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Recherches sur les Centres d'Action de l'Atmosphère (Upsala, etc., 1910).
The Bureau of Soils of this department published a bulletin by E. E. Free, The Movement of Soil Material by the Wind, which deals very fully with the subject of atmospheric dust, and is accompanied by a well-nigh exhaustive bibliography of this subject. Secular changes of climate during the post-glacial period form the subject of a large volume of reports by numerous collaborators, issued under the direction of the Eleventh International Geological Congress. (Die Veränderung des Klimas seit dem Maximum der letzten Eiszeit, Stockholm, 1910.)
Climatography was represented by the second and final volume of J. Maurer's Das Klima der Schweiz (Frauenfeld, 1910); Tetens and Linke's Das Klima von Samoa (Berlin, 1910); O. L. Fassig's Climate of Porto Rico (extracted from Register of Porto Rico, 1910, San Juan, 1911); a second part of G. Hellmann's Das Klima von Berlin (Berlin, 1910); F. Eredia's La Temperatura in Italia (Rome, 1911); and fully a score of other valuable publications. The third volume of Hann's Klimatologie, mentioned above, was, however, the all-important climatographic publication of the year. It deals with the climates of the temperate and polar zones.
General works on meteorology have recently been published in Russian, Spanish, Dutch, and modern Greek, by Voeikov, Oliver, Gulik, and Eginitis, respectively.
EXAMINATIONS FOR PROMOTION.
The total number of examination papers received and rated during the year was 295, as compared with 258 during the preceding year. Following is the record in detail:
The various telegraph and telephone lines owned and operated by the Weather Bureau have been maintained in good condition at a total outlay of less than $500 for minor repairs.
The Block Island-Narragansett section, which extends from the island to Narragansett Pier, has worked excellently and with little interruption during the entire year.
The Norfolk-Hatteras line was down for 29 days, but Hatteras weather reports failed to get through on time on only 15 days, the
life-saving telephone being used at other times of interrupted service. The loop between Cape Henry and Virginia Beach was changed from Western Union telegraph poles to Government poles during the year. The entire section was inspected by the chief operator in May. Proper recommendations were made and approved by the central office, including the purchase at a cost of $1,182.72 of 14 miles of new cable, to replace an old and defective cable at New Inlet, N. C. General work necessary to put the section in excellent condition will shortly be made. The life-saving crews from Cape Henry to Hatteras have rendered valuable assistance in making all minor repairs.
The submarine cable from Key West to Sand Key, Fla., was interrupted for two days during the month of February, due to temporary trouble in the terminal trench at Key West end.
The Alpena-Thunder Bay and Middle Island, Mich., section has worked well, with but 36 hours of interrupted service during the year.
The Beaver Island section, from Charlevoix to St. James, Mich., was uninterrupted during the entire year, and was maintained without any expense to the bureau for repairs.
The Glen Haven-South and North Manitou Islands, Mich., section was thoroughly overhauled during September and October, 1910, and placed in first-class condition by à lineman detailed from the Life-Saving Service. In March, 1911, a landslide at South Manitou Island carried away a portion of the shore end of the cable, burying it in the sand to such a depth that 1,700 feet had to be abandoned. Extra cable was shipped from Charlevoix, Mich., and, through the cooperation of the Life-Saving Service, the necessary repairs were made and cable service restored on May 31. Repairs were made at the time to the cable box on North Manitou Island, restoring service between that island and South Manitou; also to the telephones at Glen Haven and Sleeping Bear Life-Saving Station. The line, cable, and instruments between Glen Haven, South Manitou, and North Manitou Islands are now in good working order.
The line from San Francisco to Point Reyes has been placed in good condition at a small expense.
Communication between Port Crescent and Tatoosh was interrupted during the year for a total of 14 days. Communication between Port Crescent and Seattle on the Western Union line was also interrupted for 39 days, and on the Postal wire for 55 days.
The Government receipts from all lines for commercial messages handled during the year amounted to $2,018.48.
The Publications Division has continued to issue the regular publications of the bureau, consisting of the Monthly Weather Review, the Bulletin of the Mount Weather Observatory, the National Weather Bulletin, the Snow and Ice Bulletin, the Marine Meteorological Charts, the Weather Maps, and the forecast cards. It has also supplied the stations with blank forms, for their meteorological and other station work, and blank maps and cards for disseminating weather forecasts.
On January 1, 1911, most of the printing material, including power and job presses, monotype machines, and type, was transferred to the Government Printing Office, where the actual printing work of the bureau has since been done, with the exception of the daily weather maps, and cards for the local forecasts, and such small
supplies as have been needed for immediate use at the central office. Lithographic operations remain unchanged.
As a result of this change in the printing work of the bureau the services of 16 employees in its printing office were dispensed with at the close of the year, 9 being transferred to the Government Printing Office. Seven rooms on the second floor of the quarters previously occupied have also been vacated, and all printing work is now confined to the first floor.
DIVISION OF SUPPLIES. The reclassification of property recommended by the board of survey went into effect on June 1, 1911. This classification eliminates the group formerly designated “Y” property, which, after becoming unserviceable from use, could be dropped from the returns without special authority. Under the new system only such articles can be dropped as are actually consumed by use or that are of slight value and soon worn out in service.
The equipment of 55 stations with chalk plate and stereotyping outfits for use in casting plates for commercial maps was completed during February, 1911. At a few of these stations the publication of the maps in the daily papers has since been discontinued, but the spare equipment has all been utilized in supplying other map-making offices.
New glass weather maps for public display were contracted for and installed as follows: Two in the United States Capitol and one each at Fort Smith, Ark.; Boston, Mass.; Indianapolis, Ind.; Richmond, Va.; Cincinnati, Ohio; Wichita, Kans.; Vicksburg, Miss.; and Peoria, Ill.
All regular stations and all substations issuing daily forecast cards were supplied with improved logotype outfits during the year. Besides a much enlarged vocabulary of weather terms, with standard captions and dates, each new outfit for regular stations includes a hand-printing press that produces excellent impressions in much smaller and neater type than that formerly used on forecast cards. Substations were supplied with new hand-stamping outfits, consisting of a modified vocabulary and type holders of new and improved pattern. These new outfits are superior in every respect to the old stamping devices, and are the result of considerable experimental work conducted in this division with a variety of apparatus submitted by manufacturers.
OBSERVATORY BUILDINGS. No new observatory buildings were guthorized during the year, except the reconstruction of the building at Sand Key, Fla., to replace the one that was destroyed by the hurricane of October 11, 1909. This building is now in course of construction, but the work has been unusually difficult, because the key was practically washed away by the hurricane of October 17, 1910. The building site is now completely under water, which fact has materially retarded tho work. However, the key is gradually re-forming, and it is expected that in a year or two it will have assumed its previous size. It is probable that the building will be finished and ready for occupancy by or before October 1, 1911. During the building operations the Weather Bureau employees are occupying a room in the lighthouse and the work of the bureau is being conducted without interruption.
The same hurricane that washed away Sand Key damaged the observatory building at Key West so badly that it is necessary to replace it. Congress has appropriated $15,000 for the purpose, and it is expected that the building will be completed by March 1, 1912.
The following table shows where the buildings owned by the Weather Bureau are located, the fiscal years in which they were erected, and the cost of the buildings and grounds:
Buildings owned by the Weather Bureau.
Cottage and office.
1 Government reservation.
Buildings rented by the Weather Bureau for living and observatory purposes.
PERSONNEL OF THE BUREAU. The numerical strength of the Weather Bureau at the close of the year was 9,483, as compared with 6,895 at the end of the preceding 12 months. This unusual increase is apparent rather than real, however, since the total owes its enlargement almost entirely to the inclusion of 2,416 marine meteorological observers who have hitherto not been considered in the enumeration. Of the total number, 7,390, or nearly 80 per cent, are cooperative observers rendering service without compensation other than that received through the free distribution of Government publications.
The total number of commissioned employees at the end of the year, 776, was 16 less than at the close of the preceding year. This decrease has been brought about largely through a lessening of the central office force by 25, owing to the discontinuance of a large portion of the printing work. The actual number of commissioned employees at stations, however, was 9 greater at the close of the year than at the time of the last report.
The formation of the new Division of Observations and Reports practically absorbed the central office clerical force formerly engaged in the duties performed by the Marine, Forecast, River and Flood, and Distributing Divisions. The force in the remaining divisions has been increased slightly in some instances, with the exception of the marked reduction in the Publications Division, already mentioned.
The enlargement of the commissioned force in the field by 9 was necessitated through the establishment of new stations at Dayton, Ohio, Fort Wayne, Ind., and Miami, Fla. At the stations already in existence the working force was lessened by 1 at seven points, in order to meet the demands for additional help at other stations where the service rendered the public had become greatly expanded. The rearrangements thus effected, both at the central office and in the