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(For “to that time,” &c., write the out-line below the line.) for the time being

fmbing for some time

fmm for some moments

fmm* on the other hand

nhh in the next place 1, in explanation 3 nxp it is possible

tsp it is impossible

tmp it is probable

tprb it is improbable

imprb (ad th for “possible that,” &c.) it is important

tmpn absolutely necessary

blny* content with

ktnw* contented with

ktndw at home and abroad

tmbrd good work as long as 1, so long as 3

sngs as well as I, so well as 3

sls as was I, so was 3

SWS together with

tgw for some reason or another

fmnthr in accordance with

nkw point of view by any means

bany 3 not by any means

nbany by no means by all means



bnm 3 blm 3

in allusion to I, in conclusion 2, in } nltion

to 3
at some length
at great length
at considerable length
having been
little by little
in the meantime
in the meanwhile
in the way of
in want of
no want of
in spite of
in the case of
in order that
in order to

tmng 1
tgng I
tkng 1
nwf 1
nsf 1
nksf 1
ndth I
ndt 1



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day by day

dbd in obedience to

nbd your obedient servant

ybd yours obediently

yb ly that is to say

th s under public business

publicb n public opinion

publicpn consistent with

k S nw under S
inconsistent with

n Snw under S
as a matter of course
take, took, taken place

take, took, taken into consideration tknd
less than

Ithn no less than

by less than

no less
more than

no more than

nomthn by more than

bmthn Add the ous hook to a character, an arbitrary, or a word, to represent “us." Write in this way" for us," “ of us,

from us,” “ by us,' “take us,” “ give us,” “given us,” &c.

ADDENDA. The character for ng may be written the reverse way, like ch with a loop, but it should be written in this way as little as possible, because if carelessly formed it might be mistaken for pn. The abbreviation png for prolong-ation should be written with the ng reversed.

clergyman i, -men 3

favour us

Frous I judicious

jcious neglect

g through n


at us, " " about us,”

» « but us,"

"" with us,"

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klj i

sby* some moments somewhat

swt somewhere

swür withdraw

w*w* withdrawn


prn 1



(Written in Shorthand at the end of the Letterpress.)

Many naturalists are of opinion, that the animals which we commonly consider as mute, have the power of imparting their thoughts to one another. That they can express general sensations is very certain; every being that can utter sounds has a different voice for pleasure and for pain. The hound informs his fellows when he scents his game; the hen calls her chickens to their food by her cluck, and drives them from danger by her


Birds have the greatest variety of notes; they have, indeed, a variety which seems almost sufficient to make a speech adequate to the purposes of a life which is regulated by instinct, and can admit little change or improvement. To the cries of birds, curiosity or superstition has been always attentive; many have studied the language of the feathered tribes, and some have boasted that they understood it.

The most skilful or most confident interpreters of the sylvan dialogues have been commonly found among the philosophers of the east, in a country where the calmness of the air and the mildness of the seasons allow the student to pass a great part of the year in groves and bowers. But what may be done in one place by peculiar opportunities may be performed in another by peculiar diligence. A shepherd of Bohemia has, by long abode in the forests, enabled himself to understand the voice of birds; at least he relates with great confidence a story, of which the credibility is left to be considered by the learned.

As I was sitting (said he) within a hollow rock, and watching my sheep that fed in the valley, I heard two vultures interchangeably crying on the summit of a cliff. Both voices were earnest and deliberate. My curiosity prevailed over the care of the flock; I climbed slowly and silently from crag to crag, concealed among the shrubs, till I found a cavity where I might sit and listen, without suffering or giving disturbance.

I soon perceived that my labour would be well repaid, for an old vulture was sitting on a naked prominence, with her young about her, whom she was instructing in the arts of a vulture's life, and preparing, by the last lecture, for their final dismission to the mountains and the skies.

My children, said the old vulture, you will the less want my instructions, because you have had my practice before your eyes; you have seen me snatch from the farm the household fowl, you have seen me seize the leveret in the bush, and the kid in the pasturage; you know how to fix your talons, and how to balance your fight when you are laden with your prey. But you remember the taste of more delicious food. I have often regaled you with the flesh of man. Tell us, said the young vultures, where man may be found, and how he may be known: his flesh is surely the natural food of a vulture. Why have you never brought a man in your talons to the nest? He is too bulky, said the mother; when we find a man, we can only tear away his Aesh, and leave his bones upon the ground. Since man is so big, said the young ones, how do you kill him ? You are afraid of the wolf and of the bear; by what power are vultures superior to man? Is man more defenceless than a sheep? We have not the strength of man, returned the mother, and I am sometimes in doubt whether we have the subtilty; and the vultures would seldom feast upon his flesh, had not nature, that devoted him to our uses, infused into him a strange ferocity, which I have never observed in any other being that feeds upon the earth. Two herds of men will often meet and shake the earth with noise, and fill the earth with fire. When you hear noise, and see fire, with flashes along the ground, hasten to the place with your swiftest wing, for men are surely destroying one another; you will then find the ground smoking with blood and covered with carcases, of which many are dismembered and mangled for the convenience of the vulture. But when men have killed their prey, said the pupil, why do they not eat it? When the wolf has killed a sheep, he suffers not the vulture to touch it till he has satisfied himself. Is not man another kind of wolf? Man, said the mother, is the only beast who kills that which he does not devour, and this quality makes him so much a benefactor to our species. If men kill our prey and lay it in our way, said the young one, what need shall we have of labouring for ourselves ? Because man will sometimes. replied the mother, remain for a long time quiet in his den. The old vultures will tell you when you are to watch his motions. When you see men in great numbers moving close together, like a flight of storks, you may conclude that they are hunting, and that you will soon revel in human blood. Put still, said the young one, I would gladly know the reason of this mutual slaughter; I could never kill what I could not eat. My child, said the mother, this is a question which I cannot answer, though I am reckoned the most subtile bird of the mountain. When I was young, I used frequently to visit the ayry of an old vulture, who dwelt upon the Carpathian rocks; he had made many observations; he knew the places that afforded prey round his habitation, as far in every direction as the strongest wing can fly between the rising and setting of the summer sun; he had fed year after year on the entrails of men.

His opinion was, that men had only the appearance of animal life, being really vegetables, with a power of motion; and that, as the boughs of an oak are dashed together by the storm, that swine may fatten upon the fallen acorns, so men are, by some unaccountable power, driven one against another, till they lose their motion. that vultures may be fed. Others think they have observed something of contrivance and policy among these mischievous beings; and those that hover more closely around them pretend that there is in every herd one that gives directions to the rest, and seems to be more eminently delighted with a wide carnage:

What it is that entitles him to such preeminence, we know not; he is seldom the biggest or the swifiest, but he shows by his eagerness and diligence that he is, more than any of the others, a friend to the vultures.



We are a nation of islanders, and we cannot help it, nor mend ourselves if we would. We are something in ourselves, nothing if we try to ape others. Music and painting are not our forte; for what we have done in that way has been little, and that borrowed from others with great difficulty. But we may boast of our poets and philosophers. That's something. We have had strong heads and sound hearts among us. Thrown on one

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