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Mr. BARTLETT. I think this is one of the things that we have found out in our survey of Maine-in rural youth, for example that they do not want to leave the rural areas. We have to go out and meet them.

Mr. Zwach. What are you doing to meet them?

Mr. BARTLETT. We think we are going to be in a position to do the job that needs to be done, but we can't do it without money. This is why we are working on this at the present time.

Mr. Zwach. Are you helping to try to get a fair return for the labor, effort and investment of the people in the rural area?

Mr. BARTLETT. I, for one, am, and I know that my manpower coordinator here, this is one of the projects he has been working on.

Mr. Zwach. Is your Governor?

Mr. BARTLETT. He surely is. He surely is. I think the Governor probably has a better understanding of these problems than most people. He is 36 years old, but I think he understands these problems and this is why he has thrown the weight of his office behind this kind of a program.

Mr. Zwach. You see, I am a farmer. It is my business. I am surrounded by them. I am also a teacher, or was for many years.

The real problem in the countryside, the reason they are disadvantaged, the reason they don't have the kind of schools they should have is that they don't get the income they should have. They are really the miracle men. There is no place in the world where you get the fine food and the fine choice of food produced by such a small segment of our


Yet we just never wake up in America. We may have to, and I am afraid America is going to have to go hungry before they appreciate rural America.

We are now kind of talking around the edges and we are going to try to bring back the little money they should have had by their own labor and their own rights a long time ago. We are going to try to bring a little of that back and try to lift them up a little and for what purpose? Unless we bring jobs there, we are going to drive them into the cities where we already have a crisis in every respect. All of our rural group are already there too many of them

and we also have a crisis in the countryside because they are all gone.

You see, we have a big problem here in rural development, Mr. Chairman. I don't want to see this limited to just the government programs we have here. I want to know what is happening at the com

munity level to build this up. What is happening at the county level ? * What is happening at the State level and, on top of that, what is happening at the Federal level ?

Mr. RESNICK. If my distinguished colleague would yield, I would like to point out

Mr. Zwach. I yield, gladly. You have taken up, Mr. Chairman, most of the time, but I gladly yield.

Mr. RESNICK. I would just like to point out one thing, nothing happens in any Federal program unless the local community gets involved ; I think that you ought to know that. There are 485 Federal programs, not one of them compulsory. Now, if your State or county or community isn't interested in any of these programs, nothing happens. I think this should be obvious.

I dare anybody to point out to me one instance where the Federal Government comes in and points to the community or a State or a county and says, “You must put in this program.” There is not one instance.

Mr. Zwach. We are aware of that, Mr. Chairman. Fully aware.

Mr. RESNICK. Well then, I don't think you are making a valid point if I may say so, because these things happen at the grassroots level or they don't happen.

Unfortunately, we are running out of time. I am sure we will have the opportunity to make this point further.

I would like to call on Professor Wyman from the Cooperative Extension Service of the University of Maine.



Mr. WYMAN. That is right. We have almost 50 percent Federal funds through the Department of Agriculture. We maintain county cooperative extension services, but we have found in recent years that we are more effective in not using the terms of county agent, home agent, and 4-H Club agent. We try to make the entire staff, small as it is, work on the problems of the development of the whole county:

We maintain our commercial agricultural educational programs through area specialists. As you know, Maine has a limited variety of commercial agriculture. These are primarily potatoes, dairy, and poultry.

Mr. RESNICK. You were pretty well put out of the poultry business with the advent of low freight rates down South. I know in New York State we are pretty well put out of the business.

Mr. WYMAN. This really changed the industry; yes. We are almost entirely an integrated, market meat, and market egg operation. It is still a large agricultural industry, if you combine eggs and the meat.

Mr. RESNICK. Basically we found in other parts of America, more and more people are going off the farm because of changes due to low farm prices, as well as changing technology.

Mr. WYMAN. That is right.

Mr. RESNICK. In other words, we find it is cheaper to bring it in from Iowa than to grow it in Maine on a small patch.

Mr. Wyman. This is often so, and the change in quality of farm labor, the change in market price for this farm labor has changed our whole labor market in agriculture and made agriculture rery difficult.

Mr. RESNICK. We are going to have to adjourn but I would like to ask you one question. What do you think would happen if the poverty funds were withdrawn now?

Mr. WYMAN. What do I think would happen to Maine?

Mr. Wyman. The real impact we see in poverty funds is that thes give all the agencies, State, county and Federal, an opportunity to try programs in different directions. This is where the real changes are

occurring out of poverty program funds and we are very excited about

the things that we are able to do with this sort of fund available for 1 work in rural areas.

Mr. RESNICK. If this money were not available, there would be a downward spiral?

Mr. Wyman. Yes. It would stall. Existing agencies are tied with existing programs, which they are trying to improve, but this gives us a chance to innovate and to work together.

Mr. RESNICK. Has Maine continued to lose population ?
Mr. WYMAN. We are growing very slowly.
Mr. RESNICK. But you have lost population for a long time.
Mr. WYMAN. Yes; we did.

Mr. RESNICK. In other words, you are now starting to come back? ! Mr. WYMAN. At an extremely slow rate; yes.

Mr. RESNICK. We usually don't go into session until 12 o'clock and I wasn't informed that we were going in at 11 today.

We hope to be able to go out on a field trip and visit your area.
Mr. WYMAN. I hope that you do.

Mr. RESNICK. We will include your prepared statement as a part of the record at this point, Mr. Wyman.

Mr. WYMAN. Thank you.
(The statement follows:)


EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF MAINE My name is 0. Lewis Wyman. I am State Program Coordinator of the Cooperative Extension Service of the University of Maine. In this responsibility I have the opportunity to work with rural and urban youth and to consult with parents, teachers and Extension agents as well as officials of various state and federal agencies in support of a mutual interest in the development of programs for rural and urban families.

The Cooperative Extension Service of the University of Maine has always been concerned with improvement of rural life. More recently our programs have been increasingly oriented toward the needs of disadvantaged rural people. In particular, County Extension agents and state specialists have been involved in the cooperative planning and execution of many rural programs along with state and federal agencies. Having had a great deal of experience with local people in improving social and economic conditions, we see the value of such agencies as the Office of Economic Opportunity in providing supplementary approaches, manpower and funds. Our relationships with the Office of Economic Opportunity have been mutually satisfactory and productive.

I would like to briefly describe some of the OEO programs now in progress in Maine, in which Cooperative Extension has been active and in which it believes :

UPWARD BOUND Three Upward Bound programs are conducted in Maine. These are aimed at the potential high school dropouts who are identified by school administrators as having the mental capacity for higher education, but lacking motivation. This lack can often be attributed largely to inherited social disadvantages.

The University of Maine's Upward Bound project involved selecting individuals in the 16 and 17 age group with pronounced problems of adjustment to school and society. The project reached 52 boys and girls in 1966–77. The program started during the summer of 1966—exposed them to life in a college environment; provided supplementary training in communication arts and mathematics; gave experience in dealing with people from other backgrounds; broadened their experiences with activities from mountain climbing to summer theater; and es. tablished a supportive "family" relationship where none, in many cases, had existed. Regular periodic followup, carried on throughout the year, helped to .cement favorable relationships developed during the summer. Of the 52 starting the program, 48 have continued. There were no voluntary dropouts from school within the group. Over half will return this month to commence the second summer's program.

The University of Maine Cooperative Extension and resident teaching staffs carry the advisory and teaching responsibilities for the project. The participants are having an increasing part in planning their program, and there is one work. study student (another OEO activity) counselor for each five youngsters, thus providing direct contact with slightly older youth from disadvantaged backgrounds who have “made it” to college. Similar efforts in the other two Upward Bound projects in Maine have reached another hundred or more youth. This effort is especially helpful with rural youngsters who, because of the nature of secondary educational opportunity in rural communities, are especially susceptible to dropout.


As in many other sections of the country, Maine's small but important Indian population is confined largely to reservations, causing them to be isolated from the normal social and economic life of the state. Six VISTAs were assigned to the three Maine Indian reservations. Upon arrival, the volunteers received orientation to Maine conditions and resources in a one-day meeting with state and county Extension workers. They have received continuous support from Extension in both subject matter and planning, and have repaid this assistance by producing improved understanding of Indian attitudes and values for Extension em. ployees. The VISTAs have been doing important work with the youth in tutoring and in broadening horizons. They are encouraging changes of all kinds from beautification to sanitation by example, by hard work, and by simply being there. Other types of assistance have been in home repair, nutrition and recreation, and they have gone so far as to enlist teaching assistance from enrolled college students.


Headstart programs have been maturing rapidly in many Maine communities. Local Headstart and Community Action Agency workers have encouraged use of Extension-trained leaders in volunteer work with Headstart parents in order to increase the impact of this work on those entering school.

We think that carry-over with respect to nutrition practices accepted or initiated with one child are likely to be applied to others in the family. Modest, but useful followup through the year has resulted from Headstart with youngsters. The making over of used clothing is one of the more popular activities conducted as followup for Headstart.

Extension agents and volunteer leaders have found this population to be very receptive to other educational activity, such as clothing and family life enrichment, once they are contacted through Headstart.

One of our Cooperative Extension agents is county coordinator for Headstart training among parents, and most agents plan this year to be involved from the beginning, rather than waiting to be called in.


The work experience program is aimed at adults, to teach new skills such as home repair. An interesting side effect has been the desire of children of work experience families to improve in their own personal development. This is the converse of Headstart experience, where the child was the entree to the family situation. The Work Experience Program with adults has provided a means of reaching boys and girls of the families to teach health, nutrition, grooming and other personal development, helping them to improve their mobility in society.


Two Job Corps Centers are presently being operated in Maine. Work training and group living experiences are being provided for boys in the Center at Arcadia National Park on Mount Desert Island, operated by the Forest Service, and the large women's Job Corps Center at Poland Spring. The boys have participated in activities away from the Center, including an all-day woodsmen's safety training program conducted by the Cooperative Extension Service, logging equipment suppliers and the major paper companies.

An example of Job Corps activity for mutual benefit occurred recently on Mount Desert Island. One school department was faced with an extensive grounds problem, involving both health and safety of the students. The problem was discussed at a routine interagency meeting, and the result was that the Cooperative Extension Service provided a plan, the Soil Conservation Service the engineering advice, and the Job Corps the equipment and manpower to correct the situation. Maintenance will be a Neighborhood Youth Corps project, another Office of Economic Opportunity program.

A similar project is underway at Blue Hill, where a public wharf is resulting from Cooperative Extension community development, but could not be done at this time without the Job Corps Center.

At the Poland Spring Job Corps Center for women, early contact was made to explain the wide variety of youth education materials available from the Cooperative Extension Service. Career exploration, photography, livestock, pet and family life project materials were made available to the Center, and Extension youth activities are well established there both as 4-H and as non-4-H projects. Delegates from the Job Corps Center attended the Older Youth Conference which we conducted at the University of Maine last year, and are expected back again this month for the four-day meeting.


A novel and productive demonstration is being conducted in the small rural community of Leeds, Maine, where, through the cooperation of several agencies, eight families have been given encouragement and assistance in complete renovation of their homes. In addition to Cooperative Extension Service and local church groups, Farmers Home Administration and representatives of the Office of Economic Opportunity served as catalysts to arrange for work schedules of family members in this “do-it-yourselves” project. The Office of Economic Opportunity became involved in this community when the Extension agent went to the county Community Action Agency and said, “I need help”. CAA has employed a coordinator to arrange for activities by the disadvantaged in the community which will be applied as their share of the reconstruction loans.

The Extension agent who received the help serves on two OEO Task Forces.

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The Maine Cooperative Extension Service was asked to provide assistance at the outset of the program. Because of our long experience in local community organization, our Extension agents were able to assist in the formation of local committees and explain programs to local citizens. Several of our county Extension agents are members of, and consultants to local Community Action Agencies, and some of the Community Action Agency members are advisors to and members of local Cooperative Extension executive committees.


In summary, we in Maine believe that programs of assistance are badly needed by disadvantaged rural citizens. Such programs should involve active participation by citizens in both the planning and operational phases. A coordinated program, using federal, state and local funds, built on a team effort by the several concerned agencies and individuals, is most desirable. Constructive use of limited funds is possible, providing the concept of "creative federalism" can be developed at the local level. We know from long experience that this is possible.

Mr. RESNICK. These hearings are now adjourned until Monday morning.

(Whereupon, at 11:10 a.m., the subcommittee was adjourned, to reconvene on Monday, June 19, 1967.)

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