in this performance were so guage. He was followed by Mr. War. gross, and so easy of detection, though ton and Mr. Tyrwhitt, in his Second calculated to mislead a careless reader, Appendix; and although a few strag- that Mr. Malone thought it worth his gling believers yet exist, the public while to point them out in a letter mind is pretty well made up upon the which he published, addressed to his subject. But to return to Shakspeare. friend Dr. Farmer. Poor Ritson, While Mr. Malone was engaged in however, has not been the only one this work, he received from Mr. Stee- who has attempted to persuade the veps a request of a most extraordinary world that they have been mistaken nature. In a third edition of John. in Mr. Malone's character as a critic. son avd Steevens's Shakspeare, which He has been assailed, not many years had been published under the super. back, in a similar way indecd, but by intendance of Mr. Reed, in 1785, Mr.
a person of a very different descripMalone had contributed some notes tion. A gentleman, high in the Law, in which Mr. Steevens's opinions were having unluckily persuaded himself occasionally controverted. These he that if a mao is ambitious of being was now desired to retain in his new witty, nothing more is necessary than edition, exactly as they stood before, that he should cease to be grave, in order that Mr. S. might answer thought proper to descend from the them. Mr. Malone replied, that he Bench, and indulge himself in soms could make no such promise; that he unwieldy gambols, which he flattered must feel bimself at liberty to correct himself were at Mr. Malone's expense. his observations, where they were er To this hapless piece of pleasantry Mr. roneous; to enlarge them, where they Malone made no reply: Mr. Horne were defective; and even to expunge Tooke, who, whatever were his talents them altogether, where, upon further as a grammarian, or his knowledge as consideration, he was convinced they an Anglo-Saxon, had by no means an were wrong; in short, he was bound extensive acquaintance with the lito present his work to the publick as terature of 'Shakspeare's age, has perfect as he could make it. But he mentioned Mr. Malone and Dr. Johnadded, that he was willing to transmit son with equal contempt *, and imevery note of that description in its
* The passage to wbich I have alluded last state to Mr. Steevens, before it is in ENEA IITEPOENTA, vol. II, went to press; that he might answer p. 319; and will show into what abit if he pleased ; and that Mr. Malone surdity a man of real talent may be would even preclude himself from the drawn, when he is carried away by an privilege of replying. Mr. Steevens hypothesis, or, (which I rather believe to persisted iv requiring that they should be the case in this instance,) writes un, appear with all their imperfections on der the influence of spleen. “In the their head ; and on this being refused, Winter's Tale, Act I. Scene I. p. 273, declared that all communication on the subject of Shakspeare was at an
• Come (Sir Page) end between them *In 1790, Mr.
Looke on me with your WELKIN eye,' Malone's edition at last appeared ;
On which passage S. Johnson says, hardand
ily as usual, “Welkin eye: blue eye; an was sought after and read with the
eye of the same colour with the welkin greatest avidily. It is unnecessary to
or sky.' And this is accepted and repoint out its merits; the public opi- peated by Malone. I can only say that nion upon it has been long pronounced. ibis Note is worthy of them both; and It cannot indeed be strictly said that they of each other. Welkin is the preit met with universal approbation. sent participle Willigend, or Wearcyns,
* These particulars are collected from i. e. Polvens quod volvit of the Anglothe correspondence which passed between Saxon verb Willigan Wealcan, volure them, which Mr. Malone preserved. revolvere, which is equally applicable to
mediately after proceeds to sveer at as one of the most convincing pieces
“ MY DEAR SIR,
[No date.] which had belonged to his brother
"Upon my coming to my new habitaThomas, and which he presented to tion in town, I found your valuable work Mr. Malone as the person for whom upon my table. I take it as a very good its former possessor felt the highest earnest of the instruction and pleasure esteem and the most cordial regard, which may be yet reserved for my deobserves to him that his edition is by clining years. Though I have had many far, very far, the best that had ever little arrangements to make, both of a appeared. Professor Porson, who, as publick and private nature, my occupaevery one who knew him can testify, tions were not able to overrule my cuwas by no means in the habit of be- riosity, nor to prevent me from going stowing hasty or thoughtless praise, through almost the whole of your able, declared to the Writer of this ac.
exact, and interesting History of the count, that he considered the Essay vial thing to those who wish to study hu-"
Stage. A history of the Stage is no trion the three parts of Henry the Sixth
man nature in all shapes and positions.
It is of all things the most instructive, an eye of any colour, to what revolves - to see not only the reflection of manners or rolls over our heads, and to the waves and characters at several periods, but the of the sea, peaacynoe ea peacende sæ." modes of making their reflection, and Had Mr. Tooke produced an instance the manner of adapting it at those pefrom any one author, who wrote in Eng- riods to the taste and disposition of manlish, of welkin having been used in the kind. The Stage indeed may be consisense of rolling, or in any other than dered as the republick of active literathat of the sky, or been able to per ture, and its history as the history of that suade us that Shakspeare was an Anglo- state. The great events of political hise Saxon, there miglit have been some tory, when not combined with the same ground for his criticism, though no excuse helps towards the study of the manners for his petulance. Ingenious etymology and characters of men, must be a study is always amusing, and, where we are in of an inferior nature. the dark with regard to the meaning of “ You have taken infinite pains, and a word, may sometimes furnish us with a pursued your enquiries with great sagaclue to discover it; but to adhere to the city, not only in this respect, but in such primitive and obsolete signification of of your notes as hitherto I have been a term, when in the course of those able to peruse. You have earned your changes which every language undergoes repose by publick-spirited labour. But it has deflected into another sense, which I cannot help hoping, that when you is known aird established, is surely little have given yourself the relaxation which better than idle pedantry. As well might you will find necessary to your health, if we maintain that hostis, in the age of you are not called to exert your great ta. Augustus, meant only a stranger, be- lents, and employ your great acquisicause Çicero informs us that it was so tions in the transitory service to your used in the earlier ages of the Repub- country which is done in active life, you lick; or, to take our examples from our will continue to do it that permanent own language, with as much propriety service which it receives from the lamight we say that a man is a knave in bours of those who know how to make proportion as he is poor, (Vide EMEA the silence of their closets more beneÍTEP. vol. II. p. 425,) or describe a ficial to the world than all the noise and beautiful young lady as being uncouth, bustle of courts, senates, and camps. because we have not the honour of her “ I beg leave to send you a pamphlet acquaintance, and she is therefore un which I have lately published. It is of known to us.
an edition more correct, I think, than any
of the first; and rendered more clear in notes of his own, and procured many points wbere I thought, in looking over valuable communications from his again what I had written, there was friends, among whom its readers will some obscurity. Pray do not think my readily distinguish Mr. Bindley. Aug not having done this more early was account of Mr. Malone would be imowing to neglect or oblivion, or from any want of the highest and most sin- long intimacy with that gentleman,
perfect which omitted to mention bis cere respect to you ; but the truth is,
whò is not so remarkable as the pos(and I have no doubt you will believe me,) that it was a point of delicacy which
sessor of one of the most valuable liprevented me from doing myself that ho-braries in this country, as he is for the
I well knew that the publication accurate and extensive information of your Shakspeare was hourly expected; which enables him to use it, and the and I thought if I had sent that small benevolent politeness with which be is donum, the fruit of a few weeks, I might always willing to impart his know(have) subjected myself to the suspicion ledge to others. There was no ope of a little Diomedean policy, in drawing whom Mr. Malone more cordially from you a return of the value of an bun- loved. dred cows for iny nine. But you have In 1795 he was again called forth led the way; and have sent me gold, to display his zeal in defence of Shakwhich I can only repay you in my brass. But
speare, against the contemptible faadmit pray on your shelves; and
brications with which the Irelands enyou will show yourself generous in your deavoured to delude the publick. Alacceptance, as well as your gift. Pray though this imposture, unlike the present my best respects to Lord and Lady Sunderlin, and to Miss Malone. I
were pers am, with the most sincere affection and formances of extraordinary genius, gratitude, my dear Sir, your most faith
exhibited about the same proportion ful and obliged humble servant,
of talent as it did of honesty, yet
EDM. BURKE." some persons of no small name were Having concluded his laborious hastily led into a belief of its authen. work, he paid a visit to his friends in ticity. Mr. Malone saw through the Ireland; but soon after returned to falsehood of the whole from its comhis usual occupations in London. mencement; and laid bare the fraud, Amidst his own dumerous and press. in a pamphlet, which was written in ing avocations he was not inattentive the form of a letter to his friend Lord to the calls of friendship. In 1791 Charlemont, a nobleman with whom appeared Mr. Boswell's Life of Dr. he lived on the most intimate footing, Johnson, a work in which Mr. Malone and maintained a constant correspondfelt at all times a very lively interest, ence. It has been thought by some and gave every assistance to its author that the labour which he bestowed during its progress which it was in his upon this performance was more than power to bestow. His acquaintance commensurate with the importance with this gentleman commenced in of the subject ; and it is true that a 1795, when, happening accidentally at slighter effort would have been suffi. Mr. Baldwin's printing-house to be cient to have overthrown this wretchshewn a sheet of the Tour to the He- ed fabrication ; but we have reason to brides, which contained Johnson's rejoice that Mr. Malone was led into character, he was so much struck a fuller discussion than was his inien. with the spirit and fidelity of the por- tion at the outset ; we owe to it a work trail, that he requested to be intro- which, for acutebess of reisuping, and duced to its writer. From this period the curious and interesting view which a friendship took place bel ween then, it presents of Engiish literature, will which ripened into the sirietest and retain its value long after the trash most cordial intimacy, and lasted
which it was designed to expose shall without interruption as long as Mr. have been consigned to oblivion. Mr. Boswell lived. After his death, in Malone, in the year 1792, had the 1795, Mr. Malone continued to show misfortune to lose his adınirable friend every mark of affectionate attention Sir Joshua Reynolds, whose death has towards his family ; and in every suc
left a chasm in society which will not cessive edilion of Johnson's Life took easily be supplied; and his executors, the most'unwearied pains to render it of whom Mr. Malone had the hoover as much as possible correct and per. to be one, haring delcrmined in 1797 fect. He illustrated it with many to give the world a complete collec