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that excellent poet was born. The sides of Froin these experiments it should seem the monument are to bear the following that the only circulation of the fap in four infcriptions. Firit inscription : trees is effected by the parts which border Primus ego in patriam mecum (modo vita sus on this centrical medullary canal, by means perlit)

of the infinite number of horizontal radii, Aonio rediens deducam vertice musas :

at the extremities of which the buds Primus Idumeas reteram tibi, Mantua, palmas. are formed, which establith a fucceflive Second infcription :

communication with the contrical canal. Olim

This communication, of course, augments Nec spes libertatis erat, nec cura peculi. in exact proportion to the growth of the Third inicription :

buil eill it becomes a branch.
Nunc

Dr. Reimarus, correspondent of the
O Mchbæi', Deus nobis hæc otia fecit,
Fourth infcription :

Hamburgh luciery, having remarked, that
Natali Pub. Virgilii Maronis sacrum.

a few drops of belladonna dissolved in

water, and applied to the cyes, cause the The Theophilanthropists have founded popil to dilate in so extraordinary a a School under the tiile of Ecole Théi.

manner, that the iris is nearly reduced phunbropre, in which the young pu- to nothing, was led from this circumpils receive instructions in writing, arith- Itance to fuggest the propriety of having metic, the elements of the Latin tongue, recourse to this expedient, preparatory to French grammar, history, geographs, &c. the operation of couching the eye for a They are likewise taught the relative duties catarači. Ofthis intimation Dr.Grasmeyer, which they owe to God, to their parents; who prachfes this operation with great to their country, to all their fellow creatures, skill at Hamburgh, has made a very suce to themselves. No clementary books on cessful experiment. The effect produced religion will be put into their hands by the folution in question on the eye, but such as have or shall receive the sanc

continues about half an hour, affording, tion of, and be adopted by, the fociety. by the dilatation of the pupil, an excel

Citizen Coulomb, some tiine fince, lent opportunity of performing the opecaused several large poplars to be cut ration, without danger of hurting the iris; down on his eftare. li was in the spring and the paily, if it may be lo terméd, feason, and the sap had begun to mount which invades the retina, prevents the baneinto the branches, which were covered ful consequences which otherwise might with new leaves. As he was inspeet. accrue from too sudden acceision of light. ing the workmen, he noticed that one Bothe, of Magdeburg, is engaged upon of the trees, on being cut nearly through a new critical and exegetical edition of the to the centre, emitted a found similar to works of Plautus. A specimen, which he that produced by air bubbling from the has already published, of his undertaking, surface of water. He perceived that this proves him completely qualified for the noite, as well as the discharge of a limpid talk, and posseffcd of great critical knowand tafelets liquid, did not take place ledge. til the trees were nearly cut through Gerard Vrolick, professor of physic and to the centre. This led him to lurmile, borany, at Amtterdam, has published a that the tap in large trees was only differtation, at Leyden, on the annual deimparted to the branches by the me- foliation of trees and vegetables ; in which dullary canal in the centre, with which he irtintains, that the leaves of trees have the branches have a direct conimunica

a distinct vegetable life, characterized by 110. To afcertain this point, he caused different periods, though connected with Pieral large poplars to be pierced with the life of the parent trce, and in some a borer, when it appeared, what, within a measure dependant thereon. On the ancertain distance of the centre, the inftru. nual return of the period of defoliation, ment remained nariy dry; but no conner the leaves drop off and perish with age, did it penetrate to the middle, than a but the life of the stock subsists. Je watcry substance was einitred in great maintains that the dead leaves detach abundance, accompanied with the bub. themselves from the branches by the bling nuite before inentioned. This ettet fame laws which cause any mortified part was regularly produced on every repea:td of an organized body to separate itself by experiment during the summer, the found, the absorption of the live particles imrac. as well as the liquid emiired, bearing a diately connecting the decayed and healthy due proportion to the precile degree of meinbers. To prove this assertion, he hear, and confequent transpiratien of cites examples from organized animals, the foliage. At night, and during cold, which, as well as vegetables, possess many damp days, very little effect was discerned, parts endowed with a distinct and separate

IMP. CÆSAR. IVL. F. AVGVSTVS.

COS. XI. TRIB. TEST. VIII.

PORTAS. M.. ROS. DA..

1798.]
Varieties...Dr. Beddoes on the Nitrous Acid.

55 life. Thus, for instance, the fætus of post; 2d, two other porticoes, also fullfrogs are furnished on the sides of the arched, of fix feet overture each, over head with organs of respiration, analogous which is a semi-circular niche, covered to the gills of fifhes. These organs in a by great stones decorated with mouldings, short time become indurated, die, and drop which answer to the architrave. The off

, before the individuum has attained to form of this edifice, to judge of it by what the perfect developement of its existence. remains, indicates a fortrets, which the

The horns of ftags, which fa!! off and Romans had ornamented with all the elerenovate every spring, complete in the gance of architecture. Some of the conspace of a year all the succelsive periods noiffeurs imagine it to have been a capitol. of their distinct life; but a series of years More than 300 medals of the latter is necessary to achieve the different periods æra of the Roman empire, in high preof the existence of the animal.

servation, have been lately dug up in the Some remains of a Roman antiquity neighbourhood of Is-sur-Tille; among have been lately discovered at Nimes, in which are the following: France, in consequence of an order given A. D. by the municipality to demolith a parapet 197. Two medals of Lucila, wife of Ælius to a convent of Dominicans. Under the

Cæsar. parapet was found a Corinthian entabla- 138. Two ditto of Fauflina, wife of Antoninus. ture, the cornice of which was much im. 138. Two ditto of Antoninus, emperor ; on the paired. On the frieze, which was in to.

reverse a figure feated on a globe. lerable preservation, was this inscription,

There are four more medals of the engraved in the fonc, with holes to retain fame emperor, but not with this device. the metal which had been melted into it :

161. One model of Marcus Aurdius Antoninus

Pius; on the reverse three figures. 161. Two medals of Fauftina, wife of Marcus

Aurelius, and daughter of Antoninus.

180. One medal of Criffzina, wife of the em. In the third year of the republic, the

peror Commodus. director of the military hospital, of his The discoverers of this new historical own authority, overturned the inscription, treafure have been invited to bestow them so that many parts of it were dashed to towards the enrichment of the cabinet of pieces. It was not then suspected that medals belonging to the central school at under the entablature there existed an

Paris. antiqne edifice, which was the reason that almost all the architrave was taken [The following Letter, by foine accident reached away at firA; but the municipality having us too late, to appear in its proper place.] perceived, by the demolition of a small To the Editor of ibe Montbly Magazine. part of the modern wall, which served as

SIR, a lining to the ancient one, the appear; IN the collection of observations on ance of Corinthian capitals, they ordered nitrous acid, now in the press, and of all the modern wall to be demolished, the which the first (and perhaps the second) architrave to be repaired with as much century will appear in March next, I shall care as poflible, and the frieze on which have the fatisfaction of producing evi, was the inscription to be replaced. They dence from very various and diftant quar. also caused the earth to be railed again up I fhall give a second letter from to the ancient pavement, and a wall to be Mr. Scott of Bombay. The positive built at the distance of lix feet from the evidence is such as appears to be incapable monument, in order to secure it from of being invalidated by negative ; elpeinjury. The ancient edifice is twenty- cially as the facts to be brought forward five feet leven inches in height, and lixty- will account to a certain extent for the one feet fix inches in length, frontwile general failures that are said to have been con façade) not including two round experienced in some places. iwwers, nineteen fcet in diameter, at each

Some correspondents, who are advan. end, and forming an avant-corps of nine tageously fituated, have been obliging feet. Four pilasters, twenty-eight inches enough to vary their trials considerably wide by twelve inches in projection (ile' and even to extend them to gonorrhæa. faillic) with a column in the wall, the

I am, fir, yours, whole of the Corinthian order, divide

Clifron, Jan. 1, 1798.

T. BEDDOES, the overtures of the monument, in which

P.S. I have seen great service from the are yet founded, itt, two large porticoes, nitrous acid in hepatic and dyspeptic cales. full arched, in che centre, having twelve Several facts of the same nature have been feet overture, and separated from the im- generally mentioned to me. If particulars post to the architrave by a column which

were transmitted to me, I would print them reits upon a cupola, level with the im- as an appendix to the Siphylitic Coll diun.

DESCRIP

ters.

56

MERCIER

a

me in

to

India House....French National Institute.

[Jan, DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW INDIA-HOUSE IN LEADENHALL-STREET. (Wit's an Engraved Elevation.)

, der the able direction of R. Jupp, stones of the windows of the principal Esq. is from east to weit 190 feet in lengti. fory within the portico are to be heads in The principal story is plain sunk ruliis, relict, emblematical of the grcatelt rivers with live circular-headed windows in each in India. The fiory over the principal wing. The portico, from a Grecian ex- story is neat, and occupied in the old ample (the temple of Minerva Polias at building the height of two stories. The Priené.) Upon the centre of the pedic whole is to be covered with handsome ment of the portico will be an emblema- balustrades. rical figure of Britannia ; on the east fide PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE

OF FRANCE. Notices of the Memoirs presented to the Inftitule, during the last Quarter, communicated

'in ibe Public Sitting of 08. 16th, 1797. CLASS OF MORAL AND POLITICAL The titles of men of genins have been Science. By DAUNOU.

given to those in whom it has been be. read fome obser- lieved that thought, more exerted, more vations upon the contents of the strong, or more happy, had suddenly enPetits Auguftins, or Museum of French riched the arts and the sciences with Monuments. CREUZE LA TOUCHE useful and illustrious creations. But has read a discourse upon pbilosophical Into- there truly existed a man of genius ? lerance as well as one upon religious In- MERCIER has put it in doubt ; and tolerance : TorLONGEON,

two memoirs which he read moir, intitled, The Influence of a Na- 'the class, he expatiated on the sense, and tional Observance of a dietetic Regimen upon explained the motives, of his opinion. ibe political Condition of fucb Nation: and He admits among the mental ceREDERER a dialogue upon the fol- pacities, sensible in qualitics, very dif. lowing question: Is it possible to unite men cernible shades: he further acqnowledges in perfectly in society, chai they bave no that the sciences and the arts in their occasion for Chiefs 10 control them, course from age to age are enlarged and for coercive Latus?

perfectel, Discoveries are made, inLEVESQUE in an ideological me. ventions are proclaimed; but, according moir upon some acceptations on the to MERCIER, they are tvord Nature, did away

the abuses sudden, aud therefore, of consequence, na which are inade of this word, in the three one ougiit to be considered as the work ways it, is usually exprefled : The Man of an individual. It is to the human of Nalue, ibe Riligion of Nature, and understanding le is willing we thould manual Lan. Man, according to Le- render homage, and not to the undervesque, never ceases to be the man of standing of an individual. That which we rature. It is true, that in pasting through call invention is (lays the author) only the different periods of the social state, a succetlion of trials and attempts which hc fucceffively acquires the ideas they foliow each other, more or less easily or suppose, or inspire ; but the progreflions laboricusly, in the course of many ages ; subich he makes therein, are only those and the man to whote name is which nature permits, or even which ivom to attach all the glory, would find She comniands him to niake at the pe. it difficult to recognize all the attribuits riods which the herself has fixed. The of the work imputed to him, or even to mecilcétual faculties, which the pro- comprehend the lefsons of those who begreis proportions to itself, at the dif- lieve themselves, and above all, cail Errent ages of each society, were made themseives, his disciples. !ne object of another memoir, wherein Among the causes which are wont to TOULONGEON descanted in the way of excrt an intuence upon the progress of an arayjis, upox sections and ideas. He the human understanding, public in. compared the facultics purely intele struction is, without doubt, the moli te buni witla thote of the fenfive, diftri- powerful. This has been the object bured over the surface of the huinan of a work in

which MENTELLE body; and he has entered largely into has reconciled the various confiderations hofe rela:ions, which are found to exist upon primary schools, with those of the betteln the one and the other.

central schools. The law and the in

struction

nor

never on

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57

1798.]

Proceedings of the National Inftitute. ftruction established by it, ought to have of each of the particular powers exifting no connection with the various religious within her limits. The second memoir worship: MENTELLE has given to offers a picture of the productions of this maxim, an expansion which was Italy, of her manufactures, of her comnever less fuperfluous than in the cir- merce, of the privileges and refraints cumstances under which he read his which favour or shackle it. memoir. He requires that the instruc- . FLEURIEU read, during several fica tion be directed, above all, towards sci- tings, various fragments of a relation ence, duties, and manners : he desires of a Voyage round the world, made in that the public teachers become the 1790,1791, and 1792, by CAPT.STEPHEN guardians of morals, and that they per. MARCHAND,commanding the thipSolide, form, even in the heart of the countries fitted out by the house of Beaux, as where they may reside, some of those Marseilles, to establish a traffic in Pelery, kind, sometimes for the fulfilling of on the north-west coast of America. in which ; the ministers of worship were an introduction, which precedes the .formerly called upon. Continuing to narration of this Voyage, Fleurieu occupy himself about the central schools, sketches out a brief history of the discoMENTELLE combats the project of er veries in the north-west of America, fentially changing the system of these since FERNANDO CORTEZ, down to new schools.

Stephen Marchand. This period of two DELILLE DE Es read a me. centuries and a half, includes the expemoir, entitled The Toree Kinds of ditions of Coronado, of Drake, of Fuca, Morality. Of man, considered indivi- of Admiral Fuenci, those of Cook and dually ; considered with relation to his of Peyroute, and in thort, thule of country; and with his relation to all many other navigators, as well Rullian, other countries ; or, as may be said, of Spanish, English, and Americans. Ja the human species. The three moral retracing summarily the ancient discoconsiderations; among which bad politi- veries, of which some were almost for. cal inftitutions have often established fa- gotten, and the modern navigators, which cal oppositions, tend (according to our bave extended the sphere of commercial author) to harmonize together, accord- speculations, Fleurieu applies himself ing as the social science advances towards to reduce to a just value, the hopes perfection

which the first were capable of inspiring, A Roman law limited the power of and the fruits which have been gathered devising by will, and tended above all, to from the second : he seeks to unfold the keep women out of fucceffion; this was motive which has determined each ex. called Vuconia lex. The learned are not pedition, and ascertain the successive agreed about the extent of the dispo, increase to the stock of human know. fitions of this law, concerning which Jedge which has resulted from them all; the establishment, or abrogation, must and thus, through this introduction, the necessarily have had so considerable an history of the discoveries to the northintiuence upon society, as to render west of America is blended, as it were, it worthy of examination. Bov. with the political and commercial history CHAUD, after having made known the of Europe. author, and the epoch of the Voconian The voyage of Captain Marchand is law, applied himself to determine its the second voyage round the world, unchief principle, and to give its true sense. dertaken and accomplished by the French; He has discovered what was the punish- until that time Bougainville had had in meot incurred by those who.contravened France neither a model nor an imitator. this law; and has pointed out the di- Fleurieu has compared this relation with vers modifications it successively under a journal, kept by Chanel, second cap. went, until it was entirely abolished. tain of the Solide, and who, in the

A country filled with great events, course of the voyage was employed in upon record, and which is again become reconnoitring the coasts, in elevating the object of great expectation, Italy, plans, and in astronomical operations. has furnished ANQUETIL, with the Fleurieu bas farther made use of a subject-matter of two memoirs. In the journal of Roblet, first furgeon of the firft he has treated of the History and thip, but in working upon these various Character of the different Governments memoirs, the author has compared the of this heretofore so distinguished part recitals which they contain, with the re. of Europe. He has cocfidered the po- lations published by the Spanish and litical interests of Italy in general, and English navigators. The work includes, MONTHLY MAG. XXVII.

1

besides, fares

58

Proceedings of the College of France.

[Jan befides, a great number of descriptions, It is farther to be remarked, that in the many nautical and geographical discuss course of twenty months, in the mide of fons, with political and commercial con. fatigues and privations, inseparable from fiderations. In a short extract of a work an expedition of this nature ; traversing of this extensive nature, we can only rą. all the climates, experiencing all the vapidly trace the route which Captain Mar- riations of the temperature, the Solide out chand took :

of fifty men, which composed her thip's The Solide ser fail from Marseilles the crew,' lost only one man, who died in a 14th December, 1790, and after having for of apoplexy. doubled Cape Horn, came to in the port It became necessary to awaken the at. Madre de Dios, in the island of St. Chris- tention of the French navigators to the rina, one of the isles of the Archipel de ule, too much neglected among them, Mendoca, discovered by Mandana in of afironomic ?methods. This relation, 1595, and visited by Captain Cook in which the press is going to render pub. 1774. In quitting these islands, and lic, will show them that it is to the conmaking wav for the north-wet, Captain itant employment of the exact methods, Marchand discovered, in this direction, a adopted by Captains Marchand and Chasecond Archipelago, until then unknown. nal, that they owe the safety of their

Thence, after having taken a plan of this courses, the shortness of their voyage, and new cluster of isles, the ship run before the advantage of making land with pre. the wind towards the north-west coast, cifion upon those points which they deand they anchored in the Bay of Guada figned to touch at. lupa des Espagnols, named fince by the COLLEGE OF FRANCE, English, Norfolk Bay, and a traffic for On the 15th of Noveinber last, this is. skins and furs was entered into. The So- ftitution opened its cuurle of study, in Jide next visited Queen Charlotte Islands, the presence of the minister of the home to which the English have added also this department, the greater part of the fonamo, although Peyrouse made the first reign minifters, and a full assemblage of discovery of it in 1786. The season was spectators. too far advanced for Captain Marchand to The fitting was opened by Poissonnier, continue to trade on the coast of America. who pronounced an culogium on this an. He resolved to go to China : after having cient alylum of the fciences, which, since passed through the Sandwich Islands and the time of Francis 1, has constantly prothe group of Marianne Illes, he let go duced great mon, and which, like a rock, the anchor at Macao.

always immovable amid the storms and An imperial edict had jnit prohibited tempests of the revolution, has survived the introduction of fuis in China. He the ruin of all the other cstablishinents. was compelled to renounce the design of Lalande proceeded to describe the Gruexchanging the cargo for the merchandize ation of the exact sciences, their progress, of Afia. Thus after having repaired and the discoveries 'made in them, and the vi&tualled the thip, Captain Marchand labours of learned and scientific men durbetook himself by the Straits of Gaspa, and ing the last year, by those of the Sunda to the port in the François, affifted by his wife, Lalande's north-west side of the Ijle in France. nicce, observed, during the last year, There he let the crew enjoy some re. 6,000 new stars, which brings the number pose, who, during thirteen months and a of those hitherto observed to 42,700. half, had kept the sea, and had bien but Thule astronomers trust that they wil thirty days in harbour all that time. The foon be enabled to carry them to 50,000. Solide left the Ile de France the rith of A new comer, discovered this year, Aprili 1792, touched at the Island of St. brings to ninely the number of those Helena the 4th of June, and, on the 13th whole orbits have been calculated up to of Augur, cast anchor in the road of this time. Tables of the moon, published Toulon..

by Delaplace, and an analysis of the great This voyage is remarkable for the labours exccuted to complete the measure Torinefs of time the Solide took up in of the earth, make up the inventory of making the tour round the world, in tak- aftronomical acquisitions. ing her route'-by:Cape Horn, and making A letter from Bucnaparte to Lalande her return by China. The duration of was read. In this letter, the general althe voyage was only 6o8 days, and even fures him that the funds of the society of only 498, if we fübtract the days passed in Verona will be respected, and that its obharbour ; aód the space 'run over, is 14,328 fervatory, damaged by the bomb-fhell, fra Icarues, of 18,000 common league. 'will be repaired. Buonaparte farther

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