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delegates, elect its officers and control their admission will prove disastrous to of untrained teachers as their bodies are its policies.

the interests of the unfortunate pupils protected from the quackery of untrained As an organization it is simply these who may come under their influence. physicians. If the teaching profession is State and local associations functioning The remedy is simple enough. Leg- to be elevated in public esteem it must unitedly and nationally. The Associa

The Associa- islatures must throw around the teach- be protected from the demoralizing intion should be to every teacher in the ing profession the safeguards of high fluence of the incompetent and unUnited States “Our National Associa- professional standards. The intellectual trained.

Our slogan must be not tion," just as each of the State associa- and moral development of youth should merely higher salaries, but higher saltions should be to all the teachers in the be protected by law from the quackery aries and higher standards. respective states, “Our State Association." Loyalty on the part of all teachers to their State and national associations will mean much in promoting the interests of the teachers and of the pro

EDUCATIONAL OPINION fession.

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Salaries and Standards
IGH MINIMUM salaries for

The Awakening

A Matter of Common Sense teachers without proper stand

ITH the suffrage extended to: ards of professional equipment are sure at last. There were those who saw women, there is even greater need to work to the detriment of both the a new National Education Association, a than ever before in the history of the schools and the teachers. The changes modern institution, that must grow in Republic for an educated electorate. now taking place in our industrial con- structural strength and

scope,

and

Every specialist worth his salt knows ditions will

make this fact through these in service and achievement. that all other methods of Americanizaapparent.

They envisioned an edifice that was rep- tion are as nothing compared with the There is always a shifting industrial resentative of every phase of American value of the public school, and particuclass which changes from one occupa- educational effort, and saw the necessity larly the public school treated as a comtion to another, attracted by the avail- of welding the various forces into an or- munity center and accessible to young able positions which pay the best sal- ganized whole, capable of expressing and old. aries. For several years those who effectively, comprehensively and elo- It ought to be and will be viewed as make up this class have been employed quently the educational tendencies and a grave public scandal, therefore, if we in the various occupations which have aspirations of the entire Nation. do not stiffen the appropriations for paid high wages. Teaching has had no Build up the National Education As- educational purposes everywhere and attraction for them because of the com- sociation. Let its leaders strive for nu- work out that relationship of the Cenparatively low salaries of teachers. merical strength, for democratic meth- tral Government to the States in the They have no professional spirit, little ods, for the highest degree of service. matter of educational development that if any professional training, and would Let the organization command the at- is the crying need of the hour. During never engage in teaching except for the tention, the respect and the confidence the last sessions of Congress all sorts of money they may get out of it.

of the statesmanship, of the press and futile efforts were made to pass a law The demand for workers at high the public of an entire country to the which would set up a real and not a wages is growing less. It is already

It is already end that it may render a higher and makeshift Department of Education, noticeable that many who have been nobler service to the cause of popular with a Secretary in the Cabinet and with otherwise employed are turning to teach- education and the progress of the Na- appropriation apportioned to the sev

. ing, not as a profession and not because tion.-School Board Journal.

eral States in due degree to their coöpthey love the work or are fitted for it,

eration with the federal board. There but simply to take advantage of the in

The New N. E. A.

is no invasion of States' rights in such a A.

measure. It helps the States reach that

is everywhere ap- educational level that the best minds of been safeguarded by proper professional parent. We are sure that the regis- the country realize must be attained to standards.

tration will go above 100,000 this year, get results in the future. That the This shifting class of workers is not and it will be no surprise if it goes above country should gag over the expenditure turning to the legal or medical profes- 200,000. This will give a financial

This will give a financial of the proper amount necessary to secure sions, because the requirements of these support and organized sentiment that

trained teachers is unthinkable. It is professions are such that they could not will make anything possible.

about time we faced this issue flatly and be admitted without years of study, The new National Education Asso- realized that it is not a matter of sentiwhich they are quite unwilling to pur- ciation will inevitably be the greatest

mental altruism but of downright comsue. For the same reasons they are not professional organization of any kind in mon horse sense. We have backed too turning to the other professions, but be- the world. To oppose it would be fool- many wrong horses in a wasteful way cause in very many States “almost any- ish, to doubt it would be silly. The in our national budgets, and now is the body can get a license to teach school" teachers of America welcome it heart- time to put our money on the right they are turning to teaching. Not only ily, and they will support it with virtual team, the well-trained teacher in are they coming into open competition unanimity.-Dr. A. E. Winship in the properly appointed school.-Philadel

with competent, trained teachers, but Journal of Education.

pia Ledger.

creased salaries that have been granted THAT THE new N. E. Andis uni

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RATIFIED two Tamendments

cept by Sate of the people is and fixes the STATE superintendency is changed are meants in its supporto e Membersing

Richmond's New Schedule

NEW single salary schedule has THE EDUCATIONAL ADVANCE

been adopted by the Board of Education of Richmond, Virginia, which places that city in the lead among southern cities.

The schedule is based on

the recommendation of the National California

Louisiana

Education Association as contained in AS adopted by a vote of almost two

the Evenden report. The minimum to one an amendment to the con

November 2. The first provides salary is $1,200 and the maximum stitution providing for the financing of for additional school tax of one mill on $1,800 for teachers having two years of elementary and secondary schools. The the State assessment. The funds realized professional training, and up to $2,400 amendment was prepared by a com- from this additional tax will amount to for college graduates, applicable to all mittee of the California Teachers' Asso- between a million and a half and two grades. The total increase is about ciation and is considered the most im- million dollars and are to be distributed thirty-four per cent and will add $366,portant educational measure submitted on the basis of school population. The 000 to the annual budget. To take to the people of California since 1849. second amendment fixes the tax levy in effect this schedule must be approved

This amendment fixes the annual New Orleans at seven mills on the city by the City Council, which levies the State contribution for elementary schools assessment, which increases the revenues tax. It was unanimously agreed upon at $30 per pupil, which is an increase of that city by several million dollars. by the teachers of Richmond, at whose of approximately 50 per cent and makes

request Field Secretary Hugh S. Magill it impossible to reduce this amount ex

Nebraska's

appeared before the Board and presented vote ;

. of contribution for high school

a to four-office, the Board expressed themselves as purposes at $30 per pupil, which is an with a salary change from $2,000 to particularly impressed by the Field Secincrease of 100 per cent.

$5,000 per year by a constitutional retary's report of the salaries' schedules It writes into the constitution the pro- amendment adopted by the people. recently adopted by other leading cities visions of the county high school fund bill, which more than any other law has promoted the development of high

Denver's Salary Schedule schools in California; and the provisions

HE BOARD of Education of Denver, Colorado, has adopted and of the county elementary school tax law,

put into operation a new salary schedule which adds over half a making their repeal impossible except million dollars to the school budget and which is based on the principle by vote of the people. It guarantees that teachers with equivalent ability, training, and experience should that all the money raised by the State be paid the same salaries whether they teach in high school, junior and 60 per cent of the money 'raised high school, or elementary school. Superintendent Jesse H. Newlon by the county for school purposes shall

and his teachers are enthusiastic over the situation, Denver being the be used for teaching.

first large city to adopt a straight-out single schedule.

The minimum professional training required for appointment to a posiGeorgia

tion in the elementary schools is graduation from a standard two-year

normal school course (two years above the high school) or its equivalent. AS adopted constitutional amend

The provisions of the schedule apply to all grades in the schools so that ments which practically create a equal qualifications command equal pay throughout the system. new educational constitution so that for

Approved experience up to two years in other school systems is recogthe first time Georgia may be called a nized in the new schedule and liberal provision is made for leaves of public school State, according to State

absence for advanced study or for sickness. The schedule became effective Superintendent M. L. Brittain. The December 1, and provides immediate increases ranging from $500 down. last constitutional convention in Georgia

Yearly Preparation

Minimum Maximum Increases met in 1877. It was hostile to public

Normal school graduate (high school plus two years) education and because of experiences

$1,200 $2,040 7 x $120

2,280 High school plus three years. with carpet-bag government it curtailed

2 x 120;

above $2,040 the taxing power, making it almost impossible to obtain local aid for education High school plus four years (for teachers with four

years of professional training not organized so as through local taxation. To remedy this

to obtain a degree from a standard college or

university) situation two amendments to the consti

2,520 2 x 120;

above $2,280 tution were ratified by large majorities

maximum by the people on November 2. The A. B. degree from standard college or university.... 1,500 2,880 8 x 150

and 1 x 180 first amendment requires every county A. M. degree.....

3,080 2 x 100 to levy a local tax throughout its boun

above A. B.

maximum daries in addition to State aid received.

Teachers appointed in last few years who have less than The second removes restrictions against the minimum requirement as to preparation....

1.800 6 x 100 State appropriations for high schools.

THE

H

or less

maximum

Schools THE SALARIES, training and sexperience of public school teachers in Median Salaries Paid to Women Elementary

Teachers During School Year 1919-20

894

885

869 863 861

746

845 814 811

783

CITIES 8,000 TO 30,000

POPULATION

Eastern States
Ansonia, Conn.

.$1,550
Central Falls, R. I... 1,339
Melrose, Mass.

1,334 West Springfield, Mass 1,322 Arlington, Mass.

1,281 Beverly, Mass.

1, 244 Montclair, N. J.

1,240 Weymouth, Mass.

... 1,229 Englewood, N. J. 1,211 Middletown, Conn.

1,203
Methuen, Mass.

1,157
Greenfield, Mass. 1,155
New Brunswick, N. J. 1,153
Clinton, Mass.

1,145
Plainfield, N. J.

1,133 Tonawanda, N. Y. 1, 129 Enfield, Conn.

1,117 Gardner, Mass.

1,061
Revere, Mass.

1,056
Lackawanna, N. Y. 1,050
Glens Falls, N. Y. 1,048
North Attleboro, Mass. 1,041
Norwich, Conn.

1,039
Sharon, Pa.

1,038
Easthampton, Mass. 1,035
Little Falls, N. Y. 1,025
Oneida, N. Y.

1,009
Attleboro, Mass.

1,003 New London, Conn. 994 Olean, N. Y.

985 Asbury Park, N. J... Cohoes, N. Y.

963 Latrobe, Pa.

960 Rahway, N. J.

955 Port Chester, N.

955 Marlboro, Mass.

947 Carbondale, Pa.

942 Bradford, Pa.

913 Kingston, N. Y.

909 Gloversville, N. Y.

004
Monessen, Pa.

880
Waterville, Me.
Norwalk, Conn.

861
Saratoga Springs, N. Y.
Titusville, Pa.
Lebanon, Pa.

857
Charleroi, Pa.
Dunkirk, N. Y,

845

the United States have long been known to be inadequate to maintain the schools at a reasonable standard of performance. Salaries were so low before the war that schools were fast drifting into inefficiency. If the cost of living had remained stationary, far-sighted management of public education would have required that salaries be greatly increased all along the line. But the cost of living doubled between 1914 and 1920, leaving teachers' salaries much more inadequate than they had previously been. Full light is thrown on the seriousness of the situation by a report, Know and Help Your Schools, which represents careful investigation of the teacher situation in 359 cities of 8,000 population or more, conducted by a committee, which is composed of 33 secretaries of chambers of commerce and 33 superintendents of schools. Dr. George D. Strayer, Professor of Educational Administration, Teachers' College, Columbia University, is Chairman of the Committee. Much of the work of preparing the report was done by Dr. M. G. Neale, Professor of Educational Administration, University of Missouri, and Dr. E. S. Evenden, who prepared the monumental report on Teachers' Salaries, which was published by the National Education Association in 1919.2

By consulting the figures here reproduced it is possible for any interested person to compare the salaries paid women elementary teachers in his city with salaries paid in other cities of the same size in his section of the country. By consulting the full report it is possible to obtain similar information for women high school teachers.

The table at the right shows salary increases for various groups of teachers in the various classes of cities during the period from 1913-14 to 1919-20. The net increase is only 61 per cent.

Pottsville, Pa.

845 Bridgeton, N. J.

838 Oneonta, N. Y.

821 Phoenixville, Pa.

799 Millville, N. J.

789 Tyrone, Pa.

785 Fulton, N. Y.

782 Granville, N. Y.

773 Lansford, Pa.

766 Keene, N. H.

763 Laconia, N. H.

758 Lewistown, Pa.

747
Bath, Me.

747
Carlisle, Pa.
Columbia, Pa.

746
Coatesville, Pa.

740 Auburn, Me.

725
Owego, N. Y.

590
Great Lakes States
East Cleveland, Ohio. $1,795
Painesville, Ohio 1,330
Ann Arbor, Mich. 1,250
Waukegan, Ill.

1,177
La Salle, Ill.

1,139 Elyria, Ohio

1,133 Port Huron, Mich. 1,110 Ironton, Ohio

1,104 Janesville, Wis.

1,094 Newark, Ohio

1,085 S'lt Ste. Marie, Mich. 1,058 Richmond, Ind.

1,054 Blue Island, Ill.

1,053 Jefferson, Ind.

1,050 Mishawaka, Ind. 1,048 Adrian, Mich.

1,045 Fond du Lac, Wis.

1,041 Ishpeming, Mich.

1,021 Warren, Ohio

1,017 Chicago Heights, Ili..

1,007 Alliance, Ohio

1,007 Niles, Ohio

991 Middletown, Ohio 980 Belleville, I11.

967 Fremont, Ohio

967 Owosso, Mich.

954
Zanesville, Ohio

939
Huntington, Ind.
Logansport, Ind.
Vincennes, Ind.

933
Kankakee, Ill.

925 Shelbyville, Ind.

913

Beloit, Wis.

912 Mount Vernon, Ohio.

906 Hobart, Ind.

903 Findlay, Ohio

900 Marion, Ohio

899
New Philadelphia, o.
Alton, I11.
Appleton, Wis.

876
Lincoln, 'IlI.
Champaign, Ill.
Taylorville, Ill.
Streator, Ill.

857 Ludington, Mich.

856 Cairo, 111.

853 Crawfordsville, Ind.

853 Ottawa, Ili.

850 Xenia, Ohio

848 East Palestine, Ohio.

847 Chillicothe, Ohio

846
Benton Harbor, Mich.
Bedford, Ind.
Frankfort, Ind.
Kewanee, Ill.

789
Alpena, Mich.
Cadillac, Mich.

783 Granite City, Ill.

772
Traverse City, Mich... 765
Cambridge, Ohio 689
Elwood, Ind.
Belle Center, Ohio
Coshocton, Ohio

Great Plains States
Virginia, Minn.

.$1,435 Independence, Kans.

1,351 Aberdeen, S. Dak.

1,094 Keokuk, Iowa

1,093 Fargo, N. Dak. 1,064 Waterloo (E. S.), Ia.. 1,032 Burlington, Iowa

1,025 Ottumwa, Iowa

1,011 Mankato, Minn.

1,004 Sapulpa, Okla.

996 Iowa City, Iowa

964 Marshalltown, Iowa 950 Hutchinson, Kans. 935 Mason City, Iowa 934 Salina, Kans.

933 Atchinson, Kans.

923 Beatrice, Neb.

919 Boone, Iowa

904 (Continued on page 12)

675 663 663

981

870

860 860

936 936

850

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In Cities from 8,000 to 30,000 Population:
Men Elementary Teachers.
Women Elementary Teachers
Men Junior High School Teachers.
Women Junior High School Teachers
Men Senior High School Teachers..
Women Senior High School Teachers.
In Cities from 30,000 to 100,000 Population:
Men Elementary Teachers.
Women Elementrary Teachers.
Men Junior High School Teachers.
Women Junior High School Teachers
Men Senior High School Teachers.
Women Senior High School Teachers
In Cities of Over 100,000 Population:
Men Elementary Teachers.
Women Elementary Teachers.
Men Junior High School Teachers.
Women Junior High School Teachers.
Men Senior High School Teachers.
Women Senior High School Teachers.
In Cities of 8,000 Population and Over:
Men Elementary Teachers.
Women Elementary Teachers.
Men Junior High School Teachers.
Women Junior High School Teachers
Men Senior High School Teachers.
Women Senior High School Teachers.
Men and Women Teachers in Elementary, Junior and

Senior High Schools.

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1The report is published for the Committee by the American City Bureau. Single copies may be had postpaid for twenty cents; ten or more copies for fifteen cents each. Orders should be sent to Mr. Fred A. Richardson, Executive Secretary, American City Bureau, Tribune Building, New York City. Every member of an urban school board in the United States should study the report carefully.

2Teachers' Salaries and Salary Schedules in the United States, 1918–19. E. S. Evenden. Commission Series No. 6, National Education Association, Washington, D. C.

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In 1913-14 one-half of the men elementary teachers in cities with a population of from 8,000 to 30.000 received less than $946. In 1919-20 one-half of the same group were receiving less than $1,262, an advance of $316 or 33%.

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TEACHER SITUATION
(Continued from page 11)

DISTRIBUTIONS OF SALARIES OF ALL TEACHERS OF ALL SCHOOLS OF THE CITIES Parsons, Kans. 900 Great Lakes States

REPORTING FOR THE YEAR 1919-1920 Clinton, Iowa

871 Superior, Wis. . $1,378 Bartleville, Okla. 854 Oak Park, Ill.

1,281 Fort Scott, Kans. 840 Rock Island, Ill.

1, 226

Men Women Men Women Men Women Red Wing, Minn. 821 Gary, Ind.

Per Cent 1,213

Elem. Elem. Winfield, Kans.

Jr. H.S. Jr.H.S. Sr.H.S. Sr.H.S. Totals

of 804 Battle Creek, Mich.. 1, 204

Teachers Teachers Teachers Teachers Teachers Teachers Pittsburg, Kans.

Total 776 Racine, Wis. Coffey ville, Kans. 775 Hammond, Ind.

1,179 Shawnee, Okla. 740 Quincy, III. 1,153 Less than $300.

0

1
0

1 Iola, Kans.

00.0 647 Joliet, ill. 1,146 300-$399.

83

1
1

86 Cape Girardeau, Mo..

00.1 635 Saginaw (E. Side),

400- 499

222

2

1

7
234

00.3 Jefferson City, Mo. 593 Mich.

1,145
500- 599

442

15

1
18
483

00.7 Columbia, Mo. 584 Jackson, Mich.

1,139
600- 699.

1,162

51

2
28 1, 252

01.7 Hannibal, Mo. 574 Rockford, Ill.

1,119
700- 799.

2,819

105

6
43 2,991

04.2 Independence, Mo. 555 Springfield, Ill.

1,115
800- 899

4,775

179

1
200 5,175

07.2 Western States Peoria, I11.

1,108
900- 999
40 6,159

22
387

35
414 7,057

09.6 Helena, Mont.

Kalamazoo, Mich. . $1,658

1,050

42 1,000-1,099

8,044

363

57
683 9, 205

12.6 Missoula, Mont.

1,100-1,199 1,031

44 1,438 Terre Haute, Ind.

5.893

427

67
728 7,187

09.8 Great Falls, Mont.

99 1,360 South Bend, Ind.

1,200-1,299 1,017

5,918

511
157 1,045 7,781

10.7 Casper, Wyo. Aurora (East), Ill.... 1,014

1.300-1,399

68
4,966

47
402

170
1,353

891

6,544 08.9 1,400-1,499

99 Vallejo, Cal. Decatur, Ill.

2,959

37
348

239

761 1,347

4,443

06.3 1,500-1,599 Walla Walla, Wash... 1,293 Kenosha, Wis.

105
4,218

59
234

328

849

5,793 07.9 1.600-1,699 91 3.383

60 Cheyenne, Wyo.

242 1,275 Flint, Mich.

383 777

4,936

06.7 1,700-1.799

52 Phoenix, Ariz.

1,269

41

193 1,260 La Crosse, Wis.

387 621 2,563

03.5 1,800-1,899

74
851
53
165

434 Hoquiam, Wash.

677
1,252 Aurora (West), Ili.
957

2,254 03.2 1,900-1,999

50
172
42
178

440

421 Santa Clara, Cal. 1,250 Springfield, Ohio 954

1.303

01.8 2.000-2,499

93

438 Moline. Ill.

63

53 Everett, Wash.

1,078 924

993 1,248

2,718

03.8 2,500-2,999

5
1

2
428
148

588
Santa Barbara, Cal.
1,235 Muskegon, Mich.
915

00.8 3,000 and over

5
0

0
151

27
Oshkosh, Wis.

183 Pocatello, Idaho 1,220 901

00.2 Chico, Cal. 1,167 Green Bay, Wis.

892
Totals.

914 53, 774 533 3,857
Eureka, Cal.
Portsmouth, Ohio

4,367 822

9,322 72, 767. 1,135

100.0 Q1 $1,256

$964 $1,313 $1,062 $1,607 $1,220 San Bernardino, Cal.. 1,106

$1,010 Great Plains States

Median

1,517 1,154 1,594 1,278 1,880 1.479 1,235
Riverside, Cal.
1,085 Lincoln, Neb.

$1,381
Q3.
1.797 1,397 1,854

1,544

2,052 1,788 Vancouver, Wash.

1,537 1,067 Sioux City, Iowa 1,323 Greeley, Colo. 1,025 Dubuque, Iowa

1,220 Boulder, Colo.

I,
Davenport, Iowa

1,217 Tucumcari, N. Mex... 1,013 Cedar Rapids, Iowa.. 1,123

One-half of the men elementary school teachers in all cities reporting receive less than the median Santa Ana, Cal.

salary, $1.517. Three-fourths receive less than $1,797 (Q3) and one-fourth less than $1,256 (Q1). 955 Wichita, Kans.

1,084 Sandpoint, Idaho 850 St. Joseph, Mo.

1,069 Southern States Muskogee, Okla.

974 Greenville, Miss. $1,275 Springfield, Mo.

841

HE TABLE above shows the had the number of years of training Spartanburg, S. C.... 954

Western States Parkersburg, W. Va..

920 Butte, Mont. Denison, Texas

.$1,665 894 Berkeley, Cal,

1,612 teachers in all cities reporting for the the left of the table. The report conFort Smith, Ark. 879 San Jose, Cal.

1,550 Bluefield, W. Va. 864 Long Beach, Cal. 1,409

year 1919-20. The full report con- tains a similar table showing the dis. Winchester, Va. 863 Sacramento. Cal.

1,398 Alexandria, La. 850 Fresno, Cal.

tains similar tables for superinten- tribution of experience. Alexandria, Va. 815

1,278

dents, assistant superintendents, superColumbus, Miss.

Southern States 809

The complete report also contains Bessemer, Ala.

Lynchburg. Va. . $1,004 Palestine, Texas 988 Wheeling, W. Va.

visors, principais, librarians, showing suggestions for local study and action

985 Clarksburg, W. Va. 773 Shreveport, La.

950

salary distribution in each of the three on the teachers' salary problem. It Meridian, Miss. 768 Covington, Ky.

927 Martinsburg, W. Va.. 757 Winston-Salem, N. C. 828 groups of cities, and for each of the is suggested that a central committee Selma, Ala. 750 Lexington, Ky.

795 Suffolk, Va. 750 Mobile, Ala. various groups of teachers.

be formed of the educational comSherman, Texas 750 Austin, Texas

741 Paducah, Ky. 744 Roanoke, Va.

The median salary paid 695

men mittee of the chamber of commerce Corsicana, Texas 740 Montgomery, Ala.

655 Brunswick, Ga.

and women teachers in elementary, and an equal number of the school 730 Durham, N. C. CITIES 100.000 POPULA.

junior and senior high schools staff selected by the board of educaFrederick, Md.

723 TION AND OVER Elizabeth City, N. C.. 650

Eastern States

was $768 in 1913-14 and $1,235 in tion upon the nomination of the supMarshall, Texas

650 Buffalo, N. Y. $1,599 Cleburne, Texas 648

1919-20-an increase of $467 or 61 erintendent of schools. Suggestions Worcester, Mass.

1,523 Rome, Ga.

644 Bridgeport, Conn. 1,521 Owensboro, Ky. 640 Fall River, Mass. per cent. During the same time the

are given for the collection of data, Anniston, Ala. 636 Yonkers, N. Y.

1,423 increase in the cost of living has been for the development of a program Waycross, Ga. 63 3 Newark, N. J.

1,420 Laurel, Miss.

573 Springfield, Mass. 1.373 over one hundred per cent. Henderson, Ky.

covering a period of years, and for 543 Jersey City, N. J. 1,255 Jackson, Tenn. 471 Lynn, Mass.

1,235

From the table given below it is the determination of the kind of camRochester, N. Y.

1,210 CITIES 30,000 TO 100,000 Paterson, N. J.

possible to tell how many teachers paign necessary. 1,202

A select list of POPULATION Providence. R. I. 1,140

in each of the groups noted have sources of information is added. Eastern States Camden, N. J.

1,048 Erie, Pa.

1,038 Holyoke, Mass. . $1,847 New Bedford, Mass... 1,037 Hoboken, N. J.

985 DISTRIBUTION OF NUMBER OF YEARS OF TRAINING ABOVE EIGHTH GRADE Brookline, Mass. 1,656

Trenton, N. J.

962 Newton, Mass. 1,482

RECEIVED BY TEACHERS Meriden, Conn.

Great Lakes States

1,400 New Rochelle, N. Y.. 1,352 Chicago, Ill.

. $1,944 Passaic, N. J. 1,327 Cincinnati, Ohio

1,770

Men
Women Men Women Men Women

Per Cent Waltham, Mass. 1,322 Milwaukee, Wis.

1,563

Elem. Elein. Jr. H.S Jr. H.S. Sr. H.S.Sr. H.S. Totals of Woonsocket, R. I. 1,317 Cleveland, Ohio

1,448
Teachers Teachers Teachers Teachers Teachers Teachers

Total Waterbury, Conn.

1,316
Columbus, Ohio

1,400
Chelsea, Mass.
1,307 Detroit, Mich.

1,355 Newport, R. I..

1,245
Grand Rapids, Mich.. 1,115 Less than 1 Year 65

264

19

12
13

316 00.49 Bayonne, N. J.. 1,236 Great Plains States

1 Year

42
436

15

19
18

492 00.77 Everett, Mass.

2 Years 1,218 St. Paul, Minn. . $1,428

1,014

16
41

45

39 1,155 01.82 New Britain, Conn. 1,169

3 Years

68
1,563

18

51
Omaha, Neb.
1,364

50

49 1,731 02.73 Allentown, Pa.

4 Years
242

74
1,090 St. Louis, Mo.

6.001 1,336

338

212

477 7,102 11.21 Schenectady, N. Y

5 Years
146 5.398

53
1,089 Des Moines, Iowa.

297

135 1,317

282 6,165 09.73 6 Years Garfield, N. J.

456 24.893

180

1,229 1,063 Minneapolis, Minn. 1,208

450 831 27,583 43.55

7 Years Wilkes-Barre, Pa.

4,105

85

391 1,053 Kansas City, Kans. 1,обо

308 566 5.455

08.69 8 Years. Lewiston, Me.

194
2,598

139

699 1,052

1,170 4,283 9, 489 15.00 Western States 9 Years

565 Troy, N. Y.

38 1,038

287

563
1,197

2,650 04.18 Oakland, Cal. . $1,814 10 Years. Malden, Mass.

13
213

85
1,025

229
349

894 01.42
Seattle, Wash.
1,659 11 Years.

3
38

13 Binghamton, N. Y,

45

79 1,022

178 00.28 Denver, Colo.

12 Years 1,513

4 Perth Amboy, N. J... 1,010

33

44
38

126

00.20 Auburn, N. Y.

Los Angeles, Cal.
1,008

Totals.
Spokane, Wash.
1,289
1.449 47,121

640 3,472 Jamestown, N. Y.

3.882 1,007

8, 221 63,336 100.00
01
Salt Lake City, Utah. 1,142

4.41
5.46
5.75

6.09 Newburgh, N. Y.

7.15 7.61 1,007

5.82
Median

6.16
6.36
6.86
6.79

8. 40
Elmira, N. Y.
Southern States

8.43 6.53 994

Q3.

6.96
6.83
8.30
8.32

8.94
Altoona, Pa.
979 Atlanta, Ga.
.$1,254

8.91 7.54 Elizabeth, N. J.

950

New Orleans, La. 1,234 Hazelton, Pa.

898 Baltimore, Md. Harrisburg, Pa. 885 Richmond, Va.

1,071

One-half of the men elementary school teachers in all cities reporting have had less than the medNew Castle, Pa. 854 San Antonio, Texas.. 1,060

ian 6.16 years of training above the 8th Grade. Three-fourths have had less than 6.96 years of trainWatertown. N. Y. 843 Memphis, Tenn.

1,025

ing above the 8th Grade and one-fourth less than 4.41 years. Portland, Me 823 Louisville, Ky.

880

746

726

1,518

1,707 Scranton, Pa.

4

88

98

30

18

3 4

7

1.488

1,186

IX.

experience their study, and their relle Campaign for Education in Ohio *

A Platform of Service

carrying out of its program. It can

form no alliances; it can offer no quid (Concluded from page 4)

by an autocratic decree but by the simple, pro quo; it can accept aid only in so far teaching should not be determined by inherent, and inalienable right of the peo- as it retains its own independence and the sex of the teacher, by the age of the ple to insure economy and efficiency in its own right to determine the movepupils who are taught, nor by the loca- the management of their collective en- ments, outside of its chief field, that it tion of the school in which the teaching terprises. One who protests against this shall exert its influence to promote. Its is done. It means, positively, that suc- as 'undemocratic' cannot have thought only claim to consideration is the great

‘ cessful effort for which one has paid the clearly through the fundamental prin- cause to which its service is pledged. price of serious preparation and the self- ciples of democratic government.

This cause reaches far beyond its own discipline of experience should be ade

professional ranks. It is more closely quately, even generously, recompensed.

bound up with public welfare and naIt means that there must be opportu- No professional organization faced tional progress than is any other cause nities on each of the so-called 'levels' of with the serious and difficult tasks today. The Association asks coöperathe public school service to earn through which the Association has assumed can

tion on this ground and on this ground meritorious teaching a wage as high as, work successfully without the coöpera- alone. To do more than this would be that which can be earned upon any other

tion and counsel of other organizations, to repudiate whatever claims it may now 'level.' It means, also, that the rural- both professional and lay, and the will- have upon the interest of the lay school service should not suffer in com- ing aid of men and women of intel

public. parison with the urban service. ligence and vision everywhere who rec

x The second principle recognizes the ognize that only through education can need and the value of participation by be solved many of the serious problems The National Education Associaclassroom teachers in the construction confronting our Nation.

tion is committed to a program of serof educational policies. The Associa- The Association bespeaks, on behalf vice-service to the teachers, service to tion not only believes such participation of the profession, the aid, sympathy, ad- the profession, service to the Nation. Its to be essential to the development of the vice, and coöperation of all interested supreme purpose is the welfare of the profession; it is convinced that the organizations and individuals in the ;

childhood of America. policies into which those most closely concerned with the actual tasks of

of ,

be both more able than policies framed irrespective of

Whether underpaying teachers rethis important source of intimate, first

Ten Things I hat Ohio

sults in having stupid, crude, and unhand knowledge could possibly be. It is

educated men and women bring up our convinced that the establishment of this

Schools Need

children, or whether it results in inadeprinciple will do more to stabilize edu

First: More teachers.

quate compensation for those noble men cational policies and insure their thor

Second.-Better buildings.

and women who remain in the profesoughgoing efficacy than any other single

sion, the condition is one to make us.

Third. - Increased revenue. step that could be taken.

hang our heads in shame. The Association, however, is cogFourth.-Active support of

Second, our schoolroom classes should nizant of the system of delegated respon

the people.

be smaller. A classroom teacher can do sibility and authority under which a Fifth.-Good light and venti- justice with 15 or 20 children. When democracy seeks to meet its needs and lation,

classes are larger than this the results realize its aim. The people as a whole Sixth.-Better methods of are poorer. Until we are willing to have established the public schools and teaching.

greatly enlarge our teaching staff we will the people provide for their support. Seventh.More pay for the

continue to waste the larger part of To legally constituted representatives teachers.

our children's time, and that can never the people delegate the power to control

Eighth.Better training for

be given back to them. the schools. These representatives in teachers.

Third, we must recognize individuturn delegate certain elements of their

Ninth.-More vocational ed

ality in our children. We herd them power to executive officers. Such offi

ucation.

together in classes, and each pupil has cers are responsible to the people's rep

to make the same progress as every other. resentatives and through these represen

Tenth.-Progressive people

Bright children become shiftless and tatives to the people themselves. This

in charge of schools.

lazy. The dull ones become discourconstitutes the 'recognized authority and

aged and lose, out. responsible leadership' under which an

Fourth, we must house our school

IRST, we should eration must be worked out. This system need impose no hardships upon the teachers are staying with the work from crowded rooms make good work imposclassroom teachers. Whatever measure a sheer sense of duty, but every year sible. of 'subordination' it involves is in no thousands are leaving.

Fifth, we should keep our exceptional sense an educational subordination; it is

*From the N. C. R., Dayton, Ohio,

teachers and give them charge of our an administrative necessity imposed not October, 1920.

exceptional pupils.

effective plan of participation and coopFullste salaries. Many of our finest Badly lighted

, poorly ventilated, and

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