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θαρμα, βραχέως. οἱ δὲ Ιωνες ἐκτείνοντες λέγουσι φάρμακον. οὗτοι γὰρ διὰ τὴν τῶν βαρβάρων παροίκησιν ἐλυμήναντο τῆς διαλέκτου τὸ πάτριον, τὰ μέτρα, τοὺς χρόνους. δηλοῖ καὶ Ἱππώναξ. But this passage strengthens the conjecture above proposed, that Herodotus, in speaking of the varieties of the Ionic dialect, referred rather to the pronunciation than the form of the language. Salmasius de Hellenistica p. 427. says, that the Ionian colonists immediately upon their settling in Asia, corrupted their dialect from their intercourse with the Carians, whom Homer calls βαρβαρόφωνοι; as instances of which deterioration he specifies ἑωυτὸς, λόγοισι, τρῶμα, Πηληϊάδεω, κpadin and deσTÓтeα, most of which are Homeric, i. e. Hellenic
In support of my notion, that the Ionic dialect was not so materially changed from the Hellenic as it is said to have been, I will now proceed to note down the principal peculiarities of the language of Herodotus, and to shew that they are common to him with Homer, always allowing for the difference of orthography and pronunciation, which may, and often do, undergo a material change, without any essential alteration of the language; for instance, the later Ionians, we know, took away the rough spirit from many words to which the Attics prefixed it; the variations of orthography make it impossible for us to tell, whether it was so in Homer's time: but the difference is not essential; it does not affect the language itself."
,A for E. odun for ooun. Homer passim. Hippocr. p. 66. Herodot. 7. 111.
őκws, okoîos, et similia, Herodotus and Hippocrates ubique. and there is little doubt but that the other form in Homer, viz. ows, &c. is owing to the copyists.
A for E. Táμvel Homer, and Herodotus, and Hippocrates,
I for E. iotin for eoría Herodotus passim. Homer. Od. T. 304. Η for A. πρήξις Herod. and Homer passim: 30 ἰητρὸς and many similar instances, as κρητῆρες, ἄκρητον, ἠέριος.
2. "In lingua vernacula (Batavorum) quis ignorat Zelandos multa cum spiritu aspero proferre, quæ ceteri Belga leniter pronuntiant?" Pierson. Præf. ad Mar. p. 35.
Ω for H. πτώσσειν, and not πτήσσειν, Homer passim. Hero
dot. IX. 48.
Tрwμa is noted by Salmasius as a barbarism, but it was doubtedly the Hellenic form; Tpów occurs Iliad. Y. 341. and it admits of considerable doubt, whether Homer did not use the forms θουμα (θωυμα), έουτον (ἑωυτον), &c. which were altered by the later Greeks into θαῦμα and ἑαυτόν. οὔνομα, μοῦνος, νοῦσος, Homer, Herodotus, Hippocrate πόλιες, πρήξιες, ῥήξιες, Herod. and Hippocrates passim. πόλιες
Homer. Od. O. 411.
apnpóuevos, ploughed. Herod. IV. 97. Homer. II. Z. 548. áveрwπnios, &c. Herodotus passim. Baoiλnios Hom. Od. II. 401. Kλnis Herod. V. 108. Hippocrates sæpe. Homer. Iliad. O. 325. so πατρώϊος, ληϊστὴς, Θρήϊκες.
#λww for #λéw, Herodotus passim; Homer. Iliad. Þ. 304.
Oea, loca consueta. Herod. I. 15. Iliad. Z. 511.
Téσσew, coquere. Herod. II. 37. Iliad. B. 237.
A great number of similar instances of correspondence will be found by any one who will take the trouble of consulting the Preface of Camerarius to Herodotus, or the vocabulary of H. Stephens, and the Lexicon Ionicum of Æmilius Portus.
ILLUSTRATION OF A PASSAGE
IN the fifth book of Athenæus, (p. 293. ed. Schw.) we find an extract from a work of Callixenus respecting the ship of extraordinary dimensions, built by Ptolemy Philopator. The following passage, describing the form of the columns with which part of the vessel was ornamented, has not received any explanation from Stephens, Casaubon, or Schweighæuser. We shall subjoin the original text, and then add a literal version of each sentence, and accompany it by such remarks, as will illustrate the meaning of the author.
οἱ γεγονότες αὐτόθι κιόνες ἀνήγοντο στρογγύλοι, διαλλάττοντες τοῖς σπονδύλοις, τοῦ μὲν μέλανος, τοῦ δὲ λευκοῦ, παράλληλα τιθεμένων. εἰσὶ δ ̓ αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ κεφαλαὶ τῷ σχήματι περιφερεῖς, ὧν ἡ μὲν ὅλη περιγραφὴ παραπλησία ῥόδοις ἐπὶ μικρὸν ἀναπεπταμένοις ἐστίν. περὶ δὲ τὸν προσαγορευόμενον κάλαθον, οὐχ ἕλικες, καθάπερ ἐπὶ τῶν ̔Ελληνικῶν, καὶ φύλλα τραχέα περίκειται· λωτῶν δὲ ποταμίων κάλυκες καὶ φοινίκων ἀρτιβλάστων καρπός· ἔστι δ ̓ ὅτε καὶ πλειόνων ἄλλων ἀνθέων γέγλυπται γένη. τὸ δ ̓ ὑπὸ τὴν ῥίζαν, ὃ δὴ τῷ συνάπτοντι πρὸς τὴν κεφαλὴν ἐπίκειται σπονδύλῳ, κιβωρίων ἄνθεσι καὶ φύλλοις ὠσανεὶ καταπεπλεγμένοις ὁμοίαν εἶχε τὴν διάθεσιν.
Οἱ γ. αὐ. κ. ά. σ. "The columns which were erected were round." The form of the columns is specified, to shew that they were not Pilasters or Antæ. If the writer had intended to express round pillars, in the sense of unfluted, the word ἀράβδω
τοι would have been used.
διαλλάττοντες τ. σ. τ. μ. μ. τ. δ. λ. π. τ. They were varied with vertebræ alternately black and white, parallel to each other.” Schweighæuser supposes, that by the word σπονδύλοις, those parts of the column are pointed out, which are called in French Tambours; namely, the cylindrical pieces raised one
upon the other. The interpretation we are inclined to adopt is the following. On many Egyptian pillars are found rings or bands, to the number of three, four, or five, parallel to each other; they surround the column just above the base, about the centre, and immediately under the capital. They are represented on the columns of the portico of Ashmounein, and on those of Carnac and Luxerein. We should translate the word therefore, by "belts of parallel rings." Callixenus mentions, that they were coloured. Some of the pillars in Egypt still bear the remains of the colours with which they were painted.
εἰσὶ δ. αὖ. κ. αἱ κ. τ. σ. π.—“The capitals of them were round, and their whole appearance was similar to budding roses." The round capital is found among architectural remains in Egypt, presenting the form of a bulb.
Tepi dè. K. T. λ. "about that part, called the Calathus, there are no volutes, as in Greek buildings, or leaves like those of the acanthus, and similar plants; but there may be seen the Calyces of the Lotus of the river, and the fruit of the Palm; other kinds of flowers are also sculptured on some of them.” The Lotus here mentioned, is the Nymphæa Lotus, the Awros AiyÚTTIOs of Dioscorides (B. 4.) It is painted in the procession on the walls at Eleithias; it is represented on many Egyptian figures, sometimes budding, sometimes borne as a Sceptre. The flowers of it are observed projecting from the Rhyton or Cornucopia, on a coin of Ptolemy the eighth.
The fruit of the Palm is here said to be sculptured on the Capitals; some remaining in Egypt are ornamented with branches of this tree. Herodotus (L. 2.) mentions columns at Sais of the form of the Palm. The other kinds of flowers alluded to by the author, are the Persea, the arum Colocassia, and the Thebaic Palm, or Domm Tree. The first was consecrated to Isis; the flowers of the Colocassia are seen on the heads of some of the figures of Harpocrates: and the Thebaic Palm, as well as the common Palm, is sculptured on the capitals of part of the great temple at Philæ.
τὸ δ ̓ ὑπὸ κ. τ. λ. "The lower part of the capital resting upon one of the Vertebræ which is attached to it, has a distribution of ornaments similar to the leaves and fruits of the Ægyptian Bean, twisted together."—
The Kiẞpiov according to Strabo, (L. 17.) is produced
from the Egyptian bean'; according to Diodorus Siculus (L. 1. p. 40.) and Dioscorides, it produces the Egyptian bean : τό τε κιβώριον φέρει τὸν καλούμενον Αἰγύπτιον κύαμον. Notwithstanding this disagreement, we are able to pronounce the plant mentioned in the text to be the Nymphea Nelumbo, or Cyamus, according to the more classical name given it by the President of the Linnean Society. The plant was well known to Herodotus, to Theophrastus, who calls it simply kúapos, (L. 4. 10.) and to Dioscorides, who says it was a native of Asia Proper, and Cilicia. It was found formerly in Egypt, but it is remarkable, that no modern traveller has discovered it in that country. It is a native of the East Indies, where it has been always considered as a sacred plant.
To the EDITOR of the MUSEUM CRITICUM.
MY DEAR SIR,
I PROPOSE to fulfil the promise which you obligingly exacted from me, by sending a few pages relative to a supposed discovery in Homer, which had been before communicated to you, and which I would wish you to make use of in any way which may appear most proper in your own judgment, and in that of your critical friends.
The subject relates to what I shall venture to call by anticipation, the Lay of Meleager; namely, the narrative respecting that Hero, which occurs in the speech of Phoenix, in the ninth Book of the Iliad.
Agamemnon has deputed Phoenix, Ulysses, and Ajax, to prevail upon Achilles to return to the War. They find him sitting before his tent, amusing himself with his lyre; and here a singular passage occurs: (Il. I. 189.)
Τῇ ὅγε θυμὸν ἔτερπεν, ἄειδε δ ̓ ἄρα κλέα ἀνδρῶν.
1. καὶ ὁ κύαμος ̓Αιγύπτιος ἐξ οὗ τὸ κιβώριον.