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Culture of Waste Lands.
91 it would not be excellent policy to bring in this island. Among the numerous our waftes into cultivation ; but the causes which have been held out for the grand difficulty is in doing it. We high prices of provisions, and the depo. must examine their capability of profita- pulation of the kingdom, the engrolling ble improvement. It is not a trifling evil of farms is principally eininent: our againţt which I at present speak. From pfeudo-politicians had much better talk the most attentive confideration, and mea- of engrolling estates. One evil is imagifuring on maps pretty accurately, I am nary, the other real. I do not apprehend clear there are, at least, 400,000 waste (for various reasons, befides the mere acres in the fingle county of Northum. effect upon agriculture) that there can be berland. In thule of Westmoreland too many freeholders in the kingdom ; hut and Cumberland there are many more. certainly there may be too few. The In the North and part of the West Rid- ranks of men will not be well distinguishing of Yorkshire, and the contiguous ed when there are no little eitates. With parts of Lancashire, and in the West of relation to husbandry, we see at present Durham, there are still greater tracts. that the agriculture of immense estates is You may draw a line froin the north worle, upon the average, than that upon point of Derbyshire to the extremity of linall ones. The moors and other tracts Northumberland, of 150 miles, which of uncultivated land are so little valued, hall entirely consist of waste lands, with that they have been fold for low prices. very trifling exceptions of small culti ---So far fouth as Devonshire, Dorset. vated spots.--- The East Riding of York- fhire, and upon the sea-coast, interfected fhire, Lincolnshire, and Cambridgeshire, by turnpikes, and close to populous have large tracts; Devonshire, and Corn. towns, large tracts have been bought wall immense ones. The greater part of freehold at a guinea an acre, and some Scotland remains unimproved, To these even at ten thillings. These grounds are may be added, a long catalogue of fo- purchased, not with a view to cultivate, rests, heaths, downs, chaces, and other but to increase the domain for hunting, waltes, fcattered through the other coun- country, for shooting moor-game, and ties, and even within fight of the capital: other Cherokee sports. Another circumforming, when combined, a monitrous stance which occations our wastes to be proportion even of the whole territory. left in their present state, is the general i know not fo melancholy a reflection as idea of their incapability of cultivation the idea of such waste and uncultivated There cannot be à doubt but that this larids being so common in a kingdom'that idea is mistaken and erroneous in a very hourly complains of the want of bread: high degree.--- In some future letter I The complaints of the poor, that they hall endeavour to prove it satisfactorily. cannot get bread to eat, are general and I am very clear, that if the legislature serious. Our political pamphleteers dwell would purchate all the wastes in Britain eternally on the causes of this scarcity; that come to market, and immediately rethey talk of post-hortes, dogs, commons, fill them in parcels of twenty or thirty inclosures, large farms, jobbers, bakers, acres, the beneficial confequences would and rascals ; but all to little purpose. be astonishing.---Would to heaven an act Their schemes of improvement are as passed obliged poffeffors to tell waste lands, wild as the cautes to which they attri- if not in culture, after a certain period. bute the evil. They overlook the plain But this will not happen, and therefore I maxim, that in proportion as you in- fhall bestow no more words upon it. The crease the product of a commodity, in reafon that men have treated this scheme proportion will the price fall. Bring the as impracticable, originated in the notion walte lands of the kingdom into culture, that the wastes were to be FARMED; but cover them with turnips, corn, and clover, nothing is more distant from my idea. instead of ling, whins, and fern, aní To farm them would be a visionary plenty will immediately bę diffused. If scheme indeed, but to improve them is a you want to make a commodity cheaper, very different thing. In the next number Turely the way is to increase the quantity of your Magazine, fir, I will particularly of those that sell, or to lessen the money explain my ideas upon the subject: of those that buy :---the latter we cannot
We often hear the state of our wastes, do---but the former is, or ought to be, and of population; spoken of with regret. in our power; and we had better maké But why should such conversation, which use of it than rail incessantly against job. carries with it an appearance of patriotbers and regraters. I have rentioned iim, be indulged, it its meaning confits that there are many millions of walte acres in the mere language? it is to be deeply
Voľney's Statistical Queries. regretted, that a more a&tive conduct has 14. What are the qualities of each not long ago produced some effects; but wind ? are they dry or rainy; warm or unhappily onr wastes are still in their cold; violent or moderate ? defolate condition. Upon cultivation de 15. In what month does molt rain pends (in my opinion, in a very high de- fall? gree) power, wealth, and national influ 16. How many inches fall in a year? ence---I hope that fomething will be ef 17. Are there any fogs? and at what
fected. Some degrees of wiidness and season? imprudence had better far be the conse 18. Are there any dews ? where and quence, than to continue for another cen- when, and at what time are they greateft? tury sleeping, and dully fluggardized in 19. Do the showers fall gently, or ars that dismal torpor which can never pro- they severe ? duce ought that is valuable. In a weal 20. Are there any snows, and how thy, refined, and polished age, activity long do they endure? ought to be the characteristic of the na 21. Are there any hail-Storms, and tion.--- Animated endeavours are an ho- at what season? nour to any age---Sleep, therefore, no 22. What winds bring snow and hail more over your moors, your downs, and along with them? forests; but exert the same spirit of im: 23. Is there any thunder? when, and provement, oh, ye great! which every what wind reigns at that period ? other branch of political economy enjoys 24. In what direction is it usually in so distinguished a degree ---This is the dissipated ? hearty with of a man, who remains, dear 25. Are there any hurricanes? what
Your fincere well-wisher, wind prevails antecedently? Jan. 30, 1798. A LIVERPOOLIAN. 26. Any earthquakes? at what fear
fon? what are the presages? do they For the Monthly Magazine.
fucceed rains ? STATISTICAL PAPER. 27. Are there any tides? what height Translation of Economical and Political do they reach? what winds accompany Questions, by the Citizen VOLNEY.
28. Are there any phenomena peculiar Physical State of a Country.
to the country? ART. I. GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION.
29. Has the climate experienced any 1. What is the latitude of the country? known changes ? and what? longitude ?
30. Has the sea risen or fallen: to 3. What are its limits ?
what extent ? and when ? 4. How many square miles does its ART. III. STATE of the soil. furface contain ?
31. Does the country confift of plains ART. II. CLIMATE, or the state of the or mountains ? and what is their eleva.
tion above the level of the sea? 5. What is the state of the mercury forests, or is it naked and uncloathed?
32. Is the land covered with trees and in Reaumur's thermometer during each month?
33. What are the marshes, lakes, and
--- variation in the same day, at morning and noon?
34. Is it possible to calculate the num. 3. What is the height of the quick- ber of square leagues in mountains, filver in the barometer during each marshes, lakes, and rivers ? month?
35. Are there any volcances ? and are 8. What are the greatest variations ?
they burning or extinguished? 9. What are the prevailing winds
36. Are there any coal-mines ? during each month?
ART. IV. NATURAL PRODUCTS. 10. Are they general or variable? 37. What is the quality of the foil ?
11. Are there fixed periods for their is it argillaceous, calcareous, stoney, duration and return?
fandy, &c. ? 12. Are there periodical land and sea filled are those nearest the shore, or in other winds ? and what is their tract? 13. In what direction are the winds then that the same law ought to prevail in
words, nearest the winds, Ic would seem first felt---on the quarter whence they the sea breczes (la bise de mer) but it is other. come, or in that to which they blow* wife, for the former rule takes place there
also. It would be desirable to know, what It has been remarked, that in land winds, particular winds produce these different of (les vents de terre) the fails which are firk tires.
Volney's Statistical Queries.
93 38. What are the mines and metals ? 59. What are their measures of length
39. What are the falts and falt-pits and capacity, compared with ours? (falines)?
60. What is the price of neceffaries, 40. What is the disposition and incli- compared with that of labour? nation of the different strata found in 61. Are they labourers, proprietors, or wells and caverns?
farmers? do they pay in money or kind? 41. What are the most common vege 62. How long do their leates run, and tables, trees, shrubs, plants, grains, &c.? what are the principal clauses in them!
42. What are the most common ani 63. How many farms are there, de. mals, quadrupeds, birds, fishes, insects, pendent on each village ? and reptiles ?
64. What is the proportion between 43. Which of these are peculiar to the the good and bad land ? country?
65. Which are the beft cultivated, 44. What are the weights and sizes of large or small farms ? these, compared with ours?
66. Do the farms consist of home or SECT. II. Political State. outlying grounds ?
67. Are the fields enclosed ? and in ART. I.. POPULATION.
what manner ? 45. What is the physical constitution of the inhabitants of the country? their what do they produce?
68. Are there any commons ? and usual height? are they fat or lean? . 46. What complexion are they of?
69. Is there any right of passage
through private property? and what is the colour of their hair? 47. What is their food, and how tails of a farm, you are to enquire,
Having determined respecting the demuch do they eat daily?
70. The number of labourers, the 48. What is their beverage ? are they mode in which they are lodged, the quangiven to intoxication ?
tity of land and animals? 49. What are their occupations are
21. What is the rotation of crops ? they labourers, or vine-dressers, or shep
72. How many years in succession are herds, or seamen,or do they inhabit towns? the lands cultivated, and what fallow
50 What are their accidental or habitual maladies ?
are they allowed ? 51. What are their characteristic mo- and what quantity is allowed to an acre ?
73. What grains are fown yearly? ral qualities are they lively or dull,
74. What are the periods for sowing witty or phlegmatic ? silent or garrulous? and reaping? 52. What is the total mass of popula
75. What is 'the difference between tion?
the produce and the expences of every 53. What is that of the towns, compared with that of the country? 54. Do the inhabitants of the country natural and artificial grasses?
76. What is the quantity of land in live in villages, or are they dispersed in 77. What quantity of land is requiseparate farms ?
site for the feeding a cow, ox, mule, horse, 55. What is the state of the roads in sheep, &c.? How much does each consummer and winter ?
sume in a day? ART. II. AGRICULTURE.
78. What are the animals used in N. B. The methods of agriculture agriculture? how are they harnessed? being different, according to the differ 79. What are the instruments of tilent districts, the best way of becoming lage ? acquainted with this subject, is to ana 80. What is the rent of the farm, lyze two or three villages of different compared with its estimated produce ? kinds; for example, a village in a plain, 81. What is the interest of money? another on a mountain ; one where the 82. How are the husbandmen fed? the vine is cultivated, and another where amount per annum ? and the value of farming alone is practised. In each of the stock? these villages a farm should be completely 83. What is the weight of a fleece, and analyzed.
of the meat under it? 56. In any given village, what may 84. What profit is supposed to accruc be the amount of the inhabitants, men, from a sheep? and also from an ewe ! women, old men, and children?
85. What kind of manure is used ? 57. What are their respective occupa 86. How does the family employ itself tions ?
in the evenings ? and what species of in58. What quantity of land is culti- dusty does it practife? vated by the village?
Volney's Statistical Queries. 87. What is the difference obfervable ART. V. GOVERNMENT AND ADMI between the manners and the improve
NISTRATION. ment of a village where vines are culti
110. What is the form of the govern: vated, and one that produces corn? be
ment? tween a mountain village, and one feated
111. What is the distribution of pow. in a plain ?
ers, administrative, civil, and judicial? 88. In what manner is the vine culti
112. What are the iin posts: vated ? 89. What are the different kinds of and received ?
113. How are they laid on, assessed, wines ? how are they kept? what the
114. What is the expence of the requality? the fpecies of grape ? the pro- ceipt? duce of an acre? the price of any given 115. What is the proportion between quantity? 90. What are the trees cultivated ? butors ?
the taxes and the revenue of the contri. olives, mulberries, elms, chesnut, &c. ? 116. What is the amount of the im. What are the particular modes of rear- ports of a village, in comparison with its ing them? What is the average produce revenue ? of each ? and of an acre? 91. What are the other products of of civil laws, or only of customs and
117. Is there a clear and precise code the country, cither in cotton, indigo, usages ? coffee, fugar, tobacco, &c. and the me
118. Are there many lawsuits ? thods used in cultivating them?
119. What is the principal cause of 92. What new and useful article can
contention in the towns and country? be introduced ?
. 120. How is the right of property veART. III. INDUSTRY.
rified? are the title-deeds in the verna. 93. What are the arts most practised cular tongue, and are they easily read? in the country?
121. Are there many lawyers ? 94. Which of these are the most lu
122. Do the suitors plead in person? crative?
123. By whom are the judges nomi. 95. What is remarkable in each, on
nated and paid ? are they appointed to: the score either of economy or effect ?
life? 96. What arts and manufactures are
124. What is the order observed in most cultivated ?
respect to successions and inheritances ? 97. Can any others be introduced ?
125. Is the claim of primogeniture al. and which ?
lowed ? are there any substitutions and
teftaments ? 98. Are there any mines ? of what kind? how are they worked, etpecially
126. Do the children all inherit alike those of iron ?
any kind of property whatever ? what is the result in the country?
127. Is there any property in mort. 99. What are the articles imported main; any legacies left to the churcı ; and exported ?
any foundations ? 100. What is the balance of trade ? 128. What authority to the parents
101. What kind of carriages are used exercise over their children? and hur. for the transit of goods are there any bands over their wives? waggons? of what kind are they? how 129. Are the women very luxurious? much do they carry?
in what does their luxury confift? 102. What weight can a horse, mule, 130. What is the education bestowed als, or camel carry ?
on the children ? what books do they 103. What is the rate of carriage? learn ?
104. Of what kind is the internal and 131. Are there any printing-offices, external navigation ?
newspapers, libraries ? 105. What are the navigable rivers ? 132. Do the citizens assemble for conare there any canals ? cán any be cut ? versation and reading? 106. What is the state of the coast in
133. Is there a great circulation of general ? is it high or low? does the sea persons and commodities in the country? encroach on, or leave it?
134. Are there any post-houses and 107. What are the ports, havens, and post-horses? bays?
135. What, in short, are the establish108. Is the exportation of grain per- ments, no matter of what kind, peculiar mitted or denied ?
to the country, which merit observation 109. What is the interest of money on account of their utility? among commercial men ?
ART. IV. COMMERCE.
Charge of Plagiarism against Mr. Leslie Considered. 95 To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Mr. Leslie as an inventor. What Mr.
SIR, B----d, 16th Jan. 1798. PLAYFAIR has stated about putting M. HARING Sarilishe on heart w.care
EULER's Algebra at first into Mr. Les. of plagiarilin, by Mr. W. A. of Lie's hands, requires foine explanation. Newcastle, against Mr. John Leslie, Upon Mr. LESLIE's kaving St. An. and the attempt of defence of Mr. Leslie drew's, in 1782 or 1783, he carried with by the ingenious Mr. JOHN PLAYFAIR,
him some examples of indeterminate Proieflor of Mathematics in the College equations, &c. as there resolved, and of Edinburgh, I must be of opinion, that thewed the fame to Mr. PLAYFAIR; and the charge has not been removed by Mr. it was then, and then only, that Mr. PLAYFAIR: and, I believe, few of your
PLAYFAIR first put into his hands the readers will entertain a different opinion algebra of the celebrated Euler, and on the subject, though it should turn out, the first copy, probably, of that work imperhaps, that the plagiarism originated ported into Scotland; a point of time not from the celebrated M. EULER, but this, long prior to that of drawing up the from Mr. VILANT, Professor of Mathe- paper in the " Edin!urgh Pbilojophical matics in the University of St. Andrews. Transactions,” fo juftly animadverted on And Mr. Leslie's time would not sure by your correspondent Mr. W. A. of ly have suffered any diminution, by a
Newcastle. candid and honest acknowledgement of
And though the method in the Analythe source of his first lights on the subject. fis be general for every species of indeter
According to information, at different minate equations, &c. and for all equatimes, from students at the College of tions that may by substitutions be brought Edinburgh, Mr. Playfair recoinmend- or reduced to the form prescribed; as no ed always Mr. VILANT's Analysis to his examples of indeterminate equations in ftudents, when on algebra. Mr. Play volving rational squares, cubes, &c. are FAIR, therefore, cannot be supposed to there given, this finall treatise being but be unacquainted with the 19th propofition
an abridgement of part of a comprehenand corollaries of the Analylis, where five System of the Elements of Mathema. the very method seized on by Mr. Leslie, tical Analysis, fome merit, it may be is given and applied to many examples of said, is due to Mr. Leslie, for giving indeterminate equations, and of commen- examples of those indeterminate equafurate affected equations of different de- tions; and this would be granted, as here grees, &c. Mr. PLAYFair may not, stated, if the celebrated EULER, by preperhaps, know that the resolution of in- occuping the ground, had not, as already determinate and affected equations, &c. mentioned, cut off Ir. Leslie from according to this proposition and corolla- every pretence to originality, even in this ries, had always been given very fully of adding to the examples. from the year 1765, in the second ma
But too much, perhaps, has been said thematical class, St. Andrews; as I learn
on a subject, fo easy and obvious in its ed from notes I took in this class in the principles and application, as can attach year 1779, when I attended the fame, but little merit to the discussion thereof. along with Mr. Jonn LESLIE, wholé And if Mr. PLAYFAIR had not been inattention I called in a particular manner duced to come forsvard rather incautiously, to indeterminate equations, when the same and with more appearance of oftentation, was entered upon: and which notes I co
&c, than is natural to his character and pied from a inemoranduin book in Mr. dispositions; and, if gratitude to an old VILANT's writing, containing rules and mater, who, with too much art and too examples for all equations, approxima
little candour, has been kept entirely out tions, logarithms, &c. and dated at the of view by Mr. LESLIE, hid not roused beginning with the year 1765.
my feelings, &c. your correspondent Mr. If, therefore, Mr. Leslie had
W. A. of Newcaitle, as fully able, would
pretended only to some little attempt at inn- have been left to fubftantiate his charge provement in point of form, he would not completely on the part of Mr. EULER, have exposed himself fo plainly to a charge
interference, froin, of plagiarism: and if Mr. PLAYFAIR'S
Sir, memory had not failed him so completely,
Your very humble servant, and if he had not been imposed on by his
BENONI. more artful newly acquired disciple, com P.S. It should be observed, that at St. mon candour would not have allowed hiin Andrew's, indeterininate equations were to commit himself so far, as to speak of resolved two ways. (1.) By converting