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considerable importance, and should be included in this report. The college received the horse f. o. b. Middlebury, Vt., and agreed to keep him in good condition and give him a stipulated amount of exercise daily. The service fees go to the college, but the service fee can not exceed $15. Mares bred must be free from draft blood, free from pacing gait, without manifest defects of conformation such as curby hocks, and free from the following unsoundnesses: Bone spavin, ringbone, sidebone, heaves, stringhalt, lameness of any kind, roaring, periodic ophthalmia, and blindness, partial or complete. It is interesting to note that the college has disqualified almost as many mares as have been bred.
The following statement shows the number of horses on the Morgan Horse Farm on June 30, 1911:
Although the desired appropriation for the encouragement of the breeding of horses for the United States Army was not provided by Congress, a small beginning has been made and the plan presented in my last report is being tested experimentally, as described in an earlier part of this report.
SHEEP AND GOAT INVESTIGATIONS. The work in Wyoming in breeding range sheep has progressed very satisfactorily during the past year. The ewes gave an 80 per cent crop of good lambs last spring, and those ewes to be carried into the ensuing year sheared 13.1 pounds per head. They stand the range nicely. The 110 yearling ewes which will go into the breeding flock next year are very growthy and strong, and give promise of approaching closely the type sought.
The Southdown flock at the Morgan Horse Farm, Middlebury, Vt., has been maintained at a high standard, and accurate records are being kept of cost of keep and of production. The spring lamb crop was satisfactory.
At the experiment farm at Beltsville, Md., sufficient Barbados ewes have been bred pure to maintain the flock, and the rest have been bred to a Karakul ram, to determine the possibility of producing Afghan skins in the United States.
The Merino-Barbados-Southdown crosses breed at any time of the year, and each cross shows improvement in wool and mutton form.
The native goats were milked after the last kidding and gave fair results.
A few samples of wool have been collected and arranged for display and study.
The work of the Holstein breeding circuit in North Dakota in cooperation with the State experiment station has been conducted along the same lines as heretofore. All the cattle in the circuit were tested with tuberculin during the year, and several herds showed reactions. The reacting cattle are to be disposed of.
A year's record of all cows in the herds was completed January 1, and the approximate cost of production of butter fat determined. Some of the purebred cows produced over 500 pounds of butter during the year. Several heifers have been placed in the Advanced Registry during the year, and all of the more promising cows and heifers will be tested for advanced registry next year.
Seven members of the circuit have built silos during the year, none of whom possessed them before becoming members of the circuit.
The number of purebred Holsteins owned by members of the circuit is 107.
Four herds have been included in the investigations in breeding milking Shorthorn cattle during the past year in cooperation with the Minnesota Experiment Station, and the experiment station bulls were used somewhat during the year in three other herds. The general progress made in the work for the year has consisted mostly in the improvement made by the cooperators in the care and management of the herds. This has resulted in growing the young animals better, and in much improvement in the milk and butter-fat production of the cows on the circuit.
The two sires, Chief of Glenside No. 285899 and Beau of Glenside No. 285898, have been continued in the service. The calves produced by them are developing satisfactorily from the standpoint of conformation. Since no daughters by these sires have come into milk as yet, no knowledge of their ability to transmit their milking inheritance is at hand.
In addition to these two sires, several of their sons, out of approved dams, have been farmed out to prospective cooperators who should be taken into the circuit as soon as they have a sufficient number of females of producing age.
The experiment station and one of the cooperators have purchased jointly the bull Clay Johnson No. 330890, a 3-year-old sire combining meat conformation, Shorthorn character, and milking heredity to a rare degree. This sire has no daughter in milk as yet, but his get are showing up well individually.
All heifers produced by approved dams are being reared. The bulls produced have been disposed of as follows: Those not showing sufficient individual merit, and those out of low-producing dams, have been rejected and castrated. Those from profitable milking dams that developed well individually have been sold to breeders in the usual way. A few from high-producing dams of satisfactory conformation have been reserved to the circuit and used somewhat on other herds.
ANIMAL BREEDING INVESTIGATIONS.
The research work in animal breeding at the experiment station of the bureau near Bethesda, Md., has continued during the year, the most extensive and important investigation being the study of inbreeding in guinea pigs. Twenty-four families are being inbred, matings being made between litter brother and sister in each generation. All families have been thus inbred for 4 generations and some for 10 generations. The data accumulated for the 4 generations are being compiled for a preliminary report.
The vitality of guinea pigs that have been inbred for seven generations is being determined by inoculating them with tubercle bacilli. Guinea pigs of equal weight and age, but not inbred, are used as checks. The principals and checks are born and reared in the same building and cared for and treated in exactly the same manner. From results so far obtained it appears that there is no difference in the vitality of the inbred and the normal animals. Before definite conclusions are reached in this matter, however, the experiments must be repeated and large numbers of animals used.
This intense inbreeding is developing in a number of families certain family characteristics which are shown in the color markings, in size of individuals, and in length and texture of the hair. Breeding for the establishing of certain coat-color patterns in guinea pigs has been continued with negative results, as has also an experiment started with the idea of increasing the length of ear in guinea pigs by selection.
Owing to an outbreak of rabies among the white bull terrier dogs they were all destroyed and the work on telegony in which they were used has been discontinued.
By the plan of selection now being practiced it has been possible to isolate from the flock strains or "blood lines” which are breeding true to definite standards of egg production. There are now being propagated (1) lines having a high winter egg production, (2) lines having a medium degree of winter productiveness, and (3) lines of low winter production. The results of this work are of a definite and clear-cut character.
By the application of Mendelian principles in the work with hybrid poultry it has been possible to combine in one strain the good meat qualities of the Cornish Indian game with the good egg qualities of the Barred Plymouth Rocks, thereby creating a new type regarded as very desirable from the utility standpoint.
During the year the poultry work has been removed from Bethesda, Md., where it was formerly carried on, to the bureau farm at Beltsville, Md.' It was deemed inadvisable to move any of the old stock, and this was in consequence marketed. To replace this stock, eggs were purchased from representative flocks of the following breeds: Barred Plymouth Rock, White Wyandotte, Single-combed Rhode Island Red, Buff Orpington, and Single-comb White Leghorn. Chicks hatched from these eggs are now being raised and will form the foundation stock for the new farm. As a result of the moving and the disposal of the mature stock, no feeding or breeding experiments were carried on during the year.
The investigation of conditions surrounding the handling and marketing of eggs in the Middle West has been continued, mainly in the State of Kansas, and has been very successful. This investigation embraces the study of conditions from the farm to the packing house, experimental work to determine the causes of loss and deterioration, and the encouragement of the use of the "loss-off” system of buying eggs. As a result of the efforts of the bureau in Kansas in cooperation with the State authorities, neighboring States are becoming in erested in the movement for better eggs.
A careful study has been made of the commercial feeding or fattening of poultry, particularly milk fattening, in this same area. Detailed figures of the gain, cost of gain, amount of grain per pound gain, etc., have been obtained for over 30,000 birds. The figures, therefore, are believed to be very reliable.
Some attention has been given to the encouragement of marketing eggs through the creameries. Several creameries are now handling the eggs produced on the farms of their patrons, with good success. Other creameries have indicated their intention of starting such a system of handling eggs in the near future
ANIMAL NUTRITION INVESTIGATIONS.
During the fiscal year the work in animal nutrition in cooperation with the Pennsylvania State College has consisted largely in a thorough revision and testing of the respiration calorimeter, together with the addition of certain improvements designed to secure more detailed and accurate results. These improvements include appliances for the determination of the excretion of carbon dioxid and water in the standing and lying positions, respectively, an additional electrical furnace for the determination of methane, and repairs to the refrigerating machine. Additional laboratory equipment has also been procured, which will conduce to the rapidity and economy of the work.
During the fiscal year 1911–12 it is planned to make a comparative study of the effects of standing and lying upon heat production and upon the excretion of carbon dioxide, and also to continue the determinations of the energy values of feeding stuffs.
BEEF PRODUCTION INVESTIGATIONS.
The beef production investigations carried on through the Alabama Experiment Station with two large landowners in Sumter County, Ala., are progressing in a highly satisfactory manner. Every phase of the cattle industry under those conditions is being studied, and results are being obtained which, it is believed, will be of great value to the South. The fact that cattle can be fed profitably in Alabama in summer has been demonstrated by the officers in charge of this work. It is fortunate that the work is so well advanced that by the time the pastures of western Alabama are free from ticks and the cotton boll weevil reaches that section data of a comprehensive and accurate nature will be available to show those farmers desiring to embark in the cattle business how it should be conducted to be profitable.
PORK PRODUCTION INVESTIGATIONS.
The pork production investigations, conducted under similar conditions in Sumter County, Ala.,
are also yielding encouraging results. The farm on which the work is done is now on a profitable basis, and it is believed that it will become more profitable as time goes on.
CERTIFICATION OF PURITY OF BREEDING OF IMPORTED ANIMALS.
Since January 1, 1911, the department has exercised the power given to it under the provisions of paragraph 492 of the tariff act of August 5, 1909, to pass upon the sufficiency of the pedigree certificates of animals imported for breeding purposes, instead of delegating this function to certified American pedigree record associations, as has been the policy heretofore.
From January 1, 1911, to June 30, 1911, inclusive, there were imported 1,171 horses, 1,427 cattle, 12 sheep, 7 hogs, 190'dogs, and 12 cats, for which certificates of pure breeding have been issued by this bureau.
In connection with the examination of certificates the animals are inspected at the port of entry to see that the animals and certificates agree in description. During the first six months of the calendar year 33 certificates for horses have been returned to the importers on account of the animals not agreeing with the certificates. There have also been returned to the secretaries of the foreign breeders' societies for correction 23 certificates for horses, 20 for cattle, 2 for sheep, and 2. for dogs. Pamphlets are issued quarterly or at other intervals giving the names and registry numbers of the imported animals, names of importers, and the dates of importation.
THE EXPERIMENT FARM.
The work at the experiment farm of the bureau near Beltsville, Md., has been devoted almost entirely to putting the farm into condition for experimental work. A dog-tight 58-inch woven wire fence is being built around the farm, fields and paddocks are being fenced, and a road and lanes constructed. A tool and implement shed has been built, and the superintendent's dwelling repaired and the interior painted and papered. A hog house, å poultry house, and a building for the research work in animal breeding are being erected, and numerous small portable houses built. The land has been cleared and plowed. Thirty-five acres are in corn and 100 acres in cowpeas. All tillable land is being broken up and put into some
The equine stock, the sheep, and the goats have been transferred from the Bethesda Experiment Station, and the guinea pigs and other small experimental animals will be moved as soon as quarters are available. Two pure-bred Percheron mares, 2 years old, were purchased in June, and a small herd of grade Berkshire pigs has been started.
kind of crop.