Language Endangerment and Language Revitalization: An Introduction

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Walter de Gruyter, Feb 6, 2013 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 328 pages

In almost every part of the world, minority languages are threatened with extinction. At the same time, dedicated efforts are being made to document endangered languages, to maintain them, and even to revive once-extinct languages.

The present volume examines a wide range of issues that concern language endangerment andlanguage revitalization. Among other things, it is shown that languages may be endangered to different degrees, endangerment situations in selected areas of the world are surveyed and definitions of language death and types of language death presented. The book also examines causes of language endangerment, speech behaviour in a language endangerment situation, structural changes in endangered languages, as well as types of speakers encountered in a language endangerment situation. In addition, methods of documentation and of training for linguists are proposed which will enable scholars to play an active role in the documentation of endangered languages and in language revitalization.

The book presents a comprehensive overview of the field. It is clearly written and contains ample references to the relevant literature, thus providing useful guidance for further research. The author often draws on his own experience of documenting endangered languages and of language revival activities in Australia.

The volume is of interest to a wide readership, including linguists, anthropologists, sociologists, and educators.

 

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Contents

82 Dyirbal of Australia
77
83 Loss of the avoidance style in Warrungu Australia
97
84 Discussion
98
85 Summary of Chapter 8
116
9 Typology of speakers
117
93 Previous classifications
120
94 Proposed classifications
122
95 Semispeakers
129

3 Current state of language endangerment
16
33 Ainu of Japan
17
34 Austronesian languages
18
35 Languages of Australia
20
36 Languages of South America
21
37 Languages of Central America
22
38 Languages of North America
23
39 Languages of the former USSR
24
310 Languages of Northern Europe
25
312 Languages of Africa
26
313 Languages of India and neighbouring regions
27
315 Summary of Chapter 3
28
4 Approaches to language endangerment
29
44 Models of language endangerment
33
45 Summary of Chapter 4
35
5 Definitions and types of language death
36
53 Types of language death
42
54 Summary of Chapter 5
48
6 External setting of language endangerment
49
63 Causes of language endangerment
57
64 Summary of Chapter 6
64
sociolinguistic aspects of language endangerment
65
73 Language shift
70
74 Summary of Chapter 7
75
8 Structural changes in language endangerment
76
discussion
130
97 Summary of Chapter 9
133
10 Value of linguistic heritage
134
103 The other side of the concern for language endangerment
157
104 Language culture and identity
161
105 Summary of Chapter 10
166
maintenance and revival
168
112 Can languages be revitalized?
169
113 Strategies for language revitalization
173
114 Problems encountered in language revitalization activities
179
115 Types of language revitalization programs
200
116 Summary of Chapter 11
215
12 Role and ethics of researchers
216
123 Role of linguists
224
124 Summary of Chapter 12
228
13 Method of documentation and training of fieldworkers
229
133 Training of fieldworkers
247
134 Summary of Chapter 13
252
14 Concluding remarks
253
References
255
Index of languages
288
Index of persons and authors
292
Index of subjects
299
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About the author (2013)

Tasaku Tsunoda is Professor at the University of Tokyo, Japan.

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