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t through k covenant
t through n necessity
T through n necessitate
th through m method-ical

Whenever a word is represented in a particular position, or by a particular outline, whether regular or arbitrary, and a modification of the word is required to be written, the prescribed form is to be used with whatever addition may be necessary. Thus, q abore the line, stands for “ question "; add b for "

questionable," d for “ questioned,” write nqbi, for unquestionable,” add to this the mark for“ ly" for "

unquestionably." Add t to tion under the line for “ passionate "; prefix d disjoined for dispassionate.”. Prefix n (joined) to the outline of " classical,” &c., constant," to represent unclassical,” &c., inconstant. Add I to the termination ment for 6. mental.” And so on in all cases.

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ING.

This termination is expressed by finishing the preceding character with a small circle, which must be within a curve, on the right hand side of a straight or diagonal stroke and on the upper side of a horizontal stroke. For“ inging " as in “ringing,”

singing,” two circles are needed. For “ings,” make the circle larger.

TION.

This character may be written in the line of j, t, and p when it follows those letters.

LY.

This termination is expressed by a dot after, and in the line of, the preceding character.

TEE or TY.

This termination, as in “ committee,” “ calamity," is expressed by a short horizontal stroke in the place which would be occupied by the dot for “ ly.” This stroke must be written at an angle to the character which it follows. For the plural

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tees ties,” a detached s is to be written in the place of the short stroke, and this s will usually be found to be an s written according to the direction given in “General Rules of Contraction,” to imply the omission of t.

OUS. This termination is expressed by finishing the preceding character with a hook, which must be written within a curve, on the right hand side of a straight or diagonal stroke, and on the upper side of a horizontal stroke. When the hook is on the left hand side of a straight or diagonal stroke, or on the under side of a horizontal stroke, it means

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TIOUS or CIOUS, This termination as in “ factious,” gracious,” is expressed by finishing the preceding character with a tick-of course, joined.

or

OF, THE, TO THE, &c. A tick from right to left represents, when above the line, at the

“ at it”; on the line,“ of the of it"; below the line, to the

to it.” A tick from left to right represents, when above the line, “ for the “ for it"; on the line, 6 off the

or • off it"; below the line, These ticks stand by themselves.

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or

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“ if the

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if it.”

FIGURES.

Figures are to be written in the ordinary way. In hundreds, a dot may be used for each 0. One stroke under figures means " thousands "; two strokes mean “ millions." The figure 1 above the line means “ first”; on the line,

“ once.” 1 joined to f, means everyone ; to any, anyone.

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one

or

PUNCTUATION.

The only mark of punctuation which requires to be indicated in shorthand is the full stop, which is represented by leaving a noticeable space at the end of a sentence.

EMPHASIS.

To emphasize a passage, draw a line under the words to be marked ; or, if the passage be a long one, down the side.

VOW

for "

a,

Vowels play a subordinate part in this Shorthand, on account of the power which it possesses of showing plainly the consonant outline of a word. Vowels are sometimes necessary, but the learner should accustom himself to read his notes, as far as possible, without their aid, for in rapid writing (as anyone may see who watches a shorthand writer taking notes) he will have but scant time to insert them. Practice alone will enable him to know, while writing, when he should add a vowel mark to an outline.

A, E, I, are expressed by a dot, which is to be placed at the beginning of a character for a, at the middle for e, at the end for i. A vowel mark on the left hand side of a straight or diagonal character, or on the upper side of a horizontal character, is to be read before it. A dot above the line stands

an,”

," " and "; on the line for “ he”; below the line for “ I.”

O, U, and the vowel heard in “ pit,” are expressed by a comma or disjoined tick, in the positions of a, e, and i respectively. A tick above the line stands for “ O," " oh.”

The following are other vowel marks, with the words for which they separately stand :

ah represents ah 1, any 2
au represents “ awe, ought,” “ ought to ”
oi
oo represerits " who"
ow represents
vowel sound in at
vowel sound in ot
vowel sound in ut
vowel sound in et
vowel sound in er, ur

vowel sound in 5 could
Only long vowel sounds need, as a rule, be marked.

Generally, vowel marks should not be joined to characters, but in some cases they may be joined with advantage. The mark for o may be joined to n as an upward tick for

no,"

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“ how”

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no

no

the figure i being added to the n for “no one," and s being added to the figure for “no one's "; b to be added to for “ nobody.The character for " also means “know,” and, when written below the line,“ knowledge.” If the n be made double-length, it means “ known.” The mark for “ ah,” also used to signify“ any,” should be prefixed (joined) to the figure i for " anyone," s being added to the figure for “any one's.” The mark for au takes b for “ ought to be,” h for

ought to have,” hb for " ought to have been," nb for " ought not to be,” nh for“ ought not to have,” nhb for “ought not to have been ; ” and it may be joined, when at the beginning or in the body of a word, to any character, as in “awning," " fraud,” but it must never be joined at the end of a word, as it would then seem to be a final y. This caution also applies in the case of oi. The mark for oo is to be joined to s or r, by lengthening one of the lines as an s, or striking it upward as an r, to represent“ who is,” “ who are.” The r of thr should be crossed with a short line near the top for " through.” With t added (joined) ow represents out,' out of-the.

ARBITRARIES. The following arbitrary marks, or arbitrary joinings of alpha. betical characters, will be found useful :

across

believe 1, because 2, belong 3
perhaps
ascribe, scribe i, scripture-s 2, describe-ption 3

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couple i, policy, political 2
politic
in the least
famous I, previous 2, infamous 3
these 1, those 3
below
else
since
from
unreasonable
on the part of-the
no doubt

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