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86 : Mr. Blair on Nitrous Acid... Inutility of Tontines have happened. "From an hint which this To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. refpeétable physician has dropped, it apa SIR, pears, that "only a second letter from Mr. Scott, of Bombay,” has yet fallen


BOUT seven years ago, a variety of into his hands: I therefore conceive, that of Tontines, which promised great advanit may be a piece of agreeable intelligence tages to subscribers, from tlre improveto him, as well as to the other advocates ment of money at compound intereft, infor the new Specific,” to be informed, creafed by the benefits arising from sur. that several letters have been lately re- vivorship, and as many of these schemes ceived from Bombay, in which Mr. are now about expiring, it is very proba. Scott endeavours to corroborate his ble that the managers and secretaries former remarks, and proposes another (who appear to be the persons moft be. mode of administering this remedy. In nefited by them) will offer to the public the fourth letter, dated August the 5th, new proposals, holding out a ftill more 1797, he relates, “ A case of lues venerea alluring prospect of accumulating wealth, cured by bathing in the diluted nitric from the present high interest of money. acid, that affords (he says) the most fatis- Schemes of this kind are principally factory evidence of its great and truly adapted to a class of persons who are leaft furprising efficacy:" and he even supposes qualified for examining into the princithat this method " is still more effectual ples upon which they are founded ; and than its external use.” The ingenious luch persons, not finding the unwarranted author concludes with these remarkable hopes they had been led to entertain rewords : “ In a few years, I think, that aliied, may, in their disappointment, remercury, as a remedy for the lues vene- jedt every mode of making provision for a rea, will be banished by this acid; and, future period, and, consequently, a difin some of my dreams for the improvement position highly laudable in the individual, of the condition of man, I even imagine, and beneficial to the community, be much that the poison of Syphilis may, in a discouraged. This consideration, I hope, great measure, be extinguished over the will be a fufficient apology for submitting face of the earth, not by the efforts of the to the public, through the medium of magistrate, but by an agent like this, safe, your Magazine, a few. remarks on the fimple, and efficacious."

ftatement lately published, for the inforAs the result of my own trials, in mation of the members of one of these nearly fixty cafes of lues venerea, differs, focieties; the term of which being expired, in toto, from the experience of Mr. the members are about to receive their exScott, and of many other gentlemen, pected profits in the division of the stock. I cannot but feel anxious to see a detail The plan was formed for seven years; of “the facts” which Dr. BEDDOES has the contribution being thirteen shillings promised; and as the truth, wherever it per quarter : the total sum appears by may lie, can only arise from the general the account as follows: mars of evidence, I fall deem it incum

986 Deaths and Defaulters, 2-3,872 30 bent upon me, to publith all my cases, as

3550 Subscriptions compleated 64,610 00 foon as the other duties of my profession Fines

928 150 afford me leisure. In the interim, I shall Dividends on Stock 11,679 78 be happy to receive fuch additional communications as practitioners may please

Total 81,090 58 to honour me with. Every case, faithfully Thefe fums appear as the total receipt; drawn up, will serve to throw light on but, it muit be observed, they are excluthis interesting luliject; and therefore five of sixpence per quarter, paid on each ought not to be lost to the public. Mare for inanagement, which amounts on

I cannot forbear suggesting a hint, Shares that have been compleated to 24851. which, I fear, some of our zealous expe- belides what has been paid on the shares rimenters stand in need of; that an hasty forfeited; which, if they are supposed to opinion may be the occasion of accuinu- have been continued on an average three lated sufferings to our patients; and that years each, makes 2951. to which must be a wise man will fufpend his judgement added, a demand of two shillings per share, until the matter of enquiry shall have been made on the payment of the latt subscripfully investigated: the introduction of a tion. What this additional payment of doubtful remedy, and the rejection of an 3551. was for, unless as a year's finecure almost infallible one, in the treatment of salary to the projector, till he fhal have Syphilis, is too serious an affair to be found out a new set of subscribers, is diffitified with,

cult to conceive; but, with the two former, I remain, &c.

it makes the expence of management 'reat Russel-Street, W. BLAIR. amount to three thousand, one bundred, and

Inutility of Tontines--Books for Charity-Schools...Mr. Burke. 87 Had the deaths and defaulters been paid, and confess that they have beergiven feparate, it is probable that the grossly deceived by falie expectations. latter would have appeared the greater Feb. 8, 1798.

J. J. G. number; from which the present members may draw the satisfactory inference,

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.' that they have acquired about two thousand

SIR, pounds from the poorer fubscribers, who I

AM a subscriber to a charity-school, have beconie incapable of continuing their

the regulations of which are in many payments, and thus, instead of deriving respects judicious and liberal; but where, any benefit from the scheme; have lost the from time immemorial, the “ Bible" and little fums that, if they had not been

Church Catechism" are the only books drawn from them by the hope of inprove- which have been used; and I find, upon. ment, might have been laid by, and af- enquiry, that this remark will apply to forded thein some relief in a time of want. many other similar foundations, especially But it is not my object at present to no

such as have been long established. Now, tice, particularly, the immoral tendency though it may be calý to produce reasons. of encouraging hopes of gain from the why these are not the most fuitable schooldistresses of others, or to show how delulive books that might be thought of, yet it is and unprofitable most of the Tontine not quite so easy, for those who are not schemes appear, when examined upon the conversant in such matters, to recommend. principles on which they pretend to be the most proper lubstitutes. If, thereformed; the latter was done, at a time fore, any of your intelligent correspone when these mischievous projects were very

donts, who may have turned their atten. prevalent, in a manner that must have de- tion to the subject, would have the con termined every one, who could be con

defcenfion tu fuggett a few popular works vinced by demonftration, or biafled by the on religion, morality, natural and civil opinion of acknowledged abilities and history, &c. proper to be adopted in chajudgment on the subject*. It is evident, rity-chools; or to communicate any other however, that the majority of the fub practical information relative to the adfcribers to the different Tontines muít miniftration of such inftitutions, they have been ignorant of the very small pro

would, probably, render an effential ferfits they could reasonably expect from vice to the public, and would greatly

M.S. these Schemes, and, perhaps, placed too oblige your constant reader, implicit a confidence in specious proposals,

Lincoln's Inn, Feb. 7, 1798. sanctioned by the names of persons of cha To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. racter, whom they considered better informed than theinfelves. Such subscribers must, by this time, have been und.ceived, A Correspondent of your's, in the laft

Magazine, is hardy enough to affert, or very soon will be; and it is to prove that the late Mr. Burke was ignorant of to others the necessity of un:lerstanding the the Greek alphabet; and knew so little nature of any speculation, that may be or Latin, as not to be able to trandate his proposed to them, before, they engage in own quotations. it, that the following fact is stated : ---The Of Mr. Burke's clasical attainments, whole amount of Itock purchated with I know nothing from any other sources of the above sum of 81,0yol. 58. 8d. is infomnation than those aiready before the 118,1981. 85: 4d. in the three per cent public, and Mr. M‘CORMICK, in his life consols, which is now to be sold, for the of that singular man, is blent on the subpurpose of making the expected division je&t; but I think the public know enough of accumulated capital, interest, and pro- to render the aftertion of your correrfits. If sold at the present price of 48, pondent very doubtul; and, as one of it will produce 56,7351. 4s. jod. which, ihat public, I will here itate the probable divided among the present meinbers, gives evidence in favour of Mr. Burke's learnthem 15l. 198. 7d. each. So thai, after ing ---Mr. Burke was early devoted to the trouble of making quarterly, or half, claflical pursuits, under the direction of a yearly payments, for seven years, the pur- maites, who has not been charged with hbility of having been unable to continue entire ignorance of ietters. Mr. Burke the fubfcription, the risk of losing what spent loine years at college in Dublin, and they had paid, by the death of the no. obtained honours in the college. The minee, and the loss of all interest what.. whole life of Mr. Burke was spent in liever, they must be content to receive terary pursuits. He was the constant zl. 188. sd. less than they have actually companion of Dr. Johnson, a man as íu



88 Mr. Henry on the External use of Nitric Acid. perftitiously attached to ancient learning valuable medicine, which had been hias to religion, and in the habit of reproach therto wholly neglected in its uncombined ing every one (Garrick, for instance) who itate, is added to the Materia Medica. had not a conliderable knowledge of an But as the disagreeable taste which it cient authors and yet this literary cenfor possesses, and the bulky form in which it always bestowed upon Burke indiscrimi- has been given, have raised objections to nate and unbounded praise.

its ule, it is a matter of consequence, that Mr. Burke was the admired companion gentlemen, who are engaged in making of Mr. Fox, whole attic taste is well. trials with it, should have early informaknown.

tion, that there is great probability, that Mr. Burke, in his writings, often refers the Nitric Acid, diluted to the degree at to Grecian literature, and sometimes ap- which it has been given by the mouth, peals, in his late works, for the justice of is, like Mercury, when applied to the skin, his criticisms, to the decision of Mr. Fox. absorbed, and afterwards produces in the

The Latin quotations, in the writings fyftem, the fame effects that arise from its and speeches of Mr. Burke, (in some of internal use. his speeches, too, conceived and delivered By the last fleet from the East Indies, in hafte) are numerous and apposite. I received a letter from Dr. Scott, of

I state these fa&ts, in refutation of the Bombay, the gentleman who first recomassertion of your correspondent, as what mended, and himself commenced, the in. the public know, and as probable evidence ternal use of the Nitric Acid. Inclofed that Mr. Burke was learned, in the com was a pamphlet, containing, in addition mon acceptation of that term.

to the letters which he had before pubI have an object in view. I am anxious lifhed, two additional ones, in which he to know the truth in this particular con- communicates this important informacerning the attainments of Mr. Burke: tion, not founded on conjecture only, but and I wish as well to invite the commu on actual experiment. nications of your correspondents on this In one inveterate cafe of Syphilis, in subject, as to impress upon the mind of which the relief from Mercury had been Dr. LAWRENCE, the necessity of afford- imperfect and temporary, Dr. Scott aping us exact information on this head, in plied cloths, wet with the Nitric Acid; his life of his illustrious orator and states- with these the legs of his patients were

furrounded, and the cloths were kept mciit Were it known that Mr. Burke was with additional water, for an hour or two ignorant of Latin and Greek, it is to be daily. The relief received was remarkafeared, that it would banish Horace and ble: the symptoms, which were of the Homer from the schools. We must know worst kind, disappeared ; his strength re. the fact.

turned ; and, at the end of three months, I had conceived, and I do conceive, he continued in good heaith, though, that it is almost impossible to form an ora- during that period, he uled no other remetor and writer, like Mr. Burke, without dy than Nitric bathing. giving him a knowledge of the languages In other cases, Dr. Scot's caused the of Greece and Rome. I do not mean to legs, and part of the thighs, to be imfay, that a knowledge of Latin and Greek mersed for an hour, night and morning, will make any man a fine writer, or a in water, acidulated with Nitric Acid, as speaker; nor have I forgotten the dry re far as the fkin could bear it without un. proof that a man of wit once gave a pe- easiness. This mode was attended with dant in my prelence :---- Sir, I have read equal fuccess. And, as a small quantity all the belt authors of Greece and Rome.” of acid is sufficient to acidulate a large Yes, Sir," was the reply: “ you can portion of water, and as the same aciduboast of attainments that Shakespeare ne- lous water will last for a long time, Dr. ver knew."

PYRRHO. Scott observes, that a bath fo large as London, Feb. 18, 1798.

to cover the whole body may be prepared

at a small expence. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. From the inarked action of the Nitric SIR,

Acid, on the refinovs substance of the "HE attention of medical men has bile, Dr. Scott thinks it probable, that effects of the Nitric Acid, exhibited in- viceable in the early stages of the yellow ternally: and though those effects have fever. I am, Sir, your very humble fer. been found very different, by different vant,

THOMAS HENRY, practitioners, yet it is evident, from the Manc befter, Feb. 22, 1798. whole collective testimony, that a very





Improvement in Orthography Defended. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. (even if it were effected by it) cannot be SIR,

of consequence enough to prevent altera. OUR


tion. 4. P. 429.) appears to have misun

But it does not appear that etymology derstood my letter (p. 195). My purpose will

, or can be dettroyed by a new orwas not to refute objections to a new mode thography, especially it in forming this, : of spelling, but to disprove an opinion of no new letters or ligns are introduced:

the Analytical Reviewers, which isemed for instance, the derivation of very many to repress attempts at improvement. With words would be as readily discoverable in this view, I endeavoured to thew how Mr. Elphinston's orthography, as in the much fuperior the method proposed by present mode of spelling, and many words, Mr. Elphinston, was to that of Mr.Web particularly those derived from the French, fter, in adapting orthography to pronun- tives : for as the French have made very

would much more relemble their primis ciation.

In this I had nothing to do with the confiderable improvements in spelling, and 5 connection of orthography with etymo

have dropt unnecessary letters in a great logy. I left Messrs. Elphinston and Web- number of words, the adopting the fame fter to examine and refute the objections plan in our language, would, in many which have been advanced against altera- instances, keep us to a right etymology, tion, and contented myself with expressing whereas, at present, we are liable to mis a with tha fuch improvements might be take the originals of many words, by fup. adopted, as appeared to be necessary.

poting them, on account of the spelling, Your Correlpondent thinks no change derivatives from the Latin, though, in at all adviseable, and offers some argu- fact, they came to us from the French. ments in proof of his opinion, which he

Such mistaken derivations have former. seems to consider unanswerable. To one ly been made. The earlier etymologists or two of his objections I mean to reply.

were chiefly acquainted with the Latin The one on which he lays most itreis language; of French they knew little or is, that an alteration in the method of nothing ; no wonder then, that in tracing Spelling would dejlroy all etymology.

etymologies, they overlooked the media Etymology, though an amuling, is by um, through which words were derived no means a necessary Atudy, it can only be

to us from the Latin, and thinking this useful fo far as it' aflists in fixing the last the immediate original, they fremeaning of words ; now it is apparent quently introduced unneceffary letters inthat derivative words bear frequently so to words, to Thew, as they thought, more very different a signification from their effectually their derivations. This is the primitives, that etyinology is full as like- realon why we have written, and still conly to mislead, as to assist,' in discovering tinue to write, such words as feign, fovetheir meaning

Some examples, taken reign, &c. with the unnecessary g. Some from Mr. Elphinston's work, are sub. etymologist, ignorant of the French feinjoined,

dre, souverain, &c. derived these words Which

fignifies English wards derived

from fingo, fupra regnum, &c. and intro

duced the g to preserve the etymology. from the French Physician Phyficien A natural philosopher. formed orthography has been carried fur

In the Italian language, in which a rePatient

Patient * Aluffering malcfactor. Journey Journèe A day.

ther than in any other, the etymology of Voyage A journey.

words is easily discoverable; neither in Plate Plat A dish.

the French is it more difficult to be traced Lemon Limon Citron.

than it was two hundred years ago, Citron Citron Lemon.

though a very considerable alteration in These are only a few of the many ex- spelling has likewise taken place in that amples that might be given, to prove the language. In no other European lanTariance of words from their primitive guage, which I have been able to examine, fignification, in all of which, a learner has etymology been deltroyed; though would be milled by trusting 'to etymo- in all, the spelling has been considerably

altered. logy, the destruction of which, therefore,

But in case a new system of orthogra* This word is likewise used in French to phy should deprive us of the means of fignify a person on whom the surgeon is per- tracing the derivation of words, still the forming an operation, but never means what old books would be quite fufficient to prewe mean by the word patient, as attended by ferve all necessary information concerning a phyfician or apothecary.

the etymology of our language. MONTHLY Mac. No, VIII.




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Orthography....On Waste Lands. What has been advanced is, I hope, our mode of spelling, if we are agreed, fufficient to thew that we ought not to be there is no need of it.” On the contrary, deterred by the bugbear etymology, from it we are agreed upon our pronunciation, adopting an improved method of spelling, we should endeavour to preserve that proif that can be proved on other accounts nunciation in its present purity; it we neceflary.

are not agreed, the fixing pronunciation It would be highly advantageous to by an exact orthography, would be a very this country that a knowledge of its lan defirable object, and would tend materiguage should be more widely extended; ally to meliorate the language. but the difficulties of acquiring this Instead of endeavouring to amend our knowledge, are univerfally allowed to be spelling, V. 0. V. advises to improve the more conliderable in the English than in gramınar, which be acknowledges is very almoit any European language. Leslen dcfective; but, I fear, the time and tathese difficulties, and the Itudy of it will lents of grammarians will be employed to become inore general.

little purpole in improving that, till the The want of a proper orthography, or moft esential part, orthography, is settrue picture of speech, is one principal tled. Grammar depends on this; while difficulty, and the cause of others. Make orthography is confuled, grammar cannot the written language as exact a represen- be clear. tation as possible of the oral, and this diffi The Monthly Magazine is too much culty vanishes. To effect this, we must occupied to allow many pages to any one either alter our mode of spelling, and adapt subject; I fear I have already intruded it to our present pronunciation: or we too much on them, otherwise it would not must learn to speak as we now write. be difficult to enlarge on the advantages

By the first, the best pronunciation will that would result from the adoption of a be ascertained, and, as far as possible, se more clear and judicious mode of spell. cured from change; by the fecond, the ing; whether this could be more effe£tu. beauty of the language will be dettroyed, ally accomplished by new combinations and some of its molt harmonious sounds of the letters we at present possess, or by will be converted into others, barbarous, introducing new signs into the alphabet, uncouth, and scarcely utterable. This, it is not my busineis to determine. Mr. indeed, is already, in some measure, the Elphinston, in his very elaborate work, cale; many of our words being at present has fhewn that much may be effected constantly inilpronounced, in confequence by the letters already in use, and his of having been so long milwritten ; and it method has at least this recommenda. is to be feared, that the pronunciation tion, that it is forined upon fyftem. That of others will soon be vitiated, because improvement may be made in it I am men in general think that they are lets willing to allow; but improvement of any likely to be deceived by learning from kind, 1 despair of seeing, lince such forci. books, than froin conversation.

ble reasons as the following are represented It is astonishing, that in the spelling of as absolutely conclutive against it! our own language, we are resolved to be “ What necessity is there for altering without a syitem, though we find the ne our spelling? Do we not sufficiently un. cessity of syitem in every other branch of derítand one another for all the purpolės learning. We use one coinbination of let of cominon life?" &c. &c. ters to expreis a found in one word, yet Jan. 6, 1798.

S. M. we have ano: her combination of letters to express precisely the same found in another word, for instance, in force, coarse,

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, source---red, lead, &c. yet in other words SIR, we make the same letters represent diffuze ent sounds, as in yove, love, prove---both,

A Sviesis one the principal objects of

your valuable Miscellany, doth, moth, &c. &c. ad infinitum. Allis municate to your readers agricultural incontusion, all is darkness and difficulty. formation, I imagine that the following

Yet we are told, we must not endeavour remarks upon Waste Lands in Great Brito regulate this confusion, to enlighten tain, will prove acceptable, and, perhaps, this darkness, to overcome this difficulty! provoke discuffion upon this iniportant Why? Because “ it would diflroy all subject. etymology, which is cause enough in all We have wastes in England and in conscience for dropping the design!" Scotland---Do they not demand cultiva

V.O. V. says, “ If we are not agreed tion? Are they not capable of it?---No upon our pronunciation, we cannot alter man can be so ignorant as to imagine that

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