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J. A.

Thieme le parties of Literature," has



Defence of Birmingham and Dr. Parr. biographical narrative in question), I will with Birmingham, when a few conven. venture to affert my opinion, that it is a ticles, and not a few private houses blazed molt Aimsy and conceited performance, in devotion to the Church and King? equally dilguiting by a parade of philo- It is to be feared that an act of intempefophy, and by a hyperbolical expression rance, which we shall long deplore,' is of feeling.

viewed by this critical bigot with comThe death of Forster, the father, in his placency, or he would not have neglected post of professor in the University of Halle, to gratify. his malignant appetite with so

has lately been announced in the periodical delicious a morfel. i publications. Authentic memoirs of his Here, fir, we love temperate liberty life would be curious and valuable. and social harmony; and, with exception

Your's, &c. of the one instance of infuriated mistaken June 5.

zeal, we support both, careless of Dr,

PARR, but preferring writings of that To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

divine, to the crude cffiifions which dir

play more acrimony, with the cowardice SIR,

of not being owned by the a thor. I am, HE malevolent satire of the author

your's, &c.

B. R.

Birmingham, June 16, 1798. been pointed out too frequently to have escaped the knowledge of even those who delpife his species of wit, and confequently To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, do not perute his work ; but the unjuit attacks of this caustic critic are not con

Nyour Magazine for the and canister, and sweeps away whole colunns, led only by association of ideas. remarks on my method of making and

Rupp, of Manchester, containing some What but the name of Parr drew down using oxygenated muriate of lime, for the his inlidious notice of my favourite town, more populous, and more distinguished purpose of bleaching.

In this letter Mr. RUP.P attempts to by the variety and perfection of mechanical improvements than any in the king prove that the liquor so made, is more dom? hear his words:

expensive than that prepared by the ulual

method, with alkaline falts; and that Birminghami, renown'd afir

both are inferior to the simple oxygenated « At once for halfpence and for Doctor Parr." muriatic acid for the purpose of bleaching.

Are we known only by those frivolous In justice to myself, and that the public appendages ? Dr. Parr's shining talents may not be milled by this gentleman's. are unobserved where the active genius of too hasty conclusions, I beg leave to make mechanics producos a constant fource of the following obfervations. inventions, and the most useful improve- Mr. RUPP very juftly observes, that ments; at once giving honor to the ar. in order to prove the fuperiority of this to tist, and extensive opulence and credit to the usual liquor made with alhes, it mult the empire.

either be better in point of quality, or Birmirigham has been called the “ Toy- cheaper. In order to prove that it is not shop of Europe," but Europe is well ac- cheaper, he lates, the quantity of pearl quainted with comforts and elegancies ashes necessary for fixing the oxygenated which never could have been enjoyed with. gas, produced frcin 30 lb. of common ont the existence of machinery which talt, at 7}\b. Mr. Rupp cannot here Thortens labou, and enables the merchant mean faturation by the word fixing, for to send the product to the remotest mar- he furely knows that the pot ash in 71 lb. kets.

of pearl afhes is not sutlicient to faturate The readers of your valuable Miscel- the oxygenated acid that may be produce lany are not ignorant of the commercial from 30 lb. of Aalt. Indeeu he alleres in importance which the arts acquire in their the fubfequent part of his letter, that it progress, or of the value which philoso. will not farurate such a quantity of gas. phy will ever attach to the discoveries The meaning therefore of the affertion arising out of the industry of the mechanic must be, that such a portion of pearl genius: but the anonymous satiriit is alhes dissolved in a proper quantity of ignorant of these comprehensive effects, water, will to far repress the volatility of and estimates the human understanding the gas, that is producible from 30 h. of according to its acquaintance with the common falt, as to form an eligible, or

s of Grcek ronts. Was ha fa:isted, perhaps the most eligible blocuina is


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Mr. Tennant's Defence of his Bleaching Liquor. 405 quor prepared with alhes. Now, every

Mr. Rupp next attempts to prove, chemist knows that this liquor will condit that both this and the usual liquor preof the solution of the usual tales, produced pared with alhes, are inferior to the limby receiving the oxygenated muriatic acid ple oxygenated muriatic acid for the purgas into a solution of pot ash, together poses of bleaching. with a quantity of oxygenated muriatic I have already stated, that bleaching acid, in an uncombined Itate. It is like- liquor, containing the usual (alts formed wile perfectly well known, that such li- from the oxygenated muriatic acid gas quor will destroy dyed colours. This and pot ash, together with uncombined liquor therefore with which Mr. Rupp oxygenated muriatic acid, was totally compares that made of lime, is totally unfit for bleaching goods which contained unfit for bleaching any kinds of goods dyed colours. The simple oxygenated into which dyed colours enter, "and con- acid is consequently totally unfit for fequently, wherever these are to be bleach- bleaching luch goods. If, therefore, we ed, his statement does not apply. The set aside the liquor made with a full profact is, that where such goods are bleach- portion of ashes and also that made with ed, three times this quantity of alhes, or lime, a great proportion of the cotton even more, is universally used."

goods manufactured in Lancashire, and Wherever, therefore, luch coloured goods almost the whole of the Glasgow fabrics are to be bleached (and such goods con- will be deprived of this great improveftitute a great proportion of the cotton ment in the art of bleaching. It nuit be manufactory in Britain), his statement allowed, therefore, that even on the lupwill not apply. But besides this, it is polition of the inferiority of the power to be observed (as Mr. RUPP would poffefled by the alkaline and lime liquors, have seen if he had read the specification, they must be retained for the purposes of or applied for information to any of the bleaching goods containing dyed colours. respectable bleachers in his own neigh- Alio, that we mult prefer lime to the al. bourhood who use the process, and who kaline liquor, because it is cheaper, by keep their doing so no secret), that the the difference of price between the alkali introduktion of common falt along with and lime, and that this difference will be the lime in my process, was merely to in- · very considerable, because a very large crease the specific gravity of the water, proportion of ashes must be used, in order for the better luipenfion of the lime; and to preserve tlie dyed coleurs that enter as an addition, that afterwards might or the compofition of the goods. might not be made, as experience inould It still remains to determine, whether direct. The talt, therefore, is now re- the fimple oxygenated muriatic acid is gularly omitted ; mere agitation being more applicable to the purposes of bleachfound perfectly lufficient to keep the lime ing, whicre no dyed colours enter the in suspension. With this correction, fabric, than alkaline or lime liquor. therefore, even with Mr. Rupp's pro- In favour of the timple oxygenated portion of alhes, the comparative value acid, Mr. Rupp quotes his experiments of this part of the ingredients of the li- in the lait vol. of the " Manchester Mequor made with athis, and that made moirs." Where experiments are made only with lime, will be as 35. ed. to 7d. and on a few grains, and where we have no in all cases, the faving brought about by better test of their relative differences or using the line liquor in preference to that agreements, than a ditference of colour made with alhes, will be equal to the dif- induced by a tiw drops, as it appears to ference of price between the alhes and the eye of an experimenter, perhaps, trom lime, and even some diminution of the some preconceived theory, inclined to fa.. quantity of line may with fafety be ad- vour a particular conclusion, I would mitted. With regard to the additional build buit little on such experiments; if labour in preparing the liquor, it is a we add to this, the great danger to the mere trifle. A workman muit attend fabric, univerfally allowed by bleachers, while the liquor with ashes is preparing; in every attempt made with the funpie when he makes the liquor with lime, he oxygerrated acid, either in a fluid, or ganeeds only to add to his usual attendance zeous form; the impollibility of work.. a very moderate portion of bodily labour, men operating with it on account of its applied to agitate the liquor in the re- suffocating vapours, and the doubtfulness

Several of the bleachers in this of overcoining that, even by Mr. Rüppis country have now even saved him this, ingenious contrivance (for he cannot by connecting their agitators with their suppole, that a bleacher can calculate to plath-inill, or other moving machinery. exactly, as to have exhausted the oxyge.

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The Sacrament an Ancient Jewisle Rite. nated aid every time he finds it neceffary my bleaching works here. I am, le to remove the goods, from its action, and your most humble servant, I see no other way of preventing the Darnly, CHAS. TENNANT, escape of the gas in Mr. Rupp's ma- 33th June, 1798.

Bleacher, chine, whenever this operation becomes neceffary), we must conclude in favour of To the Editor of tbe Monthly Magazine. the liquor made with lime, and the more SIR, operate on white goods, now, in general,

A Medicial content controls the find it necessary to be at the expence of of transubstantiation, or the belief of the athes in their bleaching liquor.

real presence, has never, I think, been yet Mr. Rupp has next drawn an objec. fufficiently cleared; but, to ourselves and tion to the liquor made with lime, from to this age, it is of little importance. In a very fertile source of every kind of ar- the eye of every christian, but the catholic, gument, viz. from chemical theory, and it is an obsolete superstition, and only Jufpects that the lime, or muriate of lime, now serves to remind one of a fanguinary may become a mordant, and so make the epocha, in the annals of modern Europe, goods liable to become yellow after when the human race was thinned for de bleaching with this liquor; or unfit them of the most abfurd of idolatries, that of for being used in printing: -Besides the cooking a God, and of eating him up matter of fact, which totally contradiéts alive; assuredly, when the Egyptians this, as has been ascertained by the ex, worthipped the onions growing in their perience of several printfields, particu, garden, they were more rational. larly by that at Melrs. FINLAY and But the RITE ftill renains, although, Coʻs, in this neighbourhood, and at in the bread and wine, we do not any the field of Messrs. ORR's, at Stratford, more imagine we eat the real body, or in Ireland, I am unacquainted with drink the real blood of Jesus. I have long any proof, that lime, or any of its saline been dekrous of discovering the origin of compounds, were ever found to possess this extraordinary ceremony; but my inany power in fixing colours in dying quiries have hitherto been bafiled, among either cotton or linen, in as far as relates the learned. In a very eccentric work, at least to the madder and weld coppers. lately published, among a mass of other

These observations will, I hope, satisfy matter, there is a note on this curious the public, with regard to the force of topic, which, as I know not to deny, I Mr. Rupp's objections to my method of would with to offer it to your theological preparing bleaching liqnor; and the ap- correspondents, either to refute, or to exprobation it has received from numerous plain. The note in question, is the fole and respectable bleachers in England, lowing, literally tranicribed. Scotland, and Ireland, will still be al. “ Christianity is nothing but improved lowed to establish the character of a fim- Judaism. I will give one instance, which ple invention, which, in whatever manner I have never observed remarked. The Sait may benefit me, will, I have no doubt, CRAMENT, for which so many have suffered, soon appear a great national benefit. is a simple rire, Now performed every rab.

I have no doubt, if Mr. Rupp bad bath night by the religious Jew. Wine and known, that from the date of my letters house ; after a benediction, he hands the cup

bread are placed before the master of the patent, I have been ready to treat with round, and breaking the bread, gives to each all bleachers upon the most moderate

a portion. Jesus, amidft bis disciples, was terms, for the sale of licences to practise performing this rite, called KEEDUSX, and my invention; he would have taken the in the allegorical style of a young Rabbin, trouble to investigate a little more fully said of the bread and wine, “ This is my into its merits himself, and likewise to blood, and this is my body;" which they have heard the report of the very eminent certainly were, when asimilated in his pero bleachers who are employing my process fon. To this simple circumstance, we ewe in his own immediate neighbourhood, be- all the idiocy and cruelty of transubfiantiation !" fore he had condemned it in so unqualified

VAURIEN, vol ij. p. 219:

According to this account, the modern a manner.

Sufficient proofs of the approbation it Jew, while he refuses to take the facrahas met with, may be seen by applying ment, actually performs it hebdomadally ; to Mr. WILLIAM “TATE, jun. Phoenix and the modern Christian, while he ima. Fire Office, Manchester; to CHARLES gines it a test of his creed, in fa&t, only Duffin, Esq. Inspector General to the joins in a very ancient Jewisb ceremony. Irish Linen Board, Dublia; or to me, ac

I am, Sir, your obedient Servani, York, June 4, 1798.

C. P.

On the Personification of Abstract Ideas in Poetry. 407

For the Monthly Magazine. briefly elucidate them by well-known An Essay on the PersonIFICATION of which human faces are marked with the

examples. The pafrons of Le Brun, in ABSTRACT IDEAS in POETRY.

strongest expressions of anger, terror, A .

poets have employed in order to fications. The common female figure of produce that novelty which is essential to Justice with her lword, scales and bandi high degree of pleasure or furprise

, age, is purely emblematical. That of none is more remajkable than the exhi- Plenty, represented by a full-fed, cheerbition of new forms of animated beings, ful figure, bearing a cornucopia, is of endowed with peculiar powers and qua- the mixed species. These illustrations lities, by which they are rendered actors are taken from painting; but the ideas in the scenes into which they are intro- may equally be conveyed by words. duced. Of these, there are two principal Under each of the preceding heads I fpecies; the one, comprising those super- shall adduce a variety of examples from natural beings which derive their origin the poets, which will give scope to such from popular fuperftition or philofophical critical remarks, as may tend to establish doctrine, modified by the poet's imagina- clear and precise notions concerning the tion; the other, consisting of creatures respective excellence of the feveral kinds. merely of poetical invention, formed, by The natural species of personification will means of the process called personification, firit be considered; then by an insensible from abstract ideas of the mind. Of gradation we thall flide into the mixed, these last, Addison, in one of his elegant and conclude with the purely emblematipapers " On the Pleasures of the Imagi. cal. nation" (Spectator, No. 420), speaks in 1. It may be proper before entering the following manner : " There is an- upon the particulars of this section, to other sort of imaginary beings, that we anticipate a doubt which will readily sometimes meet with in the poets, when suggelt itself to a reflecting mind. In the author represents any passion, appe. what, it may be asked, conlists the merit tite, virtue, or vice, under a vilible shape, or advantage of a kind of fiction which and makes it a person or an actor in his approaches fo nearly to reality? If rage, poem." To this enumeration, however, for instance, be depicted only by the might have been added some abstract ideas figure of a man in a violent fit of fury, personified; such as nature, time, death, what are the inventive powers exerted by sleep, and the like, which equally come the poet, or what is gained by the person. under this head of poetical creation. Of ification? It is to be acknowledged, that fuch, then, it is the purpose of the pre- in these cases, the merit of invention, sent Essay to treat; and it is the manner peculiarly fo termed, can scarcely be in which these fiétitious personages are claimed." Yet since every circumstance formed, rather than the propriety of their must be accumulated by the poet which introduction into the poem, that I mean can give force and life to the piece, and at present to consider; not excluding, a general character be formed out of the however, some remarks on their imme- detached features of a number of individiate agency; which, in fact, may be duals, to which must frequently be added regarded as part of their description and scenery and accompaniments contrived to character.

correspond with, and enhance the effects On comparing a number of examples of, the leading figure, the neceílity of of this kind of personification, it pre- superior descriptive talents in order to sently appears, that there are two general fucceed in such representations cannot be methods by which it is effected. Either disputed. Then, with respect to the use a simply human form is drawn, impressed of such fictions, it is to be considered, in a super-eminent degree with the qua- that these imaginary beings are not lity or circumstance intended to be per- merely human agents, circumscribed by sonified; or a creature of the fancy is known laws in their operations: they are exhibited, the character and design of a kind of genii, whose sphere of action is which is expressed by certain typical ad- only limited by a congruity dependent on juncts or emblems. The first of these their seyeral characters. But the truth may be termed a natural, the second, an of these observations will be sufficiently emblematical, figure. From the union of illustrated during the investigation of these two modes, a third, or mixed fpe. each particular example. cies is produced. That these distinctions I shall begin with the personified figure may be immediately conceived, I hall of FAMINĒ, or rather, HUNGER, as MONTHLY MAG. No, XXXII.





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On the Personification of Abstract Ideas in Poetry. represented by Ovid in his “ Metamor- estate; and at last, absolutely to devour phosis." Ceres, having vowed revenge himself. There is something ludicrous against Erilicthon for cutting down a in this idea, which may serve to Thew the facred tree, fends a meflinger for this difficulty of preserving strict propriety ghastly phantom, who is thus described : throughout an imaginary scene“; yet the Famem lapidoso videt in agro,

agency of Famine cannot be said to be

This notion Unguibus & raras vellentem dentibus herbas. unsuitable to her nature. Hirtus erat crinis ; cava lumina; pallor in of inspiring a quality by touching or

breathing on a person, may frequently be ore ; Libra incama fitu; fcabra rubiginc fauces :

met with in the best poets to express the Dura cutis, per quam spectari viscera poflent; action of those fiétitious beings. Offa fub incurvis inftabant arida lumbis ; Churchill's “ Prophecy of Famine" Ventris erat pro ventre locus ; pendere pu- affords no addition to the descriptive part

of the personification, except foine strokes Pectus, & a spinæ tantummodo crate teneri: of satirical humour, disgraced by naAuxerat articulos macies, genuumque rigebat tional illiberality. The employment of Orbis, et immodico prodibant tubera talo.

the imaginary being to utter a prophecy,

Met. I. vill. 799. is agreeable enough to the general notion Crouch'd in a ftony field he sees the pow'r of a genius, and is rendered more chaPlucking with teeth and nails the scanty herb. racteristic by the local circumstance of Shaggy her locks ; her eyes were sunk in the pretence to second light.

pits; Paleness o'erspread her face; her whiten’d of SLEEP, as likewise drawn by the

The next figure I thall present is that pits Were boar with mould ; her jaws beset with Though he is raised to the title and dig,

elegant and inventive pencil of Ovid. ruft; Thro' her harth hide her inwards all were

nity of the God Somnus, yet in forin and Thewn;

attributes he is a mere drowsy mortal; The arid bones above her crooked loins and the poet's invention is chiefly displayed Stood forth; a void the belly's place supply'd; in the scenery and accompaniments. He Pendant her breast appear'd, and held alone inhabits a gloomy cavern, into which By the bare wick’ry spine ; the waiting flesh the rays of the sun never penetrate, but Had swell'd the joints; each knce, a rigid where a kind of perpetual twilight reigns

ball, Each ankle seem'd a monstrous bunch of bone. and enlivening sounds are banished, and

in the foggy air. From hence all thrill It is scarcely possible to conceive a a dead lilence eternally prevails, broken more striking image of a famished person. only by the soft murmurs of the waters The hard skin, hanging breasts, crate or

of Lethe. Around the entrance grow all basket work of the ribs and spine, and kinds of soporiferous herbs. The god joints apparently enlarged, are circum- himself lies fast atleep on an ebon couch Atances drawn from the life, and reprise of Iris, who is sent to him with a mel

raised high with down. On the approach sented with wonderful force. same time, the figure is merely natural. Sage, with much ado he rouses himself. Here are no types or emblems, as, in. His painful reluctant efforts are very deed, none were wanted; for fuch a sub. happily expressed in the following lines : ject could not fail of being its own in- tarda Deus gravitate jacentes terpreter. The surrounding scenery is Vix oculos tollens, iterumque iterumque equally real.

rclabens, Eit locus extremis Seychiz glacialis in oris,

Summaque percutiens nutanti pectora mento,

Excutlic tandcm tibi te ; cubitoque levaius Triste solum, sterilis, fine fruge, finc arbore Quid veniat scicacur. Met. xi. 616. tellus.

The god, his heavy eyes scarce lifting uş, In icy Scythia's farthest bound, there lies

Once and again sunk down; his nodding chin A steril, gloomy, cornless, treeless tract.

Struck on his breaft; at length himself he The fanciful or preternatural part of

Mook the fiction is the manner in which the Out of himself, and on his elbow raisid, poet employs this phantom. He makes Inquir'd his cause of coming. her take the opportunity of Erilliathon's Ovid aets judiciously in making the lying alleep, to inspire him with her ber- subject of the request to such a powes as fe!f; and the poor man awakes poffelled ealy and brief as possible. Ii is only by a most insatiable hunger, which com- that he would send one of the dreams, pels him, first, according to the French which are represented as constantly fitphrate, manger for bien, to cat up his ting, lk: bats, about the cave of Sleep.


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