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For MARCH, 1798.
The Four Volumes of the MONTALY MAGAZINE, which are now completed, may be had complete of any Bookfeller, price Thirty Shillings, neatly half-bound, or any single Number, or Volume, may be bad separate, at the Pleasure of the Purcbafer.
qnantity of the acid that was employed
of chemistry, I wish to excite as much atten- lens in atmospheric air, it is fo far from tion as posible to the subject; and as making any addition to it, that this ais your publication goes into the hands of is diminished. áll lovers of literature in England, I beg It is acknowledged by my opponents, leave to make use of it, in order to state, that after the solution, the acid in the velin a general way, what appear to me to tel will not saturate more alkali than it be the strongest objections to this system, would have done before. Since then, this which has now reigned triumphant about additional quantity of oxygen which the twelve years, very few perfons besides new theory fuppofęs, cannot be found, myself being advocates for the old doc- either in the form of an acid, or of dea: trine of phlogistion. I have already phlogisticated air, what evidence is there published two pamphlets on the subject, of its existence? And is not the probaand I intend to continue the controversy bility greatly in favour of the inflammatill I have collected all the evidence that ble air coming from the iron rather than Bhall be sufficient to decide the question ; from the water, and that by the loss of and if in the issue I fee reason for so do- this principle it becomes a calx. If this. ing, I shall publicly acknowledge my be the case, metals are compound fube' conversion to the doctrine that I now stances, and water, as far as we yet know, controvert, and Mall even take a pride in a simple one; whereas, according to the so doing. In the mean time, having new theory, metais are simple subitancesy 'heard what has been advanced by some and water the compound. very able advocates for the new system, 2. When steam is applied to red hot in answer to my first pamphlet, I think I iron, inflammable air is procured, and the am pretty well apprized of all that can iron receives an addition of about one half be faid with respect to those experiments of its former weight, and is the fame that are yet before us. But in time thing with what the forge-men in England: something more decisive may be produced. call finery cinder, and with the scales of In reply to all that I have yet heard on iron in a blacksmith's shop. This sub the subject, I would observe,
stance the antiphlogistians say is an oxyde 1. When a metal, viz. iron, is diffolv- of iron, suppoling that the water is deal ed in the vitriolic acid, the antiphlogistians composed by palling in contact with it, fay, that the inflammable air which is pro- when the hydrogen is separated in the form. sured does not come from the iron, but of inflammable air, and the oxygen refrom the water, which is decomposed in mains united to it. But I ask, what is the process. But, according to their the evidence of this substance containing theory, water consists of two principles, any oxygen, when it can neither be rehydrogen gas and oxygen, and therefore, if duced to an acid, nor exhibited in the the hydrogen be set at liberty, in the form form of oxygenous gas, or dephlogisti.. of inflammable air, there ought to re- cated air ? I think that the addition to main an additional quantity of oxygen the iron is mere water, and when it is in the vessel ; and I ask, where is it to be heated in inflammable air, the iron is refound : They say in the calx of the iron. vived, and the water set at liberty. But I answer, that this calx exhibits no Another evidence of a solid substance, appearance whatever of its containing like this, containing oxygen, is its 'oxyany oxygen, and the acid attached to it genating, or as I call it, dephlogistica. yields lels dephlogisticated air on being ting, the marine acid, But though this MONTHLY MAG. No. XXIX.
160 Interesting Chemical Letter from Dr. Priestley.
produced. This I demonftrate, by firing They say that this finery cinder is a the two kinds of air in a close tube of partial'oxyde of iron, and common rusl of glass or copper.
iron a complete oxyde. But since iron To this my opponents have objected, receives a much greater addition to its that when I produce any acid, it muit weight by becoming finery cinder, than have come from the decomposition of the by being converted into rust, and all the phlogisticated air, which I had not been addition is allowed to be pure oxygen, careful to exclude in the process. But I the former ought to contain more of this am confident that, in my last method of principle than the latter. Besides, finery making the experiment, there was not the cinder is incapable of becoming ruft. least fenfible quantity of phlogificated air The contrary, indeed, is asserted;
but let present, and that, in all the cases, the the observation of the fact decide between acid produced was a hundred times more us.
than the phlogisticated air could have , I farther obferve, that when any solid formed. Whenever their flame burned substance, containing oxygen or dephlo- strongly, so as to ensure more dephlogisticated air, is heated in infiammable g:sticated air than they wilhed, the water air, a quantity of fixed air is formed, by they produced was not free, from acidity, the union of the oxygen from the fub- and whenever it was, they found a surstance and the inflammable air in the vef- plus of phlogisticated air, which agrees fel. This is the case when minium is re- with my experiments. vived in these circumstances, but not in That dephlogisticated and inflammable when finery cinder is used, nothing but air, uniting in certain circumstances, can water being found in the vessel. Also, form phlogisticated air, I have thewn in when iron, or any substance containing several processes. Inflammable air, exphlogiston, is heated in dephlogisticated poled to ruft of iron confined by mercury, air, fixed air is produced. This the an- becomes in time wholly phlogisticated tiphlogistians fay comes from the plumba- air, and the rust is converted into a black go in the iron. But the plumbago in the powder, which no doubt is the same thing iron employed is not one hundredth part with plumbago. This substance, there of the weight of the fixed air produced, fore, is iron supersaturated with phloif the plumbago could be separated, and gifton. decomposed, in the process, which it can On the whole, I am as far as ever from feeBot.
ing any evidence of either the composition That fixed air may be produced by the or decomposition of water; but on the conunion of dephlogisticated and infiamma. trary, much and very satisfactory evidence ble air, I farther prove by heating toge against it. I write, however, with no ther red precipitate, which yields only de- other view than to promote a full and fair phlogisticated air, and flings of 'iron, discussion of the subject, which is cerwhich give only inflammable air; when tainly of considerable importance in there is a copious production of the purest chemistry. I am, Sir, your's, &c. fixed air. This, however, I am informed Northumberland, J. PRIESTLEY. my opponents deny. With me the expe
Dec. 20, 1797. riment has never failed. Let others judge between us. If this be the fa&t, here is To the Editor of the Mon:hly Magazine. a copious production of what the anti SIR, phlogistians call the carbonic acid without HEN I wrote my pote of Jan, 1, any carbone, which they say is the only source of it.
your number for that month) I had not But the argument which my opponents indeed feen Mr. Scott's third and fourth urge with the greatest . confidence, is letters; peither had your corresponders
of Dec. 1797
Dr. Beddoes on the Nitrous Acid.-Welsh Indians. Mr. BLAIR. For the ships, by which complained that Mr. Evans would not they were brought, had not 'arrived. comply with some Spanish etiquette previBy those ships Mr. Scott fent me a oully to his setting out on his journey: incopy, requesting I woull reprint the deed, I had often heard from men of obser. letters, in any publication which I might vation, that he had not a fufficient knowbe preparing on the subject of nitrous ledge of mankind to balance his enterprifacid. But I have since received from ing enthusiasm. These remarks I make Mr. Scott, instructions to suppress what without knowing the contents of his letter, be fays about the effect of bathing, as he is a copy of which I shall certainly send you not satisfied with his trials. This re. the first opportunity, with some turther tra&tation, together with remarks on comments upon the subject." some material points, will appear in the Extract of a second letter, dated the 30th colleaion now in the press; for it is too late (in consequence of what has been “ In my last I promised you a copy of publihed here) to fuppress the remarks John Evans's letter ; but the whole on the nitrous bath, as the author wished. being rather a crude composition, and
I am afraid the collection of cases will rather long, I send you the fubitance of be a few weeks longer in appearing than his report, which has been published in I gave reason to expect. A considerable several of the American papers; and in number of communicacions are printed. ma ing it known in Europe, you will But fome, which were promised tivo oblige leveral of our friends. months ago, are not yet come to hand sio The ideas, which I suggested in my and I could wish to present the public last letter, on the subject of this mission, with a respectable body of facts. I find 'I still retain. I was always doubtful of by my correfpondence in America, that the existenee of Welch Indians; but, in they have been employing nitrous acid my opinion, we are left in tine dark as there witb various, but, for ibe most much as ever, in respect to their existence part, with good success."--I hope we or non-existence. Those who have as. hull, ere loog, knosy how far this and ferted that there are such a people may the other fubitances newly brought into have equal credit, in the scale of proban question, are useful--that we may use bability, with those who only, by superthem so far, and no farther.
ficial research, declare they cannot find I am, Sir, with good withes for the them. Evans's account is very lame, success of your exertions, yours, and to me appears doubtful. We may March 7, 1798. THOMAS BEDDOÉ. know more about it hereafter; and
Mould I hear any thing farther, I shall not To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,
fail to communicate it.
* After enumerating his difficulties SIR,
and fufferings on the Miffithippi, which, HE following is an extract of a let: have been already published, EVANS
ter from my correspondent at Phi- gives a short account of his journey up Jadelphia, respecting a late attempt to the Millouri. penetrate to the Wejh Indians, da.ed the
“ In August, 1795, says he, I started sth of December, 1797
from St. Louis, in company with JAMES "* I was in hopes to hare had it in my Mackay, commandant on the Milpower to communicate something con. fouri; and wintered, the same year, with cerning Jous EVANS. Dr. Jones, of the Mahas nation, on the faid river. Lower Dublin, has received a letter from Whilft here, I fpent twenty-five days him a few days ago. I have sent two with the Indians, on their hunting messages for a copy of it, but it is nct ground, and then returned to Post Mahas, Yet come to hand. I understand that where I tarried two months. Evans has returned to Kentucky, with “ In February, 1796, I recommenced out finding his brethren. I was appre- my journey westward, and, at the dittavce hensive or his miscarriage; for Judge of 300 miles from the Mahas, was discoTURNER, on his arrival in this city vered by fone hottile Indians, called tire last Ipring, informed me that MACKAY, Seaux. Being obliged to retreat, I again the acting partner in the Missouri Com- returned to the Mahas ; but in June for pany, had returned to St. Louis, finding lowing, undertook the same route, and, in the western Indians in a hostile position. Auguit, arrived at the Mandans and BigNothing was then mentioned of Evans, Belly nation, 300 leagues from the Ma. farther than that the judge said the com. has, and 600 leagues from the confluence mandant of St. Louis, in a letter to him, of the Missouri with the Mississippi.
Welsh Indians.—Prize in the Lottery. « The Missouri, for 260 leagues from persuade all my friends, particularly St. Louis, traverses and forms beautiful those who think they would have good meanders through fine meadows, as level luck, to avoid buying tickets, or hares as a table: the vale or bottom is from of tickets; and although this be absolutetwelve to eighteen miles in breadth. The ly flying in the face of that government river sometimes glides along the hills on which has, in its wisdom, proje&ted and each side, but its general course is to the commanded this seheme of finance, yet fouth of the plain: for 400 leagués it is I have hitherte contrived to fteet pretty full of little islands, and receives very clear of punishment, because, although considerable treams above R. Platte, there are many clauses in the act which 190 leagues from St. Louis. From the constitutes and appoints a lottery, Pancas to the Mandans, which is about there is not one which corripels us to 190 leagues, it has forced its way, and purchase tickets. In my opposition, runs furiously through mountains and therefore, I proceed fecurely, and, what hills full of mine.
is more, I act fairly; for I never repeat “ Having explored and taken a chart my annual admonitions unless at the of the Missouri, for 1800 miles, I re close of the drawing. There are two
turned with its rapid current, in 68 days, reasons why I aệt thus ; firft, that I may *to St. Louis, July 15, 1797, after being not feem fa&tious or invidious, and, ftabsent nearly two years. I was well condly, because at the end of a lottery, received by the Spanish officers, who I find many perfons inclined to take my preslingly folicited me to undertake ano- advice, who, at the beginning of it, Ther adventure,across the continent, to the would not liften to me. "Pacific.
But why, you will say, am I so hoftile “ In respect to the Welsh Indians, I to lotteries? I will ansiver in few werds have only to inform you, that I could --Because I once was fortunate, and not meet with such a people; and from from that time had to date the miferies the intercourse I have had with Indians, from which I am recovering only by very from lat. 35 to 49, I think you may with flow degrees; for I fuppole I need not fafety inform our friends, that they have tell you, that a war is a very unhealthy no existence.
time for persons recovering from lofles in “ The applications made to me, by trade. It is a bad time to pick up, as we this government, prevent my coming at fay-It is like fending a conlumptive present to Philadelphia; thould I accept pair of lungs into a Marp air, or curing of the offer, it will be some time before the ague in the fens of Lincolnfire.
But to my ktory, which has been the Signed, " JOHN THOMAS Evans.” burt hen of my fong for so many years. The above is the result of the expedi You must know, Sir, that I began tion undertaken by Evans, which was life in the humble capacity of a very announced to take place about five years refpe&table tallow chandier, in Whiteago; and acconipanied by fome docu- . chapel, and carried on for some time a ments, upon which the hope of finoceed- very fnug trade. Belides families and ing therein in a great measure depended. chance customers, I furnished two holThe above accounts do not explain clearly pitals with candles, and frequently had why Evans returned from the point men the honour to throw light on the many tioned by him, which, from all the in- fubjects of political speculation, which formation received, is short of the situa- were agitated in a neighbouring publiction alligned for the people he was in House. Things went on then, Sir,'essearch of. Yours, &c. Merlion. actly as they should do. My profits, if
not great, were certain ; and, upon the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,
word of a tallow-chandler, I declare
they were honest, for I made it a rule to LTHOUGH no man can more ea
fick to the trade price, and never regerly ftrive than I do, to obey the fused at Chriltınas to give my customers' apoftolic injunction, “ Live peaceably maids a few rafh-lights, in order to thew with all men,” yet there is one respect in them how to play whisk like their masters, which I rank with the disaffected part of As to politics, I went not a jot farther this nation, and have feldom failed for than the Daily Advertiser enjoined nee; Several years of my life, to oppose one of and, like a good subject, I had a heart. the positive laws of my country. I allude felt satisfaction in the victories of my now to the State Lottery, and my mode country, especially when they were fo of oppofitien is this. I endeavour to great as to require the aid of wig trade to
I see you."
Evils from a Prize in the Lottery:
163 give them an additional brilliancy.-My and frugality; and as it was by her adwife asisted me in my business, as a wife vice I bought the ticket, she took the ought; and if any bufiness called me . whole merit of our succeis out of the from home, there was the behind the hands of Dame Fortune, and infifted that counter, and as attentive as myself. I we should lay out our money like people • kept one maid servant, and a boy to car- of fashion. People of fathion! These
ry parcels. My two children had got were her very words; and, the added, .such schooling as was thought proper for likewise, that the mult now see a little of
their expectations. I intended my son the world, and metamorphose me and my .. to succeed me in business, and, as for children after her own way. my daughter, the would have made an Would you believe it, Sir? I cannot excellent house-wife, which is all, in my say that I was wholly against all this,
huinble opinion, that tradesmen's daugh- because I could not help feeling how ..ters ought to be. I paid all parish rates much more comfortable it is to have five
with pleature, and served pariin offices so thousand pounds, than to be daily toiling honestly, that I do not think I eat more to make up as many hundreds ; but I than two cbiliren in all my time, which declare, that if it had not been for this is saying a great deal. As to amuse, money, I never should have thought of ments, we never defred the expenlive becoming a man of fashion, for I had no ones. Now and then, in very fine wea- . other notion of such at that time, thaa ther, I would treat my family to Sadler's that they were persons who required long Wells, or Barnaby Spa, but as to trips credit. But to proceed-The first step by fea,we never went farther than Gravel- my wife took, was to dispose of our stock end, and carrying our own provisions in trade, and this was eally done, at the with us, and coming back by the next loss of about three hundred pounds, for tide, you must allow all this was very we were very precipitate, and the buyers moderate.
knowing that we could not for shame's In this happy state things went on for sake keep our stock on hand, refolved to fome years, AU was fun-ihine and ease us of it in the genteelest way poiiibroad day-light; age, and good broad ble; and 'I may truly say, for the first bumour at night with us. But happi. time of my life, that my candles were nefs will have an end. There are many burnt at both ends. This being over, ups and downs in life. The devil is my wife discovered that there was some. never tired of the many pranks he plays thing very pernicious in the air of Whiteus poor honest folks. It happened one chapel, and determined to leave the day, Sir, that my wife received a hand. place. My leafe had fifteen years to run, bill about the lottery, wrapt round an and I foon got a tenant who agreed to ounce of green tea which we had brought pay me less than I was obliged to pay thie to treat the curate of our parish with. landlord; but this was nothing to a m.in What there was in this wicked bill, I do who, by the sale of his effects, had added not now remember, but the woman a pretty handiome fum to the above five would not reit until she had bought a thousand. ticket, or a share of one. I had not been After much consultation (for we found zused to contradict her, and perhaps the the whims of people of fashion come very devil might enter into me at the fame naturally) we hired a house in one of the time, for I believe he generally prefers a streets near Palace-yard, because it was whole family, when he can get them. only rool. a year rent, and was so centrical The ticket was bought, and I had been (as my wite called it) to the playhoules, happy if it had proved a blank; but in and the palace! By this you will learn, a few days it was pronounced an hun. that she knew as inuich of the centre of dred pound prize. A second ticket fol- the playhoules as the did aboui the cir: lowed of course, and a third; and be- cumference of our fortune. Bit here, fore the lottery had done drawing, I was however, we sat down, and a discovery - master of five thousand pounds sterling having been made, naturally enough I money. This was a fum of which there must say, that the furniture of our old is no mention in the records of our fa- house was not proper even for the fermily for leveral generations. I leemed, vants' rooms of our new one, we employindeed, born a great man without the ed an honest broker, who furnithed its help of ancestors.
completely, from top to bottom, with But alas! this was the beginning of every article in the newest taite. We bat forrows and evils. My wife now de- carpets which it was almo: heretj to clared war againlt all business, induttry, walk upon; chairs ou wliich I dore net