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" A rotten carcass of a boat.”-Act I, Sc. 2. account of a savage taken by him :-"Whereupon, Shakspeare night have read the following in when he founde himself in captivitie, for very choler Holinshed :-“ After this, was Edwin, the king's and disdain, he bit his tong iu twaine, within bis brother, accused of some conspiracie by him begun mouth: notwithstanding, he died not thereof, but against the king: whereupon he was banished the lived untill he came in Englande, and then he died of land; and sent out in an old rotten vessel, without colde, which he had taken at sea."-STEEVENS rowers or mariner, onlie accompanied with one es
“ Nor scrape trenchering."-Act III. Sc. I. quier: so that being launched forth from the shore, through despaire, Edwin leaped into the sea, and
In our author's time, trenchers were in general drowned himself."
use, and male domestics were employed in cleansing
them. “I have helped (says Lyly, in his History “ Setebos."-Act I. Sc. 2.
of his Life and Times, 1620,) to carry eighteen tubs We learn from Magellan's Voyages, that Setebos of water in one morning; all manner of arudgery I was the supreme god of the Patagons. This fa. willingly perforined; scrape-trenchers,” &c. hulous deity is also mentioned in Hackluyt's Voy
MALONE. ages, 1598. Barlot says, “The Patagons are reported to dread a great horned devil, called Setebos.” in his tail.”—Act III. Sc. 2.
“ He were a brave monster indeed, if they were set And, in Eden's Historye of Travayle, 1577, we are told, that "the giuntes, when they found themselves Probably in allusion to Stowe. It seems in the fettered, roared like bulls, and cried upon Setebos to year 1574 a whale was thrown ashore near Rams. help them.”
gate, a monstrous fish, but not so monstrous as some
reported, for his eyes were in his head, and not in his For no kind of traffic
backe." Vould I admit, no name of magistrate."--Act II.Sc.I.
“ This is the tune of our catch, played by the picture Shakspeare has here followed a passage in Montaigne, as translated by John Florio, 1603 :-“ It is
of Nobody."-Act Iti. Sc. 2. a nation that hath no kind of trafficke, no knowledge westward for Smelts, a book which our poet seems
A ridiculous figure, sometimes painted on signs. of letters, no intelligence of numbers, no name of magistrate, nor of politic superioritie ; no use of ser
to have read, was printed for John Trundle, in Bar. vice, of riches, or of povertie ; no contracts, no succes
bican, at the sign of the No-body; or the allusion sions, no partitions, no occupation, but io.e; no respect may be to the print of No-body, as prefixed to the of kindred but common; no apparel but natural; anonymous comedy of No-body and Some-body, withno use of wine, corn, or metal. The very words that out date, but vrinted before the year 1600.—MALONE. import lying, falsehood, treason, dissimulations, co.
“One tree, the phænir' throne."-Act III. Sc. 3. vetousness, envie, detraction, and pardon, were never heard amongst them.”
In Holland's Pliny, the following passage occurs:
" I myselfe verily bave heard straunge things of this “Sometime like apes, that mow and chatter at me, kind of tree; and, namely, in regard of the bird And after bate me; then like hedge-hogs, which Phænir, which is supposed to have taken that name Lie tumbling in my bare-foot way.”--Act II, Sc. 2. of this Date Tree; for it was assured unto me, that
Perhaps taken from a passage in Harsnet's De- the said bird died with that tree, and rerired of claration of Popish Impostures. They make an. itselfe as the tree sprung again.” like faces, grin, mow and mop, like an ape ; tumble like an hedye-hog."-Douce.
Dew-lapp'd like bulls, whose throuts had hanging at “ A dead Indian.”--Act II. Sc. 2.
them Sir Martin Frobisher, when he returned from his Wallets of flesh ?”—Act III. Sc. 3. voyage of discovery, brought with him some native Whoever is curious to know the particulars reIndions. In his History of the First Voyage for lative to these mountaineers, may consult Maunthe Discoverie of Cataya, we have the following deville's Travels, printed in 1503: but it is yet a
known truth, that the inhabitants of the Alps have the drink of faithless lovers. In the chapel at been long accustomed to such excrescences or tu. Arundel, is the effigy of a nobleman of the Howari Inours.--STEEVENS.
family, who, having incurred the jealousy of an
Italian lady during his travels, was poisoned in this “ Each putter-out of one for five.”-Act III. Sc. 3.
manner, and died after lingering many years. The The custom here alluded to was as follows:- It effigy represents him nearly naked, his boses was a practice of those who engaged in long and scarcely covered by his skin, and presenting altohazardous expeditions, to place out a sum of money, gether a most deplorable spectacle. on condition of receiving great interest for it at their return home. So in Ben Jonson's Every
“ And all be turn'd to barnacles, or to apes.” Man in his Humour :-"I do intend this year of
Act IV. Sc. 1. jubilee coming on, to travel; and (because I will Caliban's barnacle is the clakis or tree-goose. not altogether go upon expence) I am determined Collins very simply tells us, that the barnacle to put some five thousand pound, to be paid me five which grows on ships was meant; and quotes the for one, upon the return of my wife, myself, and following passage to support his opinion :-" There my dog, from the Turk’s court, in Constantinople.” are, in the north parts of Scotland, certaine trees,
whereon do grow shell-fishes, which, falling in the “Like poison, given to work a great time after."
water, do become fowls, whom we call barnakles ;
Act III. Sc. 3. in the north of England, brant-geese ; and in LanThe natives of Africa were supposed to be pos- cashire tree-geese."-Douce. sessed of the secret how to temper poisons with such art, as pot to operate till several years after
“ Some subtilties o' the isle."-Act V. Sc. I. they were administered. Italian travellers relate This is a phrase adopted from ancient cookery similar effects of the aqua tofana, a subtle, colour and confectionary. When a dish was so contrived less and tasteless poison, which ladies carry about as to appear unlike what it really was, they called them, and have at their toilets, among their per- it a sublilty. Dragons, castles, trees, &c. made out fumed waters, for the purpose of administering in of sugar, had the like denomination.—Steevens.
TWO GENTLEMEN OF VERONA.
“Nay, give me not the boots." -Act I. Sc. 1. or destroy. King James ascribes these images to The boot was an instrument of torture used only some others at these times he teacheth how to make
the devil, in his Treatise of Dæmonologie : “To in Scotland. Bishop Burnet mentions one Maccael
, pictures of ware or claye, that by the roasting therea preacher, who being suspected of treason, under- of, the persons that they bear the name of may be went the punishment so late as 1666.
“ He was put to the torture, which, in Scotland, they call the
continually melted, and dried away by continual
sicknesse."-Weston. boots; for they put a pair of iron boots close on the leg, and drive wedges between these and the leg. “ With a cod-piece.”-Act II. Sc. 7. The common torture was only to drive these on the calf of the leg, but I have been told they were
Whoever wishes to be informed respecting this sometimes driven upon the shin bone."-REED.
particular relative to dress, may consult Buliver's
Artificial Changeling. It is mentioned, too, in “ A laced mutton."'-Act I, Sc. 1.
Tyro's Roaring Megge, 1598:A laced mutton was, in our author's time, so usual “Tyro's round breeches have a cliffe behind, a term for a courtezan, that a street in Clerkenwell And that same perking longitude before ; much frequented by prostitutes, was called Mutton Which, for a pin-case, antique plowmen wore." Lane.-MALONE.
Ocular instruction may be had from the armour “ I see you have a month's mind to them.”-Act I.Sc.2. shewn as John of Gaunt's, in the Tower of London.
The custom of sticking pins in this ostentatious A month's mind was an unniversary in times of piece of indecency was continued by the Towerpopery; or a less solemnity directed by will. There wardens, till forbidden by authority.--STEEVENS. was also a year's mind, and a week's mind. So in Strype's Memorials, “ July 1556, was the month's “ Saint Nicholas be thy speed !"-Act III. Sc. 1. mind of Sir William Saxton, who died the last
That this saint presided over young scholars, may month, bis hearse burning with wax, and the mor- be gathered from Knight's Life of Dean Collett; row mass celebrated, and a sermon preached.”- for, by the statutes of Paul's School there inserted,
Grey. the children are required to attend divine service “ Sir Valentine and servant."- Act II. Sc. l.
at the cathedral on his anniversary. The reason,
probably, was, that the legend of this saint makes Here Silvia calls her lover, servant, and again him to have been a bishop, while he was a boy.-below, her gentle servant. This was the language
HAWKINS. of ladies to their lovers when Shakspeare wrote.
HAWKINS. “ The cover of the salt hides the salt."'-Act III. Sc. I.
The ancient English salt-cellar was very different " A waren imaye 'gainst a fire.”-Act II. Sc. 4.
from the modern, being a large piece of plate, geneAlluding to the figures made by witches, as repre- rally much ornamented, with a cover to keep the sentatives of those whom they designed to torment salt clean
Act IV. Sc. 3. And threw her sun-expelting mask away.”
Act IV. Sc. 4. widows to make vows of chastity, in honour of their “When they use to ride abroad, they have masks deceased wives or husbands. In Dugdale's Anti or vizors, made of velvet, wherewith they cover ali quities of Warwickshire, there is the form of a their faces, having holes made in them against their commission by the bishop of the diocese for taking eyes, whereout they look; so that if a man that a vow of chastity by a widow. It seems that, be knew not their guise before, should chance to meet sides observing the vow, the widow was for life to one of them, he would think he met a monster or a wear a veil, and a mourning habit. The same dis- devil, for face he can shew (see) none, bat two tinction we may suppose to have been made in re- broad holes against their eyes, with glasses in spect of male votarists.-STEEVENS.
them."-ANATOMIE OF ABUSES, 1595.
MERRY WIVES OF WINDSOR.
“ How does your fallow greyhound, sir? I heard tators; as Ely-place, in Holborn; the Belle Sausay he was out-run on Colsale." -Act I. Sc. 1.
vage, on Ludgate-hill; Hampton-court, the ArtilleryHe means Cotswold, in Gloucestershire. In the garden, &c.-STEEVENS. beginning of James the First's reign, by permission
“ Sackerson."--Act I. Sc. 2. of the king, one Dover, a public-spirited attorney of Barton-on-the-Heath, in Warwickshire, insti
Sackerson or Sacarson was the name of a bear, tuted on the hills of Coiswold an annual celebration exhibited in our author's time, at Paris Garden. of games, consisting of rural sports and exercises. See an old book of Epigrams, by Sir John Davies:
These he constantly conducted in person, well “ Publius, a student of the common law, mounted and accoutred in a suit of his majesty's old To Paris Garden doth himself withdraw; clothes; and they were frequented above forty years
Leaving old Ployden, Dyer, and Broke, alone, by the nobility and gentry for sixty miles round,
To see old Harry Hunkes, and Sacarson. till the grand rebellion abolished every liberal
MALONE establishment.-T. WARTON.
"She discourses, she curves, she gives the leer of Mill-sixpences."-Act I. Sc. I.
invitation." -Act I. Sc. 3. It appears from a passage in Sir William D'Avenant's News from Plimouth, that these mill-sixpences in carving, as a necessary accomplishment. It seems
Anciently, the young of both sexes were instructed were used by way of counters to cast up money:
to have been considered a mark of kindness when a - a few mill'd sixpences, with which
lady carved to a gentleman. So in Vittoria CoromMy purser casts accompt.”
bona: “Your husband is wondrous discontented, STEEVENS.
I did nothing to displease him; I carved to him at “ Edward shovel-boards."-Act I. Sc. l.
supper-time."-STEEVENS and Boswell. “ Edward shovel-boards" were the broad shillings - for gourd and fullam holds, of Edward VI. Taylor, the water-poet, in his And high and low beguile the rich and poor." Travel of Twelve-pence, makes him complain :
Act I. Sc. 3. " —the unthrift every day
Gourds were, probably, dice in which a secret With my face downwards do at shoave-board play; cavity had been made; Fullams (so called because That had I had a beard, you may suppose,
chiefly made at Fulham) those which had been loaded They had worne it off, as they have done my nose.' with a small bit of lead. High men and low men,
FARMER. I which are also cant terms, explain themselves. High
numbers on the dice, at hazard, are from five to “Go, sitrah, for all you are my man, go wait upon twelve inclusive ; low, from aces to four.-MALORE. my cousin Shallow."'-Act I. Sc. 1.
“ Flemish drunkard."-Act II, Sc. l. This passage shews that it was formerly the custom in England, as it is now in France, for persons
It is not without cause that this reproachful to be attended at dinner by their own servants, phrase is used. Sir John Smythe, in Certain Dis. wherever they dined.-Mason.
courses, 4to., 1590, says, that the habit of drinking
to excess was introduced into England from the “ A master of fence.”-Act I. Sc. 1. Low Countries, aby some of our such men of warre Fencing was taught as a regular science. Three within these verie few years : whereof it is come to aegrees were usually taken in this art, a master's, a passe that now-a-dayes' there are very few feastes provost's, and a scholar’s. For each of these a where our said men of warre are present, but they prize was played, as exercises are kept in universities do invite and procure all the companie, of what for similar purposes. The weapons they used were calling soever they be, to carowsing and quafting; the axe, the pipe, rapier and target, rapier and and because they will not be denied cheir challenges, cloak, iwo-swords, the two-hand sword, the bastard- they, with manie new conges, ceremonies, and resword, the dagger and staff, the sword and buckler, verences, drinke to the healthe and prosperitie of the rapier and dagger, &c. The places where they princes ; to the healthe of counsellors, and into the exercised were, commonly, theatres, halls, or other healthe of their greatest friends, both at home and enclosures sufficient to contain a number of spec.! abroad: in which exercise tben gever cease till they
be deade drunke, or, as the Flemings say, doot | We shall give an extract or two on this subject from dronken." He adds, "and this aforesaid detestable contemporary authors :vice hath, within these six or seven years, taken “ Their heads, with their top and top-gallant curl. wonderful roote amongst our English nation, that ings, they make a plain puppet-stage of lawne in times past was wont to be of all other nations in baby caps, and snow-resembled silver. Their breasts Christendome one of the soberest."-Reed. they embushe up on hie, and their round roseate “ My long sword.”--Act II. Sc. 1.
buds they immodestly lay forth, to shew at their
hands there is fruit to be hoped.” Nashe's Christ's Before the introduction of rapiers, the swords in Teares, 1594.—“Oh, what a wonder it is to see a use were of an enormous length, and sometimes ship under saile with her tacklings and her masts, raised with both hands. Shallow, with an old man's and her tops and her top-gallants, with her upper vanity, censures the innovation by which lighter decks and nether decks, and so bedeckt, with her weapons were introduced, tells what he could once streamers, flags and ensignes, and I know not have done with his long sword, and ridicules the what; yea, but a world of wonders it is to see a terms and rules of the rapier. Shakspeare commits woman created in God's image, so miscreate oft a great anachronism in making Shallow talk of the times and deformed with her French, her Spanish, rapier in Henry IV.'s reign, a hundred and seventy and her foolish fashions, that he wbo made her, years before it was used in England.—Johnson.
when he looks upon her, shall hardly know her with “When Mistress Bridget lost the handle of her fan." ruffe like a saile ; you, a ruffe like a ruinbow, with a
her plumes, har fans, and her silken vizard, with a Act II. Sc. 2.
feather in her cap, like a flag in her top, to tell (1 It should be remembered that fans, in our author's thinke ) which way tlte wind wil blow. It is provertime, were more costly than they are at present, as bially said, that far-fetcht and dear-boxight is fittest well as of a different construction. They consisted før ladies; as 10%-a-daies what groweth at home is of ostrich feathers (or others of equal length and base and homely; and what everie one sates is meate flexibility), which were stuck into handles. The for dogs ; and wee must have breade from one counricher sort of these were composed of gold, silver, trie, and drinke from another; and wee must have or ivory, of carious workmanship, and frequently meate from Spaine, and sauce out of Italy; and if ornamented with precious stones. Mention is made wee weare anything, it must be pure Venetian, in the Sydney Papers, of a fan presented to Queen Roman, or barbarian; but the fashion of all must Elizabeth, for a new year's gift, the handle of which be French." The Merchant Royall, a sermon was studded with diamonds. It was not uncommon preached at White-ball, before the king's majestie among the foppish young noblemen of that age, to
at the nuptialls of Lord Hay and his lady, Twelfthcarry fans of this splendid description; a singular day, 1607.—Reed. piece of effeminacy for that early period. STEEVENS, &c. “ And smell like Bucklersbury, in simple time."
Act III. Sc. 3. “ Red lattice phrases."-Act II. Sc. 2. Red lattice at the doors and windows were for
Bucklersbury, in the time of Shakspeare, was merly the external denotements of an ale-house. chiefly inhabited by druggists, who sold all kinds of Hence the present chequers. In one of Shackerley
herbs, green as well as dry.-STEEVENS. Marmion's plays we read, “a waterman's widow at
“Let the sky rain potatoes ; hail kissing-comfits, the signe of the Red Lattice in Southwark.” It is and snow eringoes ; let there come a tempest of proa curious circumstance, that the sign of the Chequers vocation." -Act V. Sc. 5. was common among the Romans. It was found in several of the streets excavated at Pompeii.
Potatoes, when they were first introduced in EngSTEEVENS.
land, were supposed to be strong provocatives; kissing
comforts were sugar-plums, perfumed to make the “ Amaimon-Barbason." -Act II. Sc. 2. breath sweet. Eringoes, like potatoes, were esteemed Reginald Scott informs us, that “the demon to be stimulatives. But Shakspeare, probably, had Amaimon, was king of the East, and Barbatos a the following artificial tempest in his thoughts, when
Holinshed informs us, great countie or earle." Randle Holme, however, he wrote the above passage. in bis Academy of Armory and Blazon, tells us that, that in the year 1583, for the entertainment of “ Amaymon is the chief whose dominion is on the Prince Alasco, was performed "a verie statelie tranorth side of the infernal gulph; and that Barbatos gedie, named Dido, wherein the queen's banket is like a Sagittarius, and hath thirty legions under (with Æneas's description of the destruction of bim."-STEEVENS.
Troie,) was lively described in a marchpane pat
terne; the tempest wherein it hailed small confects, “ That becomes the ship-tire, the tire-valiant, or rained rose-water, and snew an artificial kind of snow, any tire of Venetian admittance.”-Act III. Sc. 3.
all strange, marvellous, and abundant." The extravagance of female dress is here satirized.
“ Thou shalt present me as an eunuch to him ”
occasionally performed in the palaces of princes,
Act I. Sc. 2. and consequently before that period eunuchs could When the practice of castration was adopted not abound. The first eunuch that was suffered to first, solely to improve the voice, is uncertain. The sing in the Pope's chapel was in 1600. So early, first regular opera was performed at Florence, in however, as 1604, eunuchs are mentioned by Mars1600. Till about 1653, musical dramas were only ton, in the Malcoutent, as excelling in singing.
Yes, I can sing, fool, if you'll bear the burden; Queen, has dropped a stroke of satire on this lazy and I can play upon instruments scurvily, as gen- fashion :tlemen do." o that I had been gelded! I should " So was that chamber clad in goodly wize, then have been a fat fool for a chamber, a squeaking And round about it many beds were digbt, fool for a tavern, and a private fool for all the la
As whilome was the antique worldes guize, dies.”—MALONE.
Some for untimely ease, some for delight.
STEEVENS. “ Like a parish top.”-Act I. Sc. 3. A large top was formerly kept in every village, to “ Wind up my watch."-Act II. Sc. 5. be whipped in frosty weather, that the peasants
Pocket watches were first brought from Germany might be kept warm by exercise, and out of mischief about the year 1580, so that in Shakspeare's time when they could not work.-STEEVENS.
they were very uncommon. When Guy Faux was “ Mistress Mall's picture."-Act I. Sc. 3.
taken, it was urged as a circumstance of suspicion
that a watch was found upon him.-Johnson, The real name of the woman here alluded to was Mary Frith. The title she was commonly known “Yellow stockings.”—Act II. Sc. 5. by was Mall Cutpurse. She was at once an herma- Before the civil wars, yellow stockings were much phrodite, a prostitute, a bawd, a bully, a thief, a
We quote two passages to prove this :receiver of stolen goods, &c. On the books of the Stationers' Company, August, 1610, is entered,
" - since she cannot “A Booke called the Madde Prancks of Merry Mall Wear her own linen yellow, yet she shows of the Bankside, with her walkes in Men's Apparel, Her love to’t, and makes him weare yellow hose.” and to what purpose. Written by John Day.'
THE WORLD Toss's at TENNIS. Middleton and Decker wrote a play called the And in the Honest Whore, by Decker: “What Roaring Girl, of which she is the heroine, and the stockings have you put on this morning, madam ? frontispiece of this drama, published in 1611, con if they be not yellow, change them.”-STEEVENS. tains a full-length portrait of her in man's clothes, smoking tobacco. There is a MS. in the British “ Clown with a labor."-Act III. Sc. I. Museum, in which an account is given of Mall's Tarleton, the celebrated fool or clown of the doing penance at St. Paul's Cross. Her extrava. stage before Shakspeare's time, is exhibited in a gant conduct and shameless vices seem to have ren- print prefixed to his jests, 1611, with a tabor. Perdered her infamously public.
baps, in imitation of him, the subsequent dramatic A most weak pia-mater.”—Act I. Sc. 5.
clowns usually appeared with one.—MALONE. The pia-mater is the membrane which immediately “ If thou thou'st him some thrice, it shall not be amiss.” covers the substance of the brain.-STEEVENS,
Act III. Sc. 2.
Alluding to a passage in the speech of the attor. “Stand at your door like a sheriff's post."
ney-general Coke, at the trial of Sir Walter Raleigh. Act I. Sc. 5.
“ All that he did was by thy instigation, thou viper; It was the custoin for that officer to have large for I thou thee, thou traytor.”—TueoBald. posts set up at his door as an indication of his office, the original of which was, that the king's procla, in the new map, with the augmentation of the In
“ He does smile his face into more lines, than are mations and other public acts might be affixed thereto.-WARBURTON.
dies." -Act III. Sc. 3.
A clear allusion to a map engraved for Linscho“ Did you never see the picture we three ?"
ten's Voyages, an English translation of which was
Act II. Sc. 3. published in 1598. This map is multilineal in the An allusion to an old print frequently pasted on extreme, and is the first in which the Eastern Iscountry ale-bouse walls, representing two, but under lands are included.—STEEVENS. which the spectator reads, “ We three are asses.”
Act III. Sc. 4. “ Dost thou think, because thou art virtuous, there This fantastical custom is taken notice of by Bar. shall be no more cakes and ale ?”-Act II. Sc. 3.
naby Rice, in Faults, and Nothing but Faults, 1606. It was the custom on saint's days and holidays, And these Flowers of Courtesie, as they are full to make cakes in honour of the day. The Puritabs of affectation, so are they no less formal in their thought this a superstition, and Maria says, that speeches, full of fustian phrases, many times de “Malvolio is sometimes a kind of Puritan.” livering such sentences as do betray and lay open
LETHERLAND. their masters' ignorance: and they are so frequent
with the kisse on the hand, that word shall not passe -" Rub your chain with crums." -Act II. Sc 3. their mouthes, till they have clapt their fingers over Stewards in great families were formerly distin- their lippes." —REED. guished by wearing a gold chain. The usual mode of cleaning this ornament was by rubbing it with
“ He is a knight, dubb’d with unhatch'd rapier, and bread crumbs. See Webster's Duchess of Malfy, on carpet consideration.”—Act III. Sc. 4. 1623. “Yea, and the chippings of the buttery ily That is, he is no soldier by profession, not a after him, to scouer his yold chain."-STEE VENS. knight-banneret, dubbed on the field of battle, but
on carpet consideration, at a festivity, or on some “ Haviny come from a day bed.”—Act II. Sc. 5.
peaceable occasion, when knights receive their dig It was usual in Shakspeare's time, for the rich to nty kneeling; not in war, but on a carpet. This nave day-beds or couches. Spenser, in his Fairy lis, i elieve, the original of the contemptuous term,