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49,

1798.)

New Patents.Mr. Carpenter's. ple operation of cutting a pudding, plauded, or treated with contempt. By that he had better take his trowel to his bold and determined conduct, in the it!" he set the whole corporation in a case of the city printers, he annihilared roar.

the power of commitment assumed by the As a man of pleasure, he sacrificed to speaker's warrant, and rendered the his paffions, not unfrequently, at the ex. jurisdiction of the sergeant at arms, pence of his happiness, and cven of his subject to the control of a constable. character. The scandal attached to the He punished despotic secretaries of state, order of St. Francis *, of which he was a by holding them up to public scorn, pember, operated considerably against abolished general warrants, and obliged he influence of his politics; it is not even lord Mansfield to declare them unI little remarkable, however, that men, lawful. But this was not all; he condot the most famous for the cbaftily tributed to render an Englishman's house of their manners, such as the lords bis caffle, for it is to him we are in. sandwich and March (the latter is the debted for the benefit of having out vresent duke of Queensbury) should have papers considered as sacred, in all cases een the most eager to detect and expose Thort of high treason. The most dasing he follies of his loofer moments.

minister must now particularise his It cannot be denied, that his conduct victim by name, and he cannot atcempe co sa magistrate was not only unexception. rob us of our fecrets, without at the Game. ble, but spirited and exemplary; and as time endeavouring to bereave us of ous guardian of the morals of the city youth, lives ! ne has not been excelled by any of his In short, with all his faults, Mr. zredecesors. The same candour that Wilkes possessed something more than li&tates these observations, obliges the the vapour of patriotism; he could face uthor at the same time to confess that poverty and banishment, despise a jail, le was dilatory in the production of the resilt corruption, atrack and overcome ity accounts, and rather too attentive to tyranny. Had his existence ceased at Le emoluments of office.

she close of the Ainerican war, his me. As an author, he possessed the fingular mory, however, would have been more merit of always writing to, and for, the respected; he outlived his reputation; and people. His success was proportionate, it is painful to add, that when he died at ind he' actually wrote down at least one his daughter's house in Grosvenor idministration, which is more than can fquare, on Tuesday, December 27, 1797, se said of any man of the present age. in the 73d year of his age, he was near. flis merits can only be appreciated by ly forgotten. Distance blends and sof. he benefits he has conferred on his coun- tens the ihades of large objects : Time ry. It was he who first taught the pub. throws her mantle over petty defects. ic to consider the "king's speech" as The present age already confesses that he merc fabrication of his ministers, and he was a perfecuted, the next will proAs such, proper to be commented on, ap- bably consider him as a great, man. At

all events, his name will be connected The motto over the door of Medmenham with our history, and if he does not ocAbbey, muit be allowed to have been ex. cupy the chief place, a niche, at least, will Eremely appropriate; it was

be tenanted by him in the temple of Fais ce que vulras,"

Fame.

PAPER

THE NEW PATENTS,

Enrolled in 0.87ober, November, &c. 1R. CARPENTER's, FOR BLEACHING first person in this country who applied

the discovery to practise i his example THE discovery made in France, by was foon fallowed by many, manufac.

M. Bertholet, of the efficacy of oxy- turers in Lancashire and Scotland, who cenated muriatic acid in expediting the have obtained patents for different conrucess of bleaching, has been successfully trivances to regulate the application of arried into effcet by many of our own the acid gas : the most important of these manufacturers and artists. Mr. Cooper, have been already detailed in our forate of Manchester, now of Northumber. mer numbers, under the head of bleacb. and, in America, was, we believe, the ing, in which it will be found, that not MONTHLY MAG. XXVII.

H

only

GLASS.

SO
New Patents.--Mr. Wedgwood's.

[Ja. only the linen, but the paper manufacture 14 lb. of allum, 7.of calcined vitri: has been essentially benefired hereby. and 1 lb. of gum arabic, with a fufficer

Formerly writing paper could be made quantity of water to fize 5o realni of unprinted linen alone, but by means fools-cap. of the process of Mr. Bertholet even

The same method will serve cquel printed linen may be made into the finest well to clean engravings or printing, and wlijtest paper. The present patent though the oxyiuriaric acid dischi is the last that we shall detail on this all tiains, diri, &c. yet it is incapab: fubject, except in case of fome effential acting on printers' ink. jmprovement in the process or infirument made use of. It was granted to MR. WEDGWood's, FOR MAKING OF Mr. ELIAS CARPENTER of Bermondsey, Surrey, and is entitled a Melbod of IN November, 1796, a patent : Bleaching Paper in the Water Leaf, and granted to RALPH WEDGWOOD, fizing it witbout drying.

Burilem, Staffordshire, for a new comp. In the preparation of the pulp, the position for glass. The two extret coarser rags are to be macerated for two quantities for the materials, are giren or three days in a caustic alcaline lev, in the following formula ; for accord; and wrought into sheets of paper, in the to the required hardness of the glass o usual way; a strong wooden box or be the proportions to be made use trough is then to be procured, of a fize From !o to 50 lbs. of pearl-ath are proportioned to that of the paper, lived be dissolved in from 12 to 20 quart: on the inside with white paint, an ur. water ; to which are to be added f: nished with several stages of cross bars 3 to 10 lbs. of borax, diffolved in for of glafs : the bottom of the box is to

10 to 50 quarts of water : of Paru be covered with a ftratum about one plaster, or Time, are to be added frue inch deep of caustic ley, and the paper 40 to 100 lbs.; of flints, or any put laid by quarter-reams, or less, across the quatzy stone, powdered, from 50 : glafs bar. A hole must be made in the 100 lbs. ; of pounded barytes from :) box to admit the beak of an earthen- olbs. and of broken china,or fine eartbe. ware retort, into which must be put ware, from 50 to 150 lbs. (Inftead manganese and sea salt, in powder, ful. this last, from 80 to 100 lbs. of bakice phuric acid, and an equal quantity of clay may be added). All tht fe male water impregnated with the steams of rials are to be gr. und into a free burning fulphur (fulphureous acid).- cream-like consilience in the como: i The cover of the box is to be made air- mill, then evaporated to dryness, after right by luting or slips of paper dipped wards melted in a full white heat, :; in paste. The apparatus being thus pre- poured into water. The glais thus pr pared, the belly of the retirt is to be pared is used either by itfcif, cr mir. plunged in water, kept boiling, and in with different colouring substances. å thort time the oxymuriatic acid gas will be driven into the box, will pene- MR. Wedgwood's, PLATIN trate ihc paper, and render it of a dazzling whiteness, while the alcalino Together with the above paten: ley at the bottom will, by gradually ab- enrolled one, taken out at the far. forbing it, prevent its becoming fo con. time by the same perfon, for an ircentrated as to deftroy or injure the tex- provement in the manfacture of eartbe:ture of the paper. From three to four To a plate of soft unbaked coars pounds of fulphuric acid will suffice for

pottery clay, is applied on each fidei one hundred weight of paper, and the thin plate of china, white ware, or crea• operation will be completed in about coloured ; the three plates are this eight hours. The fheets as they are united firmly to cach other by means taken out of the box are to be sized with a press : afterwards the mass by rollir, the following mixture :

is brought to a proper thickness, al. - TO JEN ter of clippings of skin add thaped in moulds in the usual way,

FOR
EARTHEN WARE.

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VARIETIES,

LITERARY and PHILOSOPHICAL;
Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.

Aut bentic Communications for this Article are carnestly solicited from all our Friends. MESSRS: Robinsons are about to the Work by Introductions and Notes,

publith a Work of considerable Im- and by a new analyfis of the Speculaportance and Curioliey to the political tive Works of the celebrated Greek Phi. world : “ Letters and Corrcipondence, lofopher. Public and Private, of the Right Hon. Dr. John WILLIAMS has published Henry St. John, Lord Viscoun: Boling- Proposals, for printing by Subscription, broke, during the time he wa Secretary Græco. Barbara Novi Testamenti; or, of State to her Majesty Queen Ann, Oriental and other Foreign Words occurwith State-papers, explapatory notes, ring in the New Testament, selected and and a trarllation of the foreign letters, illustrated by Mart. Petr. CHEITO. by GIIDENT PALKE, Chaplain to his MÆUS, tranllated out of the Latin OriRoyal Higancis thePrince of Wales.” This ginal, with additional Words, and Notes, work wil appear in 2 volumes quarto, Critical and Explanatory. To which and at the time time in 4 volumes octavo, will be prefixed, a fert Dissertation on to suit the foveral editions of Lord Bo. the Hebrew Vowel Points. lingbc she's Works.

Mr. J. SYMONS, of Hackney, intends Mr. BELSHAM, the author of the to publish in a short time, A Syftematic History of Geo. III. and of the House Pocker- Flora of indigenous plants, to be of Brunswick, has just completed his Hilo intitled Synopsis plantarum infulis Britaztory of England, from the Revolution, nicis indigenarum. where Huine ends, to the accuffion of A very useful Medical Work, confift. Geo I. It will be published with his ing of Popular Cautions to Young preceding works in 4to. and 8vo. Soldiers, and Gentlemen Volunteers,

Mr. BLAIR, of Great Russel-ftreet, who may be called into the field in the Bloomsbury (Surgeon to the Lock Hof- present Crisis, is in the press, and will pital and Asylum, and the Old Finsbury be published about the close of February. Difpenfarv) has recently circulated a Mr. Dyer has in the press a volume printed Lerter among his medical friends of Descriptive and Rural Odes. in London, inviting them to concur with The interesting annual publication, anhim in an attempt to ascertain how far nounced in our laft, under the title of the cure of a genuine syphilis may be The Spirit of the Public Journals for Trusted to the anti-venereal powers of 1797," will make its appearance in the nitrous acid, oxygenated muriate of course of February. potah, or any of the other remedies of A monthly work is announced for pubanalogous conftitution, which have been lication on the first of March, addressed lately recommended by several practition- to ladies of fashion and quality, and to ers as substitutes for mercury?

milliners, &c. &c. to be called The MagaFrom an hior contained in that letter, zine of the Fashions of London and Paris. it may be expected that Mr. BLAIR will Each number, price one thilling, is to foon present the world with some Obc contain fix beautifully coloured figures, servations and Cases on this Interesting three of London and three of Parisian subject. We are informied that he is Ladies, in the most prevailing dresses of likewise preparing a much more exten. month. five work, in which he has been fome We mentioned in a former number time engaged, viz. an Enquiry into the that Dr. Beddoes had recommended to Natural History and Medical Treatment Messrs. Bowles and Smyth, surgeons of of the Venereal Dilcase, in all its Forms Bristol, to give a course of anatomnical and Stages, from the earliest period to lectures.--The principal design of these the present time.

lectures was to exhibit the struêture and Dr. GILLIES has announced for pub- economny of the human frame, and to lication, in the course of this month, A point out those accidents and disorders to Translation from the Greek of Aristotle's which it was most liable, together with Ethics and Politics, comprising his Prac- the best means of guarding against them. rical Philosophy. Dr. G. has illustrated But Dr. Beddocs, conceiviog that it was

H 2

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52
Literary News.-Spain.... Sweden, &c.

[Jan, impossible these objects should be fully ob- the important question, whether the cultained, whilft women, the guardians of tivation of this grain ought to be totally our childhood, were excluded, suggested proscribed in Spain, on account of the to the before-mentioned gentlemen, the fatal consequences attending it. To de. plan of a new course, accommodated to a termine this point, he takes a review of female audience. Many ladies, with a the maladies occasioned by its cultivation, becoming zeal for useful information, which requires a swampy soil, and at the have been forward in promoting this de. same time a sultry' climate. He gives a sign, and there is no question of its ulti. table of the births and deaths,froin the year mate success.

1730 to 1787, in the different places in Dr. Beddoes intends to deliver a course which the cultivation of rice has been of chemical lectures at Bristol; exhibit. practised. The result is, that during the ing on an extenfive apparatus, the gene- space of fifty-eight years, there have been ral principles of chemistry, with the im- born 42,022 children in the places where provements which have been made at rice was not cultivated, and only 36,248 different periods in this valuable branch where the cultivation of rice was carried of study. The proposal was made at the on. On the other hand, during the same earnert solicitation of a few friends. period of fifty-eight years, 39,595 persons Doctor B. proposed a course of chemical have died in the places where rice was lectures at three guineas the course, to grown, and only 29,630, in the places conlist of about thirty ; but as he wished where it was not cultivated. the point to be speedily decided, he men- Among the branches of science most sucrioned in his advertisement that unless cessfully cukivated in Sweden, appear one bundred names were given in the first to be political history, geography, physic, fortnight, he should altogetber relinquish natural history, and rural economy. The the dclign. More, however, than that Swedes are rich in geographical and manumber were given in the first week! rin'e charts. The first volume of the

Among the books recently published at Marive Atlas, published in 1795, by the Madrid, the following are the most de. vice-admiral NordenANKER, is juftly Serving of notice :

entitled to particular commendation.

In Origin of Caftillian Poetry, in one volume, the theological department, a new tranquarto. This work is divided into four parts, Nation of the Bible, patronized by the the first of which examines the fources from lare Swedish monarch, and undertaken at * bence the Caftillian poetry has been drawn; his particular instance, is preparing for the namely, the poetry of the primitive Spaniards, press, and now actually in a state of great ind the Latin, Arabic, Provençal or Limosin, forwardness. Of this translation, an Eji; Portuguese, and other poets.

The Origin, Progrcis, and Stages of Caftillian by way of prospectus, appeared in 1772. Poetry:

The * new version of the Psalms of An Examination of whatever belongs to the David, by the learned Dr. TINGSTAOrigin of Spanish poetry, in each of its principal dius, may likewise be considered as a Kinds in particular.

Specimen and appendage to this grand Collections of Castillian Poetry, the com- undertaking. In the fame year (1772) ments and notes by which it has been illustrated, WARMHOLZ published the seventh vo. and the translations in the Castillian tongue from lume of his Bibliotbeca Historico-Sco-Goibi. the poets of other pations. The whole termi. nated by a complete list of the Castillian poets. îtructive work. GANANDER published

ca, which completes that learned and jo. Index to the work, entitled “ Literary Memoirs." This work is published in numbers, and there has appeared very recently the

at Abo, in 1789, a Mytbologia Fennica, making three volumes yearly. It made its first appearance at the commencement of 1791.

first part of the new, edition of PAUL The World, a Dream. This is a satire ca the JUSTEN's Chronicle of the Bishops of manners of the present age. It describes men as

Finland. As translators, the Swedes they are, and points out to them what they tranflare a great number of German books, ought to be.

but comparatively very few from the The cultivation of rice is still continu- French and Engliih languages. The first ed in many parts of the kingdom of Va- Literary Journal, which made its appear. lencia, in Spain, notwithstanding repeat- ance in Sweden, was published by Doctor ed prohibitions. Don ANTONIO JO. Olaus Celsius, in 1742. Since that "SEPH CAVANILles, in his valuable work on the Natural History, Geograpby, An English translation of Tingstadius's Agriculture, Population and Vegetable Pro- Version appeared in London about four years ducts of the Kingdom of Valencia, has en- ago. Though little known, it contains many tered into a very interesting disculfion of valuable and important novelties.

period

- 1798.]

Scientific News.--Russia.... Aranediogg. period the number of works of this def. ARANEOLOGY.' It is well known, cription has amazingly increased. Swe- that many animals are influenced by natuden boasts two academies of sciences, the ral clectricity, and extremely susceptible one established at Stockholm, the other at of every variation of the atmosphere. Upral. There is, likewise, a patriotic Of these, none are more affected than the ciety of Agriculture ; another society Pro garden-spider. To M. Quatremer d'IlFide et Christianismo ; another for Phyfic gonval, aid-de-camp general of the French

and Natural History, at Lund; a society and Batavian army, the world are inof Fine Arts and Sciences at Gothenburg; debted for the important discovery of another society bears the denomination being able to rely on garden-spiders, with of Unile Dulci; and lastly, there is the Swe. as much, if not more confidence, than on dith Royal Academy, founded in 1786. the catgut or mercurial barometers. The The principal object of this latter society garden-spider, according to his observais to purify and perfect the Swedish lan- tions, have two ways of working, accordguage. It likewise causes a medal to being to prevailing, or rather future, weaItruck regularly every year for some iliuf- ther. If the weather is to be rainy, or trious Swede.' of all these various so- even windy, they attach sparingly their cieties, the two first named are the only principal threads, which suspends their enes which publish periodical Memoirs whole fabric, and thus they wait for of their transactions.

the effect of a temperature, which is Russia, with respect to the sciences and about to be very mutable. Spiders, like polite arts, has made aftonishing progress barometers, poffcss not only future, but a within these few years.Catharine II created more distant presentiment than thele, cona particular commillion to superintend and cerning what is about to take place in the direct the schools, settle the method of the atmosphere. A good barometer will tuition, and to take particular care to form foretel i he weather until the next day; but good nitruétions. Since this arrange. when the spiders work with long threads, inent, three different schools are estabilhed there is a certainty of having fine weather in cach government; an inferior school, for twelve days, or a fortnight, at least ! in which reading, writing, and arithme- When they are idle, it denotes rain or tic, are taughr; an upper school, or col- wind; when they work sparinglý, it leze, in which written exercises are com- prognosticates changeable weather; bac poled, geography, national history, &c. when they work abundantly, it may be taught; an, university, where all species of regarded as a sure forerunner of fine knowledge may be acquired. There are weather. As soon as the spider is pera di prelent unii ersities at St. Petersburg, ceived incessan:ly renovating ihe web, vleMoscow, and Kiov; and the most cele- stroyed by the continual ettufions of rain, brated colleges are St. Peterburg, it not only is a criterion of their being of Moscow, Kallan, Riga, and Revel. The short duration, but also denotes a speedy college of Mitraw is abou! to be changed return of a greater permanence of fine into an univerfiry. Several academies, weather. We find, at the end of the and állemblies of learned men, arduously Araneological Calendar, of M. QuatreCo-operate in disseminating scientific in- mer d'Ilgonval, a declaration, ligned by relligence. There are attached to the the itaff of the French and Batavian Imperial Academy of Sciences ar Peters. army, by which these officers certify, that burg, the Academy of the Russian Lan- in the month of November, 1795, M. guage, the Academy of Arts, the Econo- d'Ilgonval announced to general Picnegru, mical Society at Petersburgh, &c. Ca- upon the faith of his new discoveries, that tharine II sent to the German universi- the ensuing summer would supply him ries such young persons as manifested with all the means of terminating the happy dispositions for learning. She also campaign, and that this bold prediction, invited to Russia foreigners who were in a season abounding with snow and eminent for their erudition. She has, in hail-fones, was realized in the commencefact, to judiciously disposed of things, ment of December, on account of the that all branches of the sciences are cul. mildness of the weather. M. Quatremer tivated by the Rullians. The whole d'Isgonval has just eliablished araneories number of Ruisian publications, including in Paris. some translations, did not, however, four The inunicipality of Mantua have given years ago, amount to more than 4000 vo- a general invitation to artists to furnish lumes; the fifth part of these works treate the design of a monument inrended to be ing of politics, economics, morals, history, erected in honour of Virgil, at Petcolum, and geography.

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