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FOR JUNE, 1798. (vol. V. About the middle of July will be published the SUPPLEMENTARY NUMBER to the FIFTH

VOLUME of this work, which, besides the Title, Indexes, and a variety of valuable
papers, will contain a critical and comprehensive Retrospeet of all the Books publisbed

during the laft fix months.
Complete Sets, or any former Numbers of this Work, may be had of all Booksellers.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. On Education

130 SIR,

On Physics and Natural History - 310

On Geography and History in general 820 T is no longer doubted, that by a On Polite Literature

690 ideas, which are current among different On Politics and Finances

380 nations, not only individuals derive much On Mathematics benefit and amusement, but also the best interests of science are thereby pro

In these branches

2670 moted.

Besides which, there are published every Whether our modern translators from year, nearly the following number of the German have not consulted the former works in the other departments of litera. {pecies of advantage, rather than that re

ture, viz. sulting from versions in favour of general In Philology and General Science 310 literature, is not very difficult to ascer- In Divinity, Metaphysics, and Moral tain.


1250 Among the five or fix thousand publica. In Jurisprudence, and the Art of War 440 tions annually issuing from the German In Medicine and Surgery press, it is a matter of astonishment, that In the History of Literature, and Books those in the more useful branches of

on Miscellaneous Subjects

330 fcience should be almost entirely overlooked by our translators. Upon repeated


Adding the above stated number 2670 inquiries among booksellers and pubJishers in this country, during the last Total annually

5360 fifteen years, it has been generally asserted, that scarcely any other versions from

From this summary view of German the German, but novels, gholt-stories, publications, it is ealý to conclude that, poems, and the like, would meet with a

among such a variety, there must be a ready sale in the English market. This, number of excellent as well as many frihowever, appears to be an objection volous productions. But, as my present equally frivolous and ill-founded. With- aim is not to much directed to investigate out presumption it may be said, that the the nature of the subjects which deserve want of good translations of scientific to be tranllated, as to point out a few leworks from the German, is owing in. marks on the manner in which they have tirely to our imperfect acquaintance with hitherto been translated, I must confine the true ftate of the literature of that my observations within these limits. country. And, in order to enable the

In attempting to make a correct transreader to judge of the great variety of

lation from one modern language into books on useful subjects, I have been at another, it certainly is of the utmost imconsiderable pains of discovering the portance to preserve, as much as possible, average number of works that have annu

the spirit of the original, to unfold, ally appeared during the last twelve in accurate expressions, the idiom, or years*, in the following branches, which genius, of the language from which we are throughout interesting to every cul. tranflate, and thus to do justice to the tivated mind;

author. Whether a native of England or Germany is better calculated to fulfil,

these conditions, is a queltion that can be * Namely, from the year 1785 to the decided only by the relative degree of close of the year 1797.

knowledge which either of theie indivia MONTHLY MAG. No, xxxIT,


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anflations from the German. duals possess of the respective languages. Sie drehen im kreise fich um, bis linn und 'Yet, if we were to judge from the number

athem entgeht. and excellence of German translations Triumf, herr ritter triumf! Gewonnen itt made of all English claslics, the advan

die schöne. tage appears to be in favour of the Ger- Was säumt ihr? fort! der Wimpel wcht;

Nach Rom, daís euern bund der heilige vater Their language allo is more co

kröne!! pious, and, I inay add, more pliable in its modern construction (or rather inverfion), than other modern tongues, so as Mr. SOTHEBY's Translation. to facilitate every translation into it from Yet, once again, ye Mules! once again foreign languages: anıt, on that very ac- Saddle the Hyppogryi! and wing my way count, it is more difficult in its acquisi- Where regions of romance their charme diftion, especially as it is uncommonly load. play. ed with particles, or expietives. Hence What lovely dreams entrance thi' unfetter'd

brain ? it may be accounted for, that the French and English translations from the Ger. Who round my brow the wreath enchanted man, generally are deficient, both in point who from my ravish'd eye dispçis the shades, of lente and diction.' In order to prove this a:sertion, I in- Now conqu'ring, conquer'd now, in battle

That veil the wonders of the world of old ? tended first, to furnish you with compa

rative passages from either the Meffiah I sec the knight's good sword, the

pagan's of Kloptock," or from some of Gefner's

sparkling blades. 1./zlls; both of which have been most faintly and incorreetly translated into In vain the hoary suitan foams: in vain English. But, as I had not the originals A wood of threat'ning lances pristles round: of thcle authors in my potreffion at pre

It breathes, the iv'ry horn with iprightly fent, I have taken the liberty of tubjoin. And, whirl' in eddying dance, the giddy

found, ing a literal translation of the two first

truin ftanzas of (beron, by Wielu.n.!;" the Spin, till their breath and senfes die away. prince of German pocis, who hüs very Triumph! the fair is won: why, knight, lately met with a translator of great po- delay? etical talents, in Mr. SOTHEBY. Yet, Forward to Rome: for thee, th' extended fail, as I cannot approve of twitting the ori. And beck’ning itreamer fly before the gale. ginal of a great writer into a variety of Halte! that the holy fire may bless your turns and forms, merely for the fake of

bridal day!. the rhyme, I have, as literally as was consistent with the idiom of both lan

Dr. WILLICH'S literal Trarflation. guages, turned my ipeciinen into blank

Once more, kind Muses ! saddle the Hypverje; while I have followed the author from line to line, without increasing the And jpéid myʻride to regions of roma

pogryt, number of vertes, or changing a lingle What charms are there 'round my unietter's

romance! idea. A. F. M. WILLICH.

breuit? London, June 1798.

Delightful dreams !Who twists the magic


Round Ob'ron's brow? Who frees mine eyes
Erfer Gesung.
Noch einmal sattelt mir den Hippogryfen, That hide the wonders of the ancient world?

from thades,
ihr Mulen,

I fee, in various groupes, now victor, captive, Zum Ritt ins alte romantishe land!

now, Wie lieblich um meinen entfeffelten busen

The knight's good sword, the pagan's dazDer holde wahnsinn spielt: Wer ichlang das

zling steel. magische band Um meine Stirne? Wer treibt von meinen In vain the hoary sultan foams with rage, augen den nchel

In vain a wood of frighuul lances darts : Der auf der vorwelt wundern liegt?

The iv'ry horn with plealing notes invites, Ich feh' in buntem gewiihi, bald fiegend, And, raging like a whirl, they all must bald beriert,

dance Des ritters gutes Tchwert, der Hciden blink- In giddy turns, 'till breath and senses fail. ende label.

Triumph! brave knighi, rejoice! the fair is Vergehens knirscht des alten sultan's zorn,

gain’d: ergebens dräicin Wald von starrea Lanzen: Why itill delay? Begone! your streamer siunt in lieblichein ton das elfenbeinerne points

To Rome: where th holy harc thall crown nd, vie ein Wirbel ergreitt fie alle die wuth


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: Origin of the Highland Dress. For the Monthly Magazine,

Lesley and Buchanan, 1570-1580, are LETTER from an ANTIQUARY to the therefore the first who mention the mo

The former rea COLONEL of a HIGHLAND REGI

dern highland dreis. MENT, on the HIGHLAND Dress. presents tartan as then confined to the

use of people of rank. The latter says, IN .compliance with your delire, I have the plaids of his time were broum.

Advocates for the antiquity of the marks on the Highland drets.

philibeg say it is borrowed from the Ro. When I first saw in the papers, that man military dreis. But it is quite dif. you had appeared at court in a new high- ferent; for the Roman ikirts were merely land dress, fubftituting trowsers or pan- those of the tunic, which was won under. taloons for the philibeg, I was highly the armour, whereas the philibeg is a pleased with the improvement. The detached article of dress. highland dress is, in fact, quite modern, It once appeared to me that the tunic. and any improvement may be made with with skirts to the knee, used by the com. out violating antiquity. Nay, the mon people of England in the Saxon and trowsers are far more ancient than the Norman times (lee Strutt's plates), had philibeg.

pailed to the lowlands; and thence to the The philibeg cannot be traced among highlands, where it remained, as mount any of the Celtic nations, Ireland, Wales, taineers are flow in changing fashions. or Bretagne, either as an article of dress, But it now seems far more probable, or as an old word in their languages. that the philibeg arole from an article of Giraldus. Cambrensis, A. D. 1180, in- dress, used in France, England, Scotland, forms us, that the Irish wore braccæ or from about the year 1500 to 1590, namely, breeches (that is, the long, ancient the ancient haut de chauje PROPER. in breeches, now called pantaloons or trow- Montfaucon's plates may be seen foine of sers). On old monuments, the Irish thele which are abfolute philibegs. kings are drefied in a close tunic or veft, The ancient loose braccæ were followed long trowsers down to the ancle; and a by tight hos', covering thigh and leg : long louie robe, fastened on the breati by but, as manners advanced, these began a large broach. Perhaps the broach to leem indecent (being linen, fitting might be substituted in your regiment for close, and Mewing every joint and form); the breaft-plate, with much costume, and the baut de chaufje (or top of the bosc)

In the book of dresses, printed at Paris began to be used. Ai firit it was very 1562, from which fac-similes are pub- short, and loose as a philibeg; was lished, the highland chief is in the Irish lengthened by degrees, and Henry IV. dress, and I can discover no philibeg. of France wears it down to within three No part of the dress is tartan ; nor is there or four inches of the knee, and gathered a plaid, but a mantle. The women are like a petticoat tucked *. Louis XIII. dressed in sheep-skins; and as that lex is first appears with what we now call always more ornamented than the other, breeches. there is reason to believe, that the com- Hore were still worn under the baut de mon highland dress was then composed of chauffe. But as the latter was lengthened, Meep or deer-skins.

the former were shortened, till the preCertain it is, that Fraiffart, though tent fashion prevailed. The Germans astonished at the sauvages d'Ecoje, as call breeches bojen, a term which we conforeigners termed the highlanders, even tine to stockings. down to Mary's reign, and though a But the bout de chauffe, or philibeg, at minute observer, remarks no fixt appro- first invented for the lake of modefty, and priated dress among them; though the to cover that indecent article the bravette plaid and philibeg, if then used, muft or codpiece, has become among the lighhave struck him as most particular. landers most indecent in itself, because

Fordun, lib. ii. cap. 9, only mentions they do not wear, as they ought, long the highland people, as “ amictu defor. hole, covering thigh and leg, under the mis," a term which, I dare say, you will philibeg. It is not cnly grossly indeagree

rather applies to a vague cent, but is filthy, as it aúmits duft to savage drels of skins, &c. than to any the kin, and einits the fætor of perfpiregular habit.

ration; is rbfurd, because while the Hector Boyce, 1526, though very breast, kic, are twice concealed by vert minute, is equally filent; but he men.' and plaid, the parts most concealed hy tions canvas hofe or trowsers, as a part of the old Scotish dress.

* In England termed the bajcs,


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with me,

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Highland Dress.Names of the Deity. all other nations are but loosely covered ; Nothing can reconcile the tasteless reis effeminate, being merely a hort pet- gularity, and vulgar glare, of tartan to ticoat, an article of female dress; is beg- the eye of fashion, and every attempt to garly, because its shortness, and the introduce it has failed.

But in your Mortness of the stockings, joined with uniform, by using only two tints of a the naked knees, impreis an unconquera- colour proverbially mild, and without ble idea of poverty and nakedness. glare, all such objections are avoided,

As to the plaid, there is no reason to and the general effect rendered very pleas. believe it more ancient than the philibeg. ing: The chief in 1562 appears in a mantle ;

From these remarks it


be evinced, and if the coinmon people were then that no antiquary can object to the proclothed in sheep skins, the plaid was priety of changing the philibeg to panfuperfluous. But I suppose the plaid taloons, a change which, if univerially and philibeg passed from the low lands to introduced into highland regiments, and the high lands about the same time. Our into the highlands, would be a laudable old historians, in speaking of the high. improvement. I have the honour to be, landers, always judge and describe, as

&c. was natural, from those next the low N. B. On the back of this letter is a lands. In 1715, as appears from Mr. note by the colonel.

“ The philibeg Dempster's letter, the remote highlanders was invented by an Englishman in Scotwere only clothed in a long coat buttoned land, about 60 years ago," i, 6. about down to the midleg.

1705 It is to be regretted on many accounts,

From the foregoing remarks it that our old historians wrote in Latin, will appear how completely abfurd the whence their terms are often so vague

costume of

many late painters, theatrical as hardly to admit accurate interpretation. pieces, &c. must be in representing the John Major, who wrote in 1521, fays, tartan as a Scotish dress in all ages. It p. 54, that the caliga (hose ?) of the high. is also proper to inform them, that a landers did not extend below the mid-leg; highlander is as different from a lowand he describes their whole dress to be lander as a Welshman from an Englisha linen shirt tinctured with saffron, and man.

The rebellion of 1795 and 1745 a chlamys (plaid, mantle, or loose coat!) were those of highlanders only. above. He is speaking of the chiefs.

The highlands comprise Sutherland, The commons he describes as proceeding Caithness, Ross, the west part of Inverá to battle in a quilted, and waxed, linen ness and Perthshire, and all Argylethire. tunie, covered with deer-Ikin, Not a particle you will obferve of the modern To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, dress.

SIR, The tartan, I dare say, passed from Flanders (whence all our articles came), A Sisappears to be a fingular cireumtury *, and thence to the highlands.

called the principle of the universe by a Tartan plaids were common among old send you the following catalogue in con

word which consists of four letters, I women in the lowlands, in the last, and even the present century:

firmation of this position ; and shall only Lord Hailes (Annals !. 37,) ludi. and Plato, celebrated the first effable

further observe that Orpheus, Pythagoras, crously supposes tartan introduced by divinity as a Tetradic God. St. Margaret. The writer he quotes is only speaking of cloths of several colours,

Manor Place, Yours, &c.

Walworth. THO. TAYLOR, red cloth, blue cloth, green cloth, &c. while the Scots probably before followed

God was called by the Persians Syre : the old Norwegian cuftoin of wearing by the discipline of the Magi Orh, from only black.

whence Oromofus: by the Assyrians

Adad, which, according to Macrobius, * It is never mentioned before the latter Olaus Magnus, called their greater god

fignifies one. The Goths, according to part of that century. It first appears in the Oden, but their most powerful divinity Accompts of James III. 1474: and seeins to have paired from England, for the ronge tar

Thon. The Macedonian priests, as we tarine in the statutes of the order of the Bath,

are informed by Neanthes Cyzicenus and in the time of Edward IV. (apud Upton de Clemens Alexandrinus, invoked in their Re Mil.) is furely red tartan, or cloth with prayers Bedy, that he might be propitious Tel:ipes of various thades,

to them and their children. The Maho.


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Life of John Rheinhold Forster. metans call God Abdi. The Gauls Dieu. George resided with him some years at The Tuscans Efar. The Spaniards Diss. Warrington, and foon acquired' a very The Teutores Golt. The Hetrusci call perfect use of the English tongue. He him Signor Idio, that is Lord God. The also distinguished himself greatly by his Arabjans, Turks, and Saracens Alla Ibel, attainments in science and literature in that is, Got the Juft. In the Sclavonian general ; adding to an excellent memory, tongue he is called Boeg, from Goodness. quick parts and a fertile imagination. In Chaldea and India he is called Esgi His temper was mild and amiable; in Abir, that is the fabricator of the uni- which he much differed from his father, versé. The name of the supreme Jupiter one of the most quarrelsome and irritable among the Egyptians is Amun, which by of men; by which disposition, joined to corruption came to be called Ammon. a total want of prudence in common conThis word, according to Manetho, sig- cerns, he lost almost all the friends his tanifies the concealed and concealing. Ac. lents had acquired him, and involved him. cording to Jamblichus (" De Mysteriis, self and family in perpetual difficulties, feat. 8."), this god is the demiurgic in. At length John Reinhold obtained the tellect, who prelides over truth and wil- appointment of naturalist and philosopher dom, descends into generation, and leads (if the word may be fo used) to the leinto light the unapparent power of con- cond voyage of discovery undertaken by cealed reason. By the Greeks God was

the celebrated Cook; and his son George called Theos; and by the Romans Deus, was associated with him in his office. The proper name of God with the He- That M. PoUgens should entirely have brews is Adon, or Adni. By the Dutch loft fight of the father, the undoubted he is called Godt: and with us the word principal on this occasion, is not a little Lord is synonimous with God. By the extraordinary; nor would it be easy to Chinese too, the fupreme God is called parallel the absurdity of the epithet of the Tien, and by the Danes Goed.

is illustrious rival of Cook,” bestowed by

that writer on his young hero, not a na. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

vigator, but a naturalist of inferior rank.

On their return, the two Forsters pubSIR,

lished jointly a botanical work in Latin, I

able to you to receive tome additions new genera of plants discovered by them to, and corrections of, the account of in their circumnavigation. The account George Forster, printed in your last Mac of the voyage itfelt was published in the gazine. You may rely upon their accu- name of George alone, in evasion of some racy.

obligation under which the father lay, not M. Pougens seems very strangely ig- to publish separately from the narrative norant of the history of John REINHOLD authorised by government. That the lun. Forster, the father of George, a man guage, which was correct and elegant, more distinguished as a literary character was furnished by the fon alone, could not than his son. He did not sent, but brought he doubted; any more than that the mathis son George, along with the rest of his ter proceeded from the joint stock of their numerous family, into England, in search obfervations and reflections. Several parts, of a better settlement than his own coun- particularly the elaborate investigations try afforded. It was one of those spin relative to the languages spoken by the rited, though finally unsuccessful, at- natives of the South-lea illands, and the tempts to promote the profperity of the speculations concerning their origin and Warrington Academy, to engage this fucceflive migrations, were strongly imperson as tutor in the modern languages, pressed with the genius of the elder Forfwith the occasional office of lecturing in ter. I have nothing to add to the subsevarious branches of natural hiltory. For quent history of George, as given by the first department he was by no means M. POUGENS. - To criticise on the well qualified ; his extraordinary know. French sentimentality displayed in the de. ledge of languages, ancient and modern, licately ambiguous relation of his conbeing unaccompanied by a particle of nexion with Miss HEYNE, is far beyond taste ; and his use of them all being bar- my reach; nor am I at all disposed to inbarous, though fuent. As a natural quire into the justness of his “revoluhistorian, a critic, geographer, and anti- tionary principles:" But with respect to quary, he ranked much higher ; but, un- his travels into Brabant, Holland, &c.' fortunately, these were acquisitions of (in the preface to his French translati little value in his academical department, of which, M. POUGENS has given

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