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chose their officers, and were designated the associate volunteers. They amounted to upwards of four hundred, and were, in the sequel, particularly useful,* though their zeal was a little damped by the government declining in part their offers of service, alleging unwillingness to put them to expense; but, in reality, as was generally thought at the time, from a fear of the Scots feeling their own strength, and, on some future occasion, exerting it in a way not at that time contemplated.+ The spirited circular which they issued, and which had so much effect in arousing Scotishmen every where, was probably the cause of this doubt on the part of government, and probably brought to their remembrance the days of the covenant, which were still at court remembered and secretly contemplated with terror. I

* Their names have been preserved, and may be seen in the Scots' Mag. azine for 1806.

+ Vide a letter from Edinburgh, August 13th, 1715.

# The following is the circular alluded to :-“ Sir, The certainty of a designed invasion in favour of a popish pretender to the crown being no longer doubted of, and the danger thereby threatened, as well to his sacred majesty king George, his person and government, as to all bis good subjects in their dearest and most valuable interests, being equally great, it comes to be the immediate duty of all who have any sincere regard to the true protestant religion, and the civil rights and liberties of mankind, to show a zealous concern for the preservation of these invaluable blessings, by exerting themselves to the utmost in defence of his majesty's just right and title to the crown, and vigorously opposing all attempts that shall be made to disturb his government. For these ends, we, his majesty's faithful subjects in and about this city, have, under the countenance of those in authority here, cheerfully and unanimously engaged ourselves in a bond of association, to assist and support one another in manner therein expressed; and being also sensible how proper it is to encourage and stimulate others to so necessary a duty, we have thought fit to send a copy of our foresaid association to you, and many other parishes in Scotland, who, we hope, from the same motives contained in the preamble of our paper, will stir up themselves in their several stations, to act with such resolution as becomes those who have their all at stake. The

prize we contend for is liberty; it is essential to our very happiness : for how · can we possibly retain our religious and civil rights, if we tamely submit to

the yoke, and part with our liberty? will not life itself be a burthen, if all that is done to us, either as men or christians, shall be thus lost, past all hopes of recovery? This consideration alone should rouse us from a fatal security, and our anxiety for liberty should daily increase in proportion to our danger, which is visibly hastening upon us, by the secret and open attacks

The city of Glasgow had displayed a noble spirit of patriotism so early as the revolution, by sending five hundred men to guard the convention; and, observing the late inglorious treaty of peace, the disbanding of the army, the passing the

of the restless enemies of our peace and happiness; is it not then reasonable and honest thoroughly to consider our circumstances, and to let our enemies know that we are upon our guard? We do, therefore, persuade ourselves it will be the business of every honest man to look up with a spirit, and do his ntmost to maintain and defend our excellent constitution both in church and state, the sum of our present happy condition, which, by the blessing of God, nothing can make desperate but our own sloth and cowardice. Has not our good and gracious God hitherto made signal appearances on our behalf? Have not our eyes seen the salvation he hath wrought for us, time after time? Can we, without horror, remember the unparalleled cruelties we met with, when a popish interest and faction had the ascendant? Can we forget the remarkable deliverance God wrought for us in breaking the yoke of their arbitrary and tyrannical government by the great king William in the late glorious revolution? Can we have forgot the goodness of God in defeating the last attempt of this nature in such a manner as left no ground to doubt but that God did then appear on our side? Or shall we ever cease to remember the seasonable and surprising interposition of heaven in bringing his present majesty king George to the quiet and peaceable possession of the throne of these realms, and this at a time when our fears were so great, that nothing but a solid persuasion of the Lord God, his concerning himself for his own interest, kept up our spirits, and made us hope for relief; why should we then despond? The same hand is not now shortened that it cannot save; the same God we trust in is both able and willing to rescue us from the imminent dangers that now threaten us, by the insurrection of a Jacobite faction, and an invasion of a pretender to the crown, who has been educated in all the maxims of popish bigotry and French tyranny, and now comes against us with an army of Irish cut-throats, assisted (as we have no reason to doubt) by the grand enemy to the reformed in Europe, who hath embrued his hands so much in protestant blood. 'Tis, therefore, earnestly recommended to you, to further so good and necessary a work, as you cannot but be convinced the above mentioned association must be at this time. Court the present opportunity, get all the honest hands to it you can, and then appoint your place of rendezvous, that you may be in a readiness to come together when you hear of a landing. And let us have the satisfaction to know what happy progress you make from time to time in this aftair, addressing your letter to the secretary of our society, who, by our orders, subscribes this to you. In the meantime, let us all be much employed in fervent prayer to God, that the great Jehovah, Lord of heaven and earth, may prosper and succeed all our endeavours for the preservation of o:ir peace, and the security of our holy religion and civil rights, and that this God may bless and preserve his most sacred majesty king George in his royal person and government, and

toleration, the patronage, and the schism bills, with the yearly pensions bestowed upon the Jacobite clans, bad entered into a correspondence with the well-affected in all parts of the kingdom, in concert with whom, about the end of queen Anne's reign, they had made a liberal provision of ammunition and arms, in view of the dismal catastrophe which the gloomy aspect of affairs then threatened. The inhabitants, seconding the views of the magistracy, were also brought to such perfection in the use of arms, that they were little, if at all inferior to the regular troops, and thus were in perfect readiness for any emergency. This city was among the first in Scotland to proclaim the elector of Brunswick Lunenburg king of these realms, and, of course, the citizens were obnoxious to the partisans of James, to many of whom their growing wealth was likely also to be a considerable temptation. They, therefore, prudently resolved, on hearing of the pretender's motions, to put themselves in arms, that they might be in a condition both to defend themselves from the cupidity of the clans, and to assist the government.

This conduct on the part of Glasgow gave the alarm to the whole west of Scotland, which instantly began to copy after her example. In the strife of loyalty and patriotic feeling, which the whole of the west country exhibited, it would be unjust not to mention, that Kilmarnock was remarkably distinguished. Its inhabitants, like the citizens of Glasgow, had early taken the alarm, and, upon the death of the queen, immediately began to exercise themselves to the use of arms. This zeal was greatly excited and advanced by the direction and example of their superior, lord Kilmarnock, who was a firm promoter of the Union, and a zealous supporter of the protestant succession. So actively, indeed, did that whole district exert themselves, that, upon a very short warning, on the twentysecond of August, the bailiary of Cuninghame alone, mustered on Irvine Moor, a force amounting to six thousand men, at the head of five hundred of the best appointed and best trained of

his protestant issue to latest posterity. And to conclude, let us be of good · courage and play the men for our people, and the cities of our God, and the Lord do that which seemeth him good.Rae's History of the Rebellion, pp. 1774-179.

which, appeared lord Kilmarnock, and his son, lord Boyd, then an object of deep interest, being the heir of the family, and only eleven years of age.* Had there been present any gifted seer, who, through the folds of time, could have descried the red field of Culloden, what would have been his emotions!

The people of Greenock, under the influence of lady Shaw Stuart, in the absence of Sir John, who was abroad at the time, and the assiduity of the Rev. Mr. Turner, the minister of the parish, behaved in the most praiseworthy manner, being able, by the middle of August, to muster two hundred and sixty men, well armed, trained, and divided into six companies.

In Clydesdale, his grace the duke of Douglas, of his vassals and tenants, raised to the number of three hundred men, for the service of the government. Nor were the other gentlemen in that neighbourhood negligent of their duty. Her grace the dutchess of Hamilton, captain Daniel Weir of Stonebyres, the laird of Corehouse, James Carmichael of Bonnyton, the laird of Lee, Mr. Alexander Menzies of Culterallers, &c. &c., had all their vassals and tenants trained and mustered, in defence of his majesty's person and government, by the beginning of September.

In Nithsdale and Galloway, though there were many papists and Jacobites, the zeal of the great body of the people was most conspicuous. In Dumfries, seven companies, of sixty effective men each, were raised among the inhabitants, and for fear of being surprised by the factious and disloyal, who, they knew, were in great numbers on every side of them, a strong guard was constantly kept. The lord provost was commander of the companies of volunteers, and they were trained so as to have reached the highest degree of military discipline. Nor was the example of the burgh lost upon the surrounding country. The inhabitants, every where witnessing the consultations of the Jacobites, and being informed of the movements of the Highlanders, made the most diligent preparations for counteracting their designs. The exercise of arms was general and incessant, and they kept guards at all the most considerable

* Douglas' Peerage.

places on the roads, to take notice of strangers, intercept letters, and cut off the communication of the Jacobites with one another. A Jacobite gentleman, Bell of Minsca, having taken it upon him to insult a party of these guards at Penpont, was shot by one of the centinels through the leg, which is said by Rae to have been the first blood drawn in that rebellion.

We may notice here that the clergy of the Scotish church were every where active, awakening the spirit, and directing the movements of their parishioners; many of them took arms themselves, and set bright examples of true patriotism, as well as of religion, while the episcopal clergy, for whom such a bustle had been kept up for many of the bypast years, and for whom the feelings of the presbyterians had been so deeply wounded, were, to a man, rebels, and exerted themselves, to spread the flame of rebellion, with a zeal worthy of a better cause. The presbyterian dissenters, on the contrary, who had been persecuted and reviled by their brethren, even more than the episcopalians, took arms for the defence of their country's liberties. Mr. John Hepburn kept the field, with three hundred of his people, all the time the rebellion raged in the south, and in activity and watchfulness seems to have been behind none of the other leaders of the people at that time. Mr. Stuart of Torence he apprehended returning from a visit to a part of the rebel army, and sent him in prisoner to Dumfries, whither he himself, with his party,'hastened when he had reason to think it had been invested by the enemy; but finding the place still safe, he encamped without the town, which, in present circumstances, he refused to enter, without explanations, which the magistrates and ministers of Dumfries either would not, or could not make. * It was evident, however, that he and his people, were determined to have acted vigorously against the pretender in case of extremity; but from the unhappy divisions subsisting between them and their brethren, respecting the revolution, and the Union settlements, they probably thought that extremity alone could justify their interference.

As Kircudbright was one of the stations pointed out by the

* Rac's History of the Rebellion, pp. 256, 276.

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