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without waiting to be sent for, and prevailing to have all the privy counsellors in and about London, called in without distinction, rendered their whole previous preparations nugatory, and made any, even the least display of disloyalty, next to impossible. Measures were accordingly adopted, with the utmost promptitude, for securing the public tranquillity. Orders were issued to the lord mayor of London, to provide for the peace of the city, by summoning the lieutenancy, who ordered out the trainbands, the militia of the Tower hamlets, and of Westminster; and the lords of admiralty, by order of the council, issued directions for fitting out ships of war, with all possible despatch. An express was also sent, on the day before the queen's death, to the elector of Hanover, to assure him of their inviolable duty in the prospect of that event, and to request his presence in England without loss of time. Orders were at the same time forwarded to the earl of Strafford, to lay the state of matters in Britain, before the states of Holland, and to demand the performance of the stipulations in the treaty of guarantee, for the protestant succession. All the military officers in Great Britain were ordered to repair immediately to their respective posts.
The demise of the queen was no sooner known than Tennison, archbishop of Canterbury, the chancellor Harcourt, the lord treasurer Shrewsbury, Buckingham lord president of the council, and Dartmouth lord privy seal, five of the seven justices or regents, on whom the administration of the government, during the king's absence, devolved, by acts of parliament, of the fourth and fifth of queen Anne, assembled at St. James', together with the dukes of Somerset, Ormond, Northumberland, Argyle, Roxburgh, and Kent, the earls of Poulet, Northampton, Sunderland, Radnor, Rochester, Orford, Marr, Loudon, Ferrers, Oxford, and Portmore, the viscount Bolingbroke, the lord bishop of London, the lords Lexington, Berkely of Stratton, Guilford, Somers, Guernsey, Cowper, Mansel, Lansdown, and Bingley, William Bromley, Esq. Henry Boyle, Esq. Sir William Windham, chancellor of the exchequer, Sir John Trevor, Sir John Holland, Sir John Hill, Sir Richard Onslow, and John Smith, Esq. The earl of Strafford, and Sir Thomas Parker, lord chief justice of the court of the queen's
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bench, two of the lords justices, appointed by the above act, were necessarily absent.
By the above mentioned act, the successor to the crown, was impowered to nominate as many persons, as he or she, should think fit, to be joined to the seven lords justices above named; and accordingly, the archbishop of Canterbury, the lord chancellor, and Monsieur Kreyenberg, as directed by the said act, produced before the council, three instruments, under the hand and seal of the elector of Hanover, by which it appeared, that the persons appointed by his highness, as lords justices, were the archbishop of York, the duke of Shrewsbury, then lord high treasurer, and so one of the seven justices before mentioned, the dukes of Somerset, Bolton, Devonshire, Kent, Argyle, Montrose, and Roxburgh, the earls of Pembroke, Anglesea, Carlisle, Nottingham, Abingdon, Scarborough, and Oxford, lords viscount Townshend, Halifax, and Cowper.
The following proclamation was immediately emitted by the council. “Whereas, it hath pleased Almighty God, to call to his mercy, our late sovereign lady queen Anne, of blessed memory, by whose decease, the imperial crowns of Great Britain, France and Ireland, are solely and rightfully come to the high and mighty prince George elector of Brunswick Lunenburg. We, therefore, the lords spiritual and temporal of the realm, being here assisted with those of her late majesty's privy council, with numbers of other principal gentlemen of quality, with the lord mayor, aldermen, and citizens of London, do now hereby, with one full voice, and consent of tongue and heart, publish and proclaim, that the high and mighty prince George, elector of Brunswick Lunenburg, is now, by the death of our late sovereign, of happy memory, become our lawful and rightful liege lord, George, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c., to whom we do acknowledge all faith and constant obedience, with all hearty and humble affection, beseeching God, by whom kings and queens do reign, to bless the royal king George, with long and happy years, to reign over us,” &c. &c.*
Pursuant to this proclamation, his majesty was immediately
* Rae's History of the Rebellion, p. 59.
proclaimed by the heralds at arms with the usual solemnities, before the gate of the royal palace at St. James', at CharingCross, at Temple-Bar, at the end of Wood Street, in Cheapside, and at the Royal Exchange. Vast numbers of the nobility and principal gentry attended in their coaches during the whole solemnity, as did the lord mayor and aldermen within the city. The joy of the people appeared to be boundless. Many of them were deeply sensible how narrowly they had escaped being again brought under the yoke of the infatuated Stuarts, and even those who had been straining every nerve to advance that unfortunate family, either were, or feigned themselves to be, highly satisfied with his majesty's peaceable accession, and paraded as proudly, and swelled the joyful acclamations as deliberately, as the most devoted of their brethren. The park and tower guns were fired, all the flags displayed, and in the evening there were bonfires, illuminations, ringing of bells, with every demonstration of joy, without any thing tumultuous or disorderly.
A proclamation was also issued the same day, ordering prayers to be offered up for his majesty king George and the royal family, in place of queen Anne and the elector of Hanover; and the baron de Bothmar, his majesty's minister, despatched his secretary express to Hanover with tidings of the queen's death, and of his majesty's peaceable proclamation. The earl of Dorset was also, by the lords justices appointed to carry the same advice to his majesty, to report specially the state of the nation, and to wait upon him in his progress thither. An express was also sent to the lords justices of Ireland, with directions for proclaiming the king, and disarming the papists and Jacobites—and, finally, orders were sent to Scotland, directed to the earl of Ila, lord justice general, and to the lord provost of Edinburgh, for proclaiming his majesty there without loss of time, and with all due solemnity.*
These orders did not reach Edinburgh till Wednesday the fourth of August, about twelve o'clock at night, which, considering the state of the roads, and the manner of travelling at that period, was as early as could have been expected, and
* Rae's History of the Rebellion.
though the hour was somewhat unseasonable, Ila lost not a moment in requesting the servants of the queen to attend him by eight o'clock in the morning, which they did, and, along with his lordship, waited upon his grace, the duke of Montrose, whom they found attended by the marquis of Tweedale, the earls of Rothes, Morton, Buchan, Lauderdale, Haddington, Leven, Hyndford, Hopetoun, and Roseberry, with the lords Belhaven, Elibank, Torphichen, Polworth, and Balgony, general Wightman, and a considerable number of the principal gentry, officers of the army, and chief inhabitants of the city. '
Every thing being in readiness, and the streets lined with the city trainbands, his grace of Montrose, with the above mentioned retinue of nobility and gentry, proceeded to the town-house, where the lord provost, magistrates, and town council, the lord president, and lords of session, the lord chief haron, and other barons of exchequer, the commissioners of the revenue, and many other gentlemen, waited to receive them, and having in readiness a proclamation of the same tenor with that we have already mentioned as issued in London, it was signed by all present to the number of one hundred and twelve. The city trainbands now formed a double line from the townhouse to the cross, below which there was a theatre erected for the accommodation of the nobility, and Mr. Henry Maule, depute lord lyon king at arms, ushered by six trumpets, the heralds and pursuivants in their coats, by two and two, mounted the cross. These were followed by the lord provost, magistrates, and town council, in their robes, ushered by sixteen city officers in their liveries, with the sword and mace borne by the proper officers, all bareheaded. The lord provost with the sword and mace mounted the cross, but the town council proceeded to the theatre erected for them, where they received his grace the duke of Montrose, and his attendant nobility and gentry. The depute lyon king at arms now, with solemn sound of trumpet, the lord provost reading to him the words of the proclamation, proclaimed the high and mighty prince George, elector of Brunswick Lunenburg, king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, &c. &c. This was followed by a discharge of the great guns from the castle, three vollies from the city guard, answered
by the artillery and small arms in St. Ann's Yard, hard by the palace of Holyrood-house, where the regular troops had encamped, to prevent any disturbance on account of the queen's illness. In the meantime, acclamations of joy burst from the cross, the theatre, and the streets, which, with the windows overlooking them, were crowded with innumerable spectators. The duke of Montrose, with the nobility and gentry, the lord provost, magistrates, and town council, now returned to the townhouse, where they drank the health of his majesty, and other toasts of loyal import, after which they went down to the camp in St. Ann's Yard, where they were received at the head of his troops by general Wightman, who conducted them to his tent, where an elegant entertainment was prepared for them, and where they drank to the health of his majesty, with other loyal and appropriate toasts, under discharges of cannon and small arms. The day was concluded with ringing of bells, illuminations, discharges of great guns, and all the other demonstrations of extraordinary joy.
This sudden change of affairs, so unexpected and so complete, struck the Jacobites dumb with astonishment, and, for the moment, they scarcely ventured a whisper of disapprobation. However, for the greater security, the wooden bridge before the castle gate was cut, and a part of it made to draw up. An intrenchment was also cast up betwixt that and the castle wall, behind which, soldiers were placed with small arms. The general also called in from Dundee, and other places of the kingdom, such of his majesty's troops as were quartered there, who all arrived in the camp within a day or two, and every precaution was taken which the occasion seemed to demand.
His majesty wąs also proclaimed with all due solemnity, and every possible demonstration of joy in Dublin, and in all the other cities, towns corporate, burghs of regality, &c. &c. throughout the three kingdoms, and the dominions thereto belonging, more universally than any of our kings had been before him, and without a shadow of opposition, the mass of the people every where regarding his accession as a surprising deliverance from a great and impending calamity. The lords justices, however, into whose hands the care of the kingdom for the time had fallen, took all prudent precautions for securing