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PREFACE.

For the last nine years, the author of this volume has been engaged in collecting and arranging materials for the history of Washington County, B county whose existence (not, however, in its present organized chartered form) is coeval with the chartered rights both of Pennsylvania and Virginia. These States claimed control over its territory, until the disputed question was finally settled and adjusted by extending the celebrated Mason and Dixon's line, in 1785, although the chartered history of Washington County dates back to 1781.

There has been a growing desire, for the last few years, among the people of this and other counties to investigate and become acquainted with their local history. It is eminently proper and praiseworthy in any people to rescue from oblivion memorials of unpublished facts, reminiscences, and traditions; to call to memory the primitive days of our forefathers, their frontier life and hardships, their struggles with the red men of the forest, and to collect and preserve valuable and interesting statistical information and reliable facts which will tend to perpetuate their history.

Under such influences, and at the request of a committee of my fellow-citizens, I entered the hitherto untrodden field to collect all these memorials, and now present them for your consideration and approval. I do not intend to convey the meaning that it is entirely perfect; it will take time and more diligent research to procure the memorials which have not yet been published; but this volume is intended to be the starting-point from which the future historian can gain reliable facts. I have been particularly careful not to give any traditionary facts, without being corroborated by authentic documents or strong circumstantial evidence.

To natives and their descendants, of Washington County, settled in distant places, this volume will prove of great interest, recalling ( 4 )

to memory old associations, friends of former years, and the recollection of events and incidents passed from memory.

The causes which led to the preparation of this history of Washington County may be gathered from the perusal of the following correspondence:—

Washington, January 9, 1861. Mt. 'alfred Creioh,

Deab Sib: Our "old men" are fast passing away, and with them, unless soon rescued, will be lost many facts connected with the early settlement and history of our borough and county. Many accounts are doubtless in existence which are also liable to be lost when the present possessors cease to own them.

We believe it to be the duty of some one to gather unpublished facts, reminiscences, memorials, and traditions of the early settlement of the county, and present them to the publio in an historic form. A history of Washington Borough and County would prove deeply interesting to the present inhabitants and to their children scattered all over the land. As a work of future reference, it would be invaluable. Knowing your zeal and perseverance in matters of this kind, we would respectfully suggest that you undertake this work. We will cheerfully aid you in obtaining facts and gaining access to documents.

We believe that sufficient numbers of the book could be sold to repay you for your labor. Hoping you will comply with the request,

We remain yours, &C.,
ALEXANDER WILSON, JOHN L. GOW,
JOHN H. EWING, THOS. W. GRAYSON,

C. M. REED, G. W. MILLER,

J. L. JUDSON, DAVID AIKEN,

JOHN R. DONEHOO, WM. VANKIRK,

WM. HOPKINS, FREEMAN BRADY, Jb.,

JAMES B. RUPLE, W. S. MOORE,

H. A. PURVIANCE, JAMES W. KUNTZ,

WM. HUGHES, R. H. KOONTZ,

A. H. ECKER, GEO. S. HART,

WILLIAM SWAN, W. A. MICKEY,

W. H. HORN, H. J. VANKIRK.

REPLY.

Washington, January 21,1861. Gestlemen: Your letter of January 9th is now before me, and after mature deliberation upon its contents, I shall avail myself of preparing, and at the earliest opportunity of presenting to the public a full history of Washington Borough and County. The reminiscences, memorials, and traditions which exist in this country will make an interesting work, more especially as this was thejirst county whioh was organized in Pennsylvania after the Declaration of Independence.

It is true that the history which I am about to write will require untiring diligence, unwearied perseverance, and industrious research, yet with the promised aid of yourselves and the co-operation of ray fellow -citizens who may be in possession of any facts or traditions tending to elucidate our history, I have no fear of the result. As Washington County was the first organized, let her likewise be the first in the State to inaugurate a system by which, every oounty, following her example, will present their separate histories to the American people, whereby incalculable good will result not only to'the State of Pennsylvania, but to the rising generation.

With sentiments of respect and esteem, I remain yours truly,

ALFRED CREIOII. To Alexander Wilson, Esq., and others.

The materials for the work have been derived chiefly from the Colonial Records and Archives of the State, the records of the county and borough, files of newspapers, pastors of churches, and kind friends who felt a deep interest in procuring for my use these memorials. To the committee who addressed me on the subject, to my friend Hon. James Veech, of the city of Pittsburg, am I particularly indebted for the use of his notes on Washington County, and the Mason and Dixon question; to David S. Wilson, Esq., who aided me by his counsel and research, and to Rev. Dr. James I. Brownson who, from the moment of its undertaking, felt a deep and abiding interest in its publication, with many others, I return my sincere thanks, fondly trusting that the work may meet the approval of all my fellow-citizens; fully convinced that any imperfections will be overlooked by the reader, in the contemplation of the variety of subjects presented for his consideration.

Where any error is discovered, I shall be thankful to the reader to inform me by letter of the inaccuracy, and I shall have it corrected in a subsequent edition, my desire being to give a faithful, truthful, and reliable history of Washington County.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

WASHINGTON COUNTY—Its PRIMITIVE HISTORY UNDER VIRGINIA.

Spottsylvania County; its boundaries—Orange County—Frederick Coun-

ty; its boundaries—Augusta County; its boundaries—District of West

Augusta—Justices' Courts—Oath of allegiance—Oath of supremacy—

The test oath—Oath of abjuration—Youghiogheny County; its boun-

daries, courts, and court-houses, and punishments—Pillory and stocks

described—Whipping-post and ducking-stool—Ohio County; its boun-

daries and court-house—Monongalia County—Courts and roads—Or-

phan children—Taverns—Continental money—Ferries—Attorneys-at-

law—Sheriffs and depnty-sheriffs—Surveyors—Military officers—Grist-

mills—Sales —Cotton, and wool cards—Counterfeit money—Allegiance

.—Naturalization—Passports—Benevolence of Youghiogheny County—

Marriage extraordinary—Reflections 9

CHAPTER II.

A GENERAL OUTLINE HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

History of Pennsylvania, from the date of its charter to the present time,

embracing a list of all the Indian titles to lands—Historical and sta-

tistical facts—The date of the formation of each county of the State,

with the number of acres and population in each, and a list of the

Governors from the accession of William Penn, its proprietor, in 1681

to 1870 .27

CHAPTER III.

ORIGINAL ACT ESTABLISHING WASHINGTON COUNTY.

Divisions by the formation of townships—Its original and present town-

ships and boroughs—Its present boundaries with topographical and

geographical description and its streams—Its early religious element

and the religious agreement of 1782—Marriage customs and ceremony—

School-houses 39

CHAPTER IV.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE SUPREME EXECUTIVE COUNCIL.

A brief history of the Provincial Conference—The Constitution of 1776;

the Council of Censors; the Convention of 1789; the Constitution of

1790; the fiction of the Legislature of 1825; with regard to a conven-

tion, and the vote of the people; the Convention of 1837; the Consti-

tution of 1838, and the full proceedings of the Supreme Executive,

from 1781 to 1791, which relates to Washington County . . . .14

CHAPTER V.

TOWNSHIPS AND BOROUGHS IN WASHINGTON COUNTY.

The history of the Townships and Boroughs in their chronological order,

detailing interesting events in each—Also the history of churches and

the present state of education in each township and borough . . 87

(*)

APPENDIX.

CHAPTER I.

THE VIRGINIA AND PENNSYLVANIA CONTROVerSY, FROM 1752 TO 1783.

The date of the earliest settlements by Virginians and Pennsylvanians—

The difficulties between the Governors of both States arising from these

settlements—The names of the first settlers—The various acts of Capt.

Connolly as the representative of Virginia in claiming Fort Duquesne

(Pittsburg) as within Virginia—His treason—Commissioners appointed

by both States to run a temporary line until the Revolutionary War

would terminate—The action of both States approving of the same, and

the necessity of erecting Washington County 3

CHAPTER II.

THE MASON AND DIXON'S LINE.

Its full history—the line run by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon—the

claim of Pennsylvania—the claim of Lord Baltimore—the appointment

of commissioners—the labors of Mason and Dixon ended in 1767—new

commissioners appointed in 1783 by the States of Virginia and Penn-

sylvania—letter from Joseph Reed on the scientific apparatus to be

used—report of the joint-commissioners—report of the Pennsylvania

commissioners—cost of running the line—the western line of Pennsyl-

vania rnn by commissioners appointed by both States, and the report

of the commissioners thereupon—the origin of the Pan Handle in West

Virginia 24

CHAPTER III.

INDIAN HISTORY OF WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA AND VIRGINIA.

Names of all the tribes of North America in 1764—Those inhabiting West-

ern Pennsylvania and adjoining territory—Letters on the Indian wrongs

from 1765 to 1780—Rice's fort—Letters from Dr. J. C. Hupp on Miller's

block-house—Captivity and escape of Jacob Miller, and the cruel mur-

der of five of Miller's friends—Vance's fort—Well's fort—Lindley's fort 38

CHAPTER IV.

WHISKEY INSURRECTION. ... 59

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