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At the request of the Oswego County Cooperative Extension Service MIDNY staff members met with several Department Heads at the State College at Oswego to review education and research needs in the region. One concrete result of these contacts was the decision on the part of a researcher to reorient a beginning study from one county to a regional focus. Work on the investigation of the potential of the vegetable industry in this County has continued into this quarter. A summary paper has been prepared for the early consideration of interested parties.

IV. AGENCY CONTACTS Contact has been made with an increasing number of organizations operating throughout the region. For the following organizations one or more MIDNY staff members have presented information relative to resource use and development concerns of the region : Central New York-Finger Lakes Regional Planning Board (quarterly meeting): State Conservation Department staff; State College at Oswego (several Department Heads); Garden Center Association of Central New York; Oneida County Resource Development Committee; State Wood Workers Safety Council ; Oswego County Vegetable Growers Association; Society for the Advancement of Visual Environment; New York State Commission on the Preservation of Agricultural Lands; County and City Planning Directors of the Region; and County Extension Staffs in all five counties.

Agencies and organizations with which MIDNY staff have had formal contact relative to resource development concerns, or the objectives of the MIDNY Project, include the following: Educational and Cultural Center for Onondaga and Oswego Counties; State Water Resource Division of the County Conservation Department; Geography Department-Syracuse University; Lansdowne of Ontario, Canada (a community development project); Campground Owners Association of New York; WHEN-TV; Metropolitan Development Association; College of Forestry-Syracuse University; Operations Oswego County Incorporated ; Economic Development Committee of Oswego County : Deputy Commissioner, State Conservation Department; Agway Development Director: Economic Development Commission of Syracuse Onondaga County: State College at Cortland; University Hill Corporation : Bureau of Agricultural Education, State Education Department; Onondaga County Planning Department; District and State Conservation Services; Central New York State Park Commission: Farmer's Home Administration ; Northeastern Forest Experiment Station-Recorpation Branch ; Central Vew York Water Resources Citizen's Council; New York State Office of Planning Coordination: State Director of Conservation Education; Soil Conservation Service; Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service ; League of Women Voters; Cayuga and Onondaga County Planning Departments; and State University of New York.

Initial steps have been taken in utilizing television in regional educational purposes. Alternative uses of television as related to the objectives of the MIDNY project have been discussed with a television specialist, one trial program over WHEN-TV has been aired, and a commitment made for periodic appearances following the June program rescheduling.

V. DATA PREPARATION AND RESEARCH

Population charts for all towns within the region covering the period from 1800-1960 have been prepared and utilized in several meetings in rural towns to illustrate the long-range differential of population change between towns, depending upon their location relative to urbanizing centers. A beginning film bibliography and several research project summaries have been prepared as well as a flier explaining the MIDNY Project.

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION, NEW YORK STATE

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION AND COMMUNITY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 1. Cooperative Extension is a system of informal education tied to the landgrant university, especially the Colleges of Agriculture and Home Economics, and to local people through some kind of organization. It is financed largely with federal, state and county funds.

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For more than 50 years, Cooperative Extension has been seen as a means of helping individuals, families and groups achieve their fullest potential. Involved have been the interpretation of knowledge, assistance to people using the knowledge and help for people who wished to organized for group action. A further role has been the identification and communication of problems requiring further research.

Cooperative Extension's educational efforts have long been action oriented, research based and designed in partnership with local people.

2. Throughout its existence, Cooperative Extension has worked with communities, as well as with individuals and families, helping to obtain or improve public services, to form new community organizations, and to make existing organizations most effective. The changes in New York State society and the trends toward urban industrialization have made community resource development more complex and Cooperative Extension's supporting educational efforts broader in scope.

3. Specific Cooperative Extension programs relating to community resource development now exist :

a. in three multi-county efforts throughout the southern tier of New York State,

b. in 28 individual counties,

c. in the five-county Syracuse area. 4. Cooperative Extension is interested in using its informal education competence along with its knowledge resources and the knowledge from other places to assist community development. Such informal education complements other development activities and makes a difference in the quality of development through the active involvement of community leaders, increased awareness by the voting public and expression by individuals and groups of needs, in trests and goals. İnvolvement is achieved largely by working with individuals and groups in the design of educational programs.

5. The MIDNY Project is a special program, funded largely with earmarked federal funds. This region appeared to be the best place in New York State to apply the Cooperative Extension competence in informal education in a rapidly urbanizing development. Some considerations were:

a. The vitality of the region.
b. A newly formed regional planning board.
C. An urban-rural fringe with conflicts.

d. The opportunity to explore working relationships with other institutions of higher education.

e. The existence of many rural communities within the five counties.
f. The presence of good agriculture.

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY,

Fort Collins, Colo., July 5, 1967. Hon. JOSEPH Y. RESNICK, Chairman, Subcommittee on Rural Development, House Committee on Agricul

ture, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. DEAR CONGRESSMAN RESNICK : Please accept my most sincere appreciation fr“ the opportunity which was provided for the Extension Committee on Organization and Policy to present testimony before your subcommittee on June 19.

In accordance with your request, additional information concerning the work which has been reported by the State Cooperative Extension Services with low income people is provided as an attachment to this letter. If it is appropriate that it be added to the record of our testimony, we would be pleased to have it inserted in the record.

Should you or other members of your subcommittee at any time wish to study federal programs in the rural development sector at first hand, we would be most willing to assist in arranging for special visitations which might serve the interests of your subcommittee.

Again, let me thank you for your courtesies during our hearing and for the opportunity to present testimony. Very sincerely,

LOWELL H. WATTS, Director of Extension Service and Chairman of ECOP.

EXTENSION WORK WITH LOW-INCOME FAMILIES AND GROUPS

Introduction

During the past three years the Cooperative Extension Service has greatly intensified its work with low-income families and groups. A 1966 study of how Extension workers spend their time shows that 38.6 percent of their time is currently devoted to work with low-income people. This group comprises 32.1 percent of the total audience which Extension serves, and 21.4 percent of C.S. families. Thus, Extension is spending a larger proportion of its time with low-income people in relation to its total clientele and in relation to the total U.S. families.

Of its total man-hours, Extension currently spends 50.8 percent with farm families, of which 21.7 percent are classified low-income; 28.9 percent with rural non-farm families of which 11.1 are classified as low-income; and 20.3 percent with families in areas over 2,500 population of which 5.8 percent are classified as low-income.

Some 39 percent of Extension work in agriculture is devoted to working with low-income farm families. Here again, a higher percentage of Extension time is devoted to this group in relation to their proportion to total farm families than with any other economic group.

Extension home economists devoted 38.9 percent of their time to low-income families.

Much of the home economics program effort to help poor families has been directed toward helping poor people improve their nutritional status by making maximum use of food resources available.

Extension home economists in 332 counties where the Food Stamp Program was in operation, have assisted 142,555 participating families with food and nutrition education programs.

759,500 families in 1.565 counties in the "direct distribution for needs families program” were helped on how to use and plan nutritious diets around food received.

A recent report indicated that States had trained 9,711 nonprofessional aides for other agencies from July 1, 1965, to October 1966. During the same period. 745 paid nonprofessional aides were being trained and supervised by the Extension Service for work with low-income families.

A 1965 study revealed nearly 700,000 or 35 percent of 4-H membership was from families of less than $3,000 income. Nearly 39 percent of Extension 4-H staff time was spent on work with low-income youth.

The Federal Extension Service aided State Extension Services to conduct special 4-H demonstration programs designed for specific needs of low-income youth.

National training seminars were held for State 4-H leaders to further mobilize and focus Extension staff efforts in 4-H work with low-income youth, States are providing similar seminars for county Extension workers and volunteer leaders.

The past two summers Extension has employed or supervised 6,721 youth in various poverty programs.

Educational guidance was given to Indian Tribal Councils in 11 States to organize and carry out NYC projects giving employment and education to more than 6,000 Indian boys and girls. Eighty-five VISTA personnel and 604 (APfinanced workers are under Extension supervision.

The Extension Service is spending 21.8 percent of their time with the rural farm families with incomes of less than $3,000 in agricultural practices, manage ment and marketing.

The Cooperative Extension Service has developed and is expanding its educational program in low-income areas aimed at helping individuals and groups both in evaluation of the economic and technological feasibility of commercial enterprises in low-income areas and in the development and operation of those which have been initiated. Sixteen States have developed specialized programs for lowincome families in marketing assistance. Some other achievements of Extension Scrvice with low-income families

Beginning with the passage of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, the Extension Service launched a massive educational effort to inform rural people of the provisions of the Act, and to help them organize Community Action Programs.

Extension helped to organize some 781 CAP's, some of which were later combined into multi-county CAP's.

Extension also helped design and implement component CAP projects, and is currently assisting with 1,742 such projects.

Extension currently is supervising 4,057 professional and subprofessional workers assigned to OEO and related low-income projects.

Extension in the past six months assisted with 941 MDTA and other job training programs involving some 28,552 participants.

Extension currently is working with some 3,152 county-wide resource development committees, and 562 area development committees, on a wide range of projects ranging from job training and job development, housing, health, recreation, education, and other services and facilities beneficial to the entire community or area.

The Federal Extension Service has provided the State Extension Services information about new federal programs. 25,000 copies of a kit of fact sheets detailing 19 different programs have been distributed to the State Extension Services and other agencies. The Office of Economic Opportunity purchased 7,500 copies of this kit on new programs for their CAA personnel.

EXTENSION SERVICE

One of the key attractions at the recent USDA-OEO exhibit on low-income work was the mobile work center used by the Arkansas Extension Service for reaching hard-to-reach low income youth in isolated rural areas. The speciallyequipped bus is one of the successful methods that has been developed in this pilot project and has been in operation for more than 2 years.

Manned by trained subprofessionals, the mobile bus offers a variety of supervised learning experience for boys and girls as well as a meeting place. Equipment and work benches are removable and seats can be easily installed to transport the youth to other activities,

The rear of the bus is equipped with a four-burner butane gas range, double sink, water under pressure, three portable electric sewing machines, cabinet spare, cooking utensils, and tables and seats for six girls and a program assistant.

The front of the bus is equipped with hand tools, four electric saber saws, four electric drills, work tables and storage, and space for eight boys and a program assistant. The bus is equipped with a 15,000 watt self-starting electric generating plant which provides sufficient power for operation of all power tools and sewing machines. Most of the equipment has been donated by industries, organizations, and individuals interested in this new approach for reaching disadvantaged youth.

Instructions for girls include food selection and preparation, sewing and clothing instructions, handicrafts, personal appearance, and personal hygiene.

Boys projects include woodworking, use and repair of electrical equipment, handicrafts, personal appearance, and personal hygiene.

To date the Arkansas special youth project has been successful in reaching 8700 youth, a major part of whom are not participating in any youth activities outside of school. South Dakota Extension Service awarded O EO grant

A $40,014 OEO grant has been made to the South Dakota Extension Service for a technical assistance and training project.

Purpose of the project is to initiate a statewide educational and technical assistance program to meet the needs of those low-density areas that cannot be covered by any one installation. The South Dakota Extension Service will operate the program through the various county offices, thus creating a FederalState-county unit capable of reaching those areas.

Assistance will be offered in the areas of multi-county planning, development of educational and informational materials, data gathering, etc. State Resource Development Specialists and Agents will provide this assistance to county CAP organizations, local CAP's, the State OEO, and all delegate and affiliated agencies.

JOB CORPS REACHES FLOWER, WEST VIRGINIA Patsy Flint, a small country girl from Flower, West Virginia (pop. 45–8 families, counting the folks living in the hollows), had heard a lot of good things about the Job Corps, but also a number of discouraging rumors too.

Three of her friends from nearby Tobin (pop. 80) had attended the Job Corps center in Florida. They dropped out because they thought it was a tough course.

“I'm so glad I didn't listen to any of my friends," the soft spoken Job Corps graduate admitted. “I wanted to go no matter what and the social worker and my mother kept encouraging me. They told me I'd be a better person with a future to look forward to."

Today, Patsy is a different person. Now on her own, she is employed as a stenographer in a government office in Washington, D.C. and lives in a residence hall with 8 other girls.

Patsy has all kinds of plans for her future. One of them is urgent. She wants to reach the point financially where she can afford a small apartment and then bring her sister, Nancy, to Washington where she knows she can find her work as a Nursery Aide. Nancy too is a Job Corps graduate but right now is working as a waitress in Charleston because nothing is available for her there in her newly acquired Job Corps skill.

Many of the Job Corps girls are highschool dropouts, but Patsy wasn't. She graduated highschool in Burnsville (pop. 728) but couldn't go on to anything else. Her parents didn't have the money to send her on to a specialized school. Her father, a former coal miner, now works at the State park.

When Patsy became a Job Corpswoman, she left home for the first time, travelling across the country to Los Angeles center.

EXTENSION SERVICE LOW-INCOME WORK

This column by the Federal Extension Service is a regular feature of Rural Opportunities. It tells how CAA staffs and Extension workers complement each other's efforts to assist low-income people in rural areas.

Last month's column provided a broad overview of many Extension Service activities with low-income families and groups. These ranged from job training and job development to teaching better uses of donated foods, and included work with many different organizations and agencies serving the poor. This month's column features some of the results of Extension work with low-income groups and communities, and may provide ideas that you will find useful.

INDIAN WOMEN OPERATE SUCCESSFUL COOPERATIVE

The Rocky Boy Reservation in Montana offers limited job opportunities to the 900 Chippewa and Cree Indians who live there.

In an effort to provide work and income, a two-month MDTA training course in leather decorating was conducted in 1965. This proved to be the start of a productive and profitable venture.

The Hill County Extension Service home economist, Mrs. Elinor Clack, was asked to be in charge of the school. Two Indian women were selected as instructors. Twenty women took the course and decided to form a cooperative, the Chippewa-Cree Craft Guild. They asked Mrs. Clack to serve as their advisor.

During the last week of the school the women sold their beadwork at a bazaar to gain experience in meeting the public and in pricing items. They donated the proceeds to the Guild. Mrs. Clark entered samples of their work in the Indian Exhibition in Charlotte, North Carolina, where they rated an "honorable mention". This was the encouragement the Indians needed to continue. Bank shows faith

Their first contract--really a subcontract to furnish 1.150 sets of beaded purses bracelets, pins and earrings—was for the Cheyenne Arts and Crafts at St. Labre Mission. It took courage, faith and much hard work to accept a contract costing several thousand dollars when the cooperative bank balance was only $110.90. The Havre Bank had enough faith in the venture to approve a loan. In less than four months the order was filled, the loan repaid, and $67 left in the cooperative bank account. The women were paid $6,000. This is an impressive record, but the women recognized there was much yet to learn about production, advertising, management and salesmanship.

The future of this cooperative effort now looks quite promising. Last year the cooperative: -had a contract with Guild Arts and Crafts of Farmington, New York, and

Ashland, Montana, for 475 dozen pairs of modern earrings. -developed a nationwide mail order business.

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