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cases, the first character must be put in its proper position, as it is the fixed meaning of that character which gives the key of the outline. Thus, thb mean "it has been” and “to have been.For the first meaning the t must be written on the linethat position being the place for t when it represents “it.” For the second meaning, the t must be written below the line, that position being the place for t when it represents “to.When, in a shorthand phrase, it is intended to represent "had" "her," or “ hers,” d, r, or rs respectively must be added to the h (which would otherwise stand for “ has ” or “ have,” “him,” “ his,”), unless “ had ” or “her” is the first word of the phrase, in which case the position or form of the h will determine its meaning. The following are some of the phrases which may be formed from the alphabetical characters :

bh be his 1, by him-his 3
b*h about him-his 1, but him-his, but has-have 2, bought

him-his 3
by me, by some 3
fh for him-his 1, of him-his 2, if his 3

again has been 1, good has been 2
against him-his 3

has been 1, have been 2, had been 3

has him-his 1, have him-his 2, had him-his, had had 3 hhd has had 1, have had 2

(hnb, hnh, hnhd, negative)
can be i, could be 2
kh can have 1, could have 2
khb can have been 1, could have been 2

(knb, Anh, Anhb, negative)
1*b will be 2
1*h will have 2
1*hb will have been

(l*nb, 1*nh, 1*nhb, negative)
mb may be i, must be 2, might be 3
mh may have I, must have 2, might have 3
mhb may have been i, must have been 2, might have

been 3

(mnb, mnh, mnhb, negative)
not be 2

in him-his 1, not have 2, on him-bis 3
nhb not have been 2
nw in which 1, on which 3
ph upon him-his 2
qw acquainted with 3

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chs much as 2, such as 3
shb shall be 1, should be 2
shh shall have 1, should have 2
shhb shall have been i, should have been 2
shhh shall have had i, should have had 2

(shnb, shnh, shnhb, shnhh, negative)
thb they be I, that be 2, them be 3
thh they have I, that have 2, them have 3

they may I, that some 2
thw they would 1, that would 2
thhb they have been i, that have been 2
thhh they have had 1, that have had 2
thkb they can be 1, that can be 2
thkh they can have I, that can have 2
thlb they will be I, that will be 2
thlh they will have I, that will have 2
thwb they would be 1, that would be 2
thwh they would have I, that would have, that which has 2

(insert n where required for the negative phrase) ngw along with 1, lengthwise 3 Where, in these phrases, sh and th are not in italics, the letters s and h, t and h must be written.

When, in combination, “must” follows a character, it should be written ms, as m stands for “ may.” “ Might " should not be written in a phrase, except at the beginning.

SYLLABLES. We have not yet done with the alphabetical characters, which may be made to represent a number of syllables. They do this, either when attached to or detached from the rest of the word. In the following list, syllables commencing words are in Roman letters; those coming in the body of, or at the end of, words, are in italics

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o wa bonan

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represents dis, dom, ted
represents fil, ful, fil, ful, form
represents grace, gress
represents hyper
represents gen, olozy, ological, gent, gence (add final y

for gency)
represents com, con, spect
represents magni
represents incom, incon, ness
represents pro, pense, pensate, pensation

represents quest
r represents recog, recom, recon, pair, pare, shire, and

any syllable (not commencing a word)
formed of the letters shr or their

represents circum, super, sense, sent, ship
represents trans, test, tist

represents extra
ch represents charge
dk represent discom, discon
dp represent dispro
tion represents ortion, and follows the first character of a

word with that ending, to stand for the
entire word, as k tion, d tion, p tion,
x tion, “ contortion," " distortion,"

“ proportion,” “ extortion.”
N represents noncon
R represents irrecog, irrecom, irrecon
T represents stract.jon, strict-ion, struct-ion

A small circle represents self. Observe. When a word ending in ble has only one character preceding that syllable, bl should be written, as in “ arable," I feeble," or the shorthand word will look like a word of two characters, as “ rob” or “ fob.” When a looped character follows com, con, or dis, it is quite as well not to detach the k or d, unless the looped character represent a syllable, as in “dispense." If the disjoining of a character to express a syllable cause another character which does not represent a syllable to stand alone, as in “ deform,” the word is to be read with reference to the more important syllable. In ds, therefore, the d, necessarily disjoined, means “de,” not “dis.” When the use of the joined 1 for “ less ” would make a misleading outline, ls should

be written, or the 1 may be disjoined. Thus, “ careless ” must be distinguished from “ cruel.” The termination" ency" may be represented by the final y joined to n representing“ ence."


By striking one character through another, other syllables can be expressed. F. struck through a preceding consonant, represents“ tive.” K, struck through, represents “ cal ” or “ kl.” N, struck through, represents “ stance," "stancy," "stant.” S, struck through, represents “ serve" (except in the case of “ deserve,” for which see“ Arbitraries.” S, struck through d, would look like a cross, and would be misleading.) The following are some examples of this mode of contraction, which may also be used irregularly, care being taken that the arbitrary mearing does not clash with the syllabic meaning of the intersection.

d through b absurd-ity
f through k convict-ion
f through 1 legislative
g through d disgust
g through X extravagance-nt
j through m magistrate (add y* for “ magistracy”).
k through b obstacle
k through F philosophical
k through f fiscal 1, fickle 2, physical 3
k through g agriculture-al.
k through ḥ historical
k through h* hypocritical
k through i geological
k through k classical 1, clerical 2, critical 3
k through n in the course of
k through p peculiar-ity
k through r architect
k through t technical
n through k constancy-nt
n through n instance-nt
n through s circumstance (add 1 for “ circumstantial”)
s through b observe-ation
r through p provide, provision
s through i conserve-ation (add f for “conservative "

and m for “ conservatism')
s through p preserve-ation (add f for “ preservative ")

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