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Remarks on Engraving on Wood.

III of every one who has not time and abili, Hitherto the only specimens of moderi ties to study and comprehend fo hetero- engravings on wood that have been ofgeneous a jargon.

fered to the public, have been upon 2 Whilit the present rage for fystematic finall scale; probably, because of the dif. reform through the regions of nature ficulty of finding wood of a large enough lafts, I could with the nuinerous and in- fize fit for the purpose, for I am informed, telligent reformilts would direct their at- our inodern artists use only box-wood. But tention awhile from the classification to from what I have seen of wood engravings the langnage of natural history. Here of late, I should suppose, t'at, conlidered an ample

, field is open for their exertions, as a fine art, it was much better adapted and I am confident that their well-di- for producing a grand effect in large works rócted labours would be crowned with than in small things, because it admits of the happiest success, both in clearing the a rich fullness of ihade, a mellow softness path to the Itudy of nature of its great- in their gradations, and a great strength est incumbrance, and in ensuring their of touch, which can be effected in no other fame by the gratitude of all who now mode that hath ever yet bean attempted. groan under the weight of the barbarous But, as I am no artist myself, I throw phraseology with which the fublime and out this hint merely for the confideration important fcience of natural history in of others, without pretending to decide... all its departments is embarraffed. It is, however, as an inseful rather than

Yours, &c. a fine art, that I think the chief value of Feb. 6, 1798.

R. H. N. this invention confifts. It is well known,

that where many copies of a book with To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. prints are sold, the expence of taking off SIR,

the impressions on copper greatly enhances EWICK's Birds lately published, the price; and engravings on copper are

lo quickly effaced, that the beauty of the subject of engraving on wood, which every delicate touch is sensibly diminished I beg leave to submit to your considera- almost by every impression that is taken tion. If you shall think them deserving a of it: and even the frongest engravings place in your useful Magazine, they are that can be made upon copper, are foon entirely at your service.

worn down; so as to require to be re, The mode of engraving on wood, as touched several times, before a numerous practised by the first discoverers of that impression can be worked off. I need not art

, was extremely different from that add, that after every such retouching, the which is now followed by the BEWICKS, impresions are much interior to what they and fome other artists in Britain. The were before the forn. «r engraving was excellence of the old engravings consisted worn down. In this way, the value of in the general correctuels of the drawing, different copies of the same impression of and the spirited boldness of fome rough the books must be greatly altered, though touches, which gave energy to the design, all must be fold at the same price. In rebut the manner was hard aud dy; nor gard to engravings on wood, the case is does it feein to have been even suspeted very different. I have been assured, on at that time, that it was pollible to pro- the belt authority, that a wood-cut, duce a fuil deep and inellow Shade on a strongly engraved, if it gets common jufwood-cut, though it is now found that tice done to it, will not be senfibly worse this can be better effected by an engrav. after an hundred thousand innpressions ing on wood than by any other mode of have been taken trom it, and perhaps ten engraving that has hitherto been adopted. times that quantity may be taken before Whether it is equally capable of produc- it" has received such injury as to bring it ing that mellow lotiness in the lighter to the state of a common copper-plate, tints, which can easily be effected on that requires to be retouched. Add to copper, is still a matter of doubt, though, this, that the expence of taking off the if I were to judge from some specimens impreffions will not be, I have good rea. I have seen, of the performance of a young fon to believe, one fifiicib part of that of artift, whose name is not yet known to copper-plate engravings of the same lize; the public, I should be inclined to believe and it is obvious, that the diminution cf that it might, even in this respect also, expe:ce, by adopting this mode of engrav. be brought to rival that on copper itself, ing, in regard to works of extenhve fale, But of this I wish to speak at present with wil be amazing, even if the original endiffidence, being concious that the pub, graving should have cost the same fum as lic muft doubt in regard to those things it doute upon copper. I have been assured, Hey have never seen.

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Engraving on Wood....Similes from Homer., by a gentleman who has made the calcu Mathematical diagrams and machinery lation, and on whose accuracy I can con- of every fort, may thus be executed with fidently rely, that, if the plates for the the greatest accuracy and neatness.

Encyclopædia Britannica" had been en In natural history, the specimens that graven on wood instead of copper, (and BEWICK has given in his beats and birds, they could have been done much better thew what it is capable of. For delineatthan those are) and allowing the same sum ing insects, thells, and minerals, it is perfor originally engraving the one as the haps yet better calculated to produce a other, the saving on cach plate, for one fine effect than in those specimens that impression only of that work, would have have been already exhibited. exceeded ten guineas, so that the total I will not take up more of your paper gain to the proprietors of that work, by enumerating a greater number of pararising from this circumstance alone, ticulars. What I have said will, I think, would have exceeded four thousand guineas be sufficient to prove, that the art of enon one impression only.

graving on wood promises to be of much From those confiderations, it is obvious utility to mankind in general, by dimithat every work which can command an nishing the price of some works of priextensive sale, and which requires to be mary importance to fociety, on which acillustrated by engravings, will afford a count it deserves to be encouraged and much greater profit to the undertaker if cultivated with affiduity. these are executed on wood than on copper. Jan. 1, 1798.

N. M. And, as the plates can remain equally good for a second, a third, or a fourth

For the Monthly Magazine. impresion, as for the first, it will, in some measure, secure a copyright in the book, SIMILES OF HOMER, VIRGIL, AND because no one, who has to pay for new

Milton, (CONTINUED.) engravings, could afford to sell an im

From Wild Beasts.
OMER

from observation the various The question then comes to be, What actions and characters of the ferocious kind of works of general utility admit of animals, which, in the ruder states and being illustrated hy engravings on wood paftoral occupations of mankind, must equally well as if they were done upon be objects of capital importance. Their copper? I here put works of taste entirely encounters with each other, the devastaout of the question, and consider utility tions they occafion among the domestic only.

kinds, and the mutual warfare carried on In this point of view, the first place in between them and the human species, regard to importance ought, perhaps, to cannot fail to impress the mind with a be alligned to anatomy. Froin the speci- variety of striking ideas. The applimens I have already feen, I am perfectly cation of images, borrowed from this fatisfied that anatomical plates can be ex- fource, to the circumstances of military ecuted on wood with all the precision transactions, is to obvious, that little posible on copper, and, in fonze particu- ingenuity is to be looked for in the dirlars, (especialiy those where the muscles covery either of general or particular are represented) with much greater ele. points of resemblance; and the merit gance and beauty. A set of such plates, of comparisons, from this source, mult if executed from accurate detigns, by chiefly consist in the force and accuracy having the whole civilized globe for a of description. The Grecian bard, in market, (the explanations being eatily these respects, is certainly unrivalled : printed in different languages) could be every line in his descriptive pieces is a afforded at a very low price, to as to bring proof that he copied from nature herself; them within the reach of every student of and his successors in epic poetry have physic; while the undertaker would be done little more in their happielt efforts, insured in a most abundant profit. than judiciously selecting, and adorning

The next subject of general importance with the beauties of diction, the various is archiietlure. Wood-engraving is pe- circumstances with which he had fure culiarly fitted to produce beautiful works nished them. of this class, at a very Imall expence. Amidst the fimiles of this class, thofe

Heraldry is another subject that admits in which the Lion forms the principal of being illultrated by wood-engravings figure are by much the most frequent in with fingular propriety, as I am latisfied the works of Homer. The generous of from fume specimens of this fort I courage and terrific force of this noble have lately seen.

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Similes of Homer, Virgil and Milton.

113 animal rendered him peculiarly proper

The Lion thus for comparison with the warriors of an Whoin, leaping at the fold, fome Shepherd age of heroes; when, from the artificial

swain, modes of combat, the ftrength and prow- His frocks defence, has Aruck with feeble els of a single individual became emi. Now urgʻd to mighty rage, no more renently conspicuous, and were of great

puls'd, moment in deciding the event of a battle. He clears the fence, and 'mid the crowd for: To consider every example in which the lorn simile of a lion is introduced, would Spreads dire dismay ; in heaps they Arew the prove tedious and uninteresting, on account of the frequent fameness, both of Then proudly fprings again the lofty mound the original and resembling scene. I So sprung Tydides on the Trojan hot, fall therefore select a few, the most va.

II. v. 136. rious in their circumstances and appii The impetuous courage of Diomed is cation, and of the greatest value as natu- with peculiar propriety resembled to that ral representations.

of the Lion, and the circumstance of his The common occurrence in countries receiving a night wound from the arrow infested by wild beasts, of a nightly at. of Pandarus, is exactly paralleled in tack upon the folds or stalls, by a lion, the fimile. has given occasion to three striking fini The retreat of the Lion, represented lies in Homer, each distinguished by in the first of these passages, is described some variation in the circumstances. In in a simile by Virgil, but less cireumthe first I shall adduce, the assault is ef- ftantially, and without the accompanya feétually repelled--

ment of the nightly attack. As from the folded Aalls a nightly guard

-Ceu fævum turba leonem Of dogs and ruftics all the rage repel Cum telis premit infenfis; at territus ille, Of some fierce Lion, greedy for the flesh Alper, acerba tuens, retro redit; & ncque Of fatted kine: in vain he rushes on;

terga So thick the javelins hurl'd by vent'rous Ira dare aut virtus patitur; nec tendere cca hands,

tra, And flaming torches fly, that held in awe, Ille quidem hoc cupiens potis eft per tela Though much desiring, at the morning's dawn virosque : Sad he retires. The mighty Ajax thus, Haud aliter retro dubius veftigia Turnus With swelling breaft indignant quits the Improperata refert, & mens exæftuat ira. field.

Æn. ix. 792. This is a characteristical and well As when with tilted (pears the clanı'rous painted picture, but not perfectly exact

train in the application; fince Ajax is not Invade the brindled monarch of the plain, making an attack on the enemy, like the The lordly savage from the thouting foe lion, but is standing upon the defensive.

Retires, majestically stern and now, In the next instance, the powers of the Repel or stand their whole collected war;

Tho'lingiy impotent the croud to dare, affailant and defenders are almost equally Grim he looks back; he rolls his glaring eye, balanced, and this equality takes place Despairs to conquer; and disdains to fly. both in the real and the resembling scene. So 'Turnus pausd; and by degrees retired; Sarpedon's fpirited attempt to break While shame, disdain, and rage, the here through the Grecian rampart, is thus fir'd.

Pitt. imaged--

There is more of sentiment in this picSo, when a Lion, 'mid the mountains ture than in that of Homer, but leis of bred,

nature.

The Lion of the Greek poet Long hung'ring, feels th' adventurous im- combats for prey, and his unwillingness pulse urge

to retreat only proceeds froin his hunger. To try the well-barr'd circuit of the fold; That of the Roman fights for glory, and If chance he find the guardian-swains around, is withheld from flying by thame. He With dogs and spears in watch, he yet dif- is a happier object of comparison for a dains

hero; but is a less faithful representaAttemptless to retreat; but leaping in,

tive of an animat which, norwithtandOr bears away the spoil, or front to frontt Receives from some swift arm the piercing ing all the stories of his magnar imity, has Acel.

probably no moral qualities diferent from

those of other carnivorous wild beasts. In the following passage the assailant is His propenáty at all hazards to reonly roused to greater exertions by relift- venge an affront (a point of character ance, and proves completely victoriousa common to various of the larger predaMONTH, MAG, No. XXVII,

tory

Il. xi. 547

11. xii. 299.

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114

Similes, &c..... English Versification, tory animals) is represented by Homer his passage across the Grecian ramparts in a moft animated manster in the passage, and is therefore, like one of the former, of which the following is a translation : defective in comparing an action of arThe dreadful Lion thus,

sault to one of defence. Whom all th' aflembled country round puft has applied it with more exactnefs to He

Virgil, in a concise copy of this fimile, sue, Intent to kill, at first moves careless on,

lenor encompafied by affailing enemies. Till, by the Ipcar of some bold hunter struck, Ut fera, quæ densa venantum fepta corons He writhing yawns, he foams, his gencrous Contra tela furit, fefeque haud nescia morti breast

Injicit, & faltu fuper venabula fertur: Indignant groans, with busy tail his sides Haud aliter juvenis medios moriturus in hoAnd loins he lashes, rousing to the fight; Then fernly scouling, ruthes headlong on, Irruit: & qua tela vidit dengffima, tendit. Resolved on daughter, or a glorious death.

En. ix. 551. Il. xx. 164.

As the stern savage, whom the train fur-, As a fimile, this noble picture seems

rounds ftrangely misplaced, or thrown away, Of thouting hunters, steeds, and opening since it is only introductory to the ḥngle hounds, combat in which Achilles, not rounded, On death determined, and devoid of fears, or particularly irritated, engages with Springs forth undaunted on a grove of spears. Æneas, an unequal adversary.

So, bent on death, where thick the javelins

rile, Virgil has given a spirited imitation of this passage, applying it, as loosely Fierce on the close embattled war he fies.

Pitt. as Homer had done, to Turnus, inftamed to fury by the public outcry against him,

The circumstance of the beast's leaping after the unsuccessful beginnings of the over the hunting-poles, is happily imaa war against Æneas.

gined. Dryden, in his trantlation,

chuses to make the animal a stag. J. A. Pænorum qualis in arvis Saucius ille gravi venantum vulnere pectus,

(To be continued.) Tum demum movet arma leo; gaudetque Excutiens cervice toros, fixumque latronis

To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine. Impavidus fravgit telum, & fremit ore cru SIR,

N answer to your correspondent, L Haud secus accenso gliscit violentia Turno.

En. xii. 4. the MONTHLY MAGAZINE, I sent a few As pierced at distance by the hunter's dart, general observations on English versificaThe Lybian Lion roures at the smart, tion. With your permission I will now And loudly roaring traverses the plain, pursue the subject a little further. Scourges his lides, and rears his horrid mane, Aristotle, who has called poetry imi. Tugs furious at the spear, the foe defies, tation, calls music ous.woNAT* 195 097* And grinds his tecth for rage, and to the

XO! TOPLOTITOS, the likenesses of anger and combat fiies :

gentleres, &c. this correspondence he So storm'd proud Turnus.

Pitt.

makes to depend on rhyme and melody The added circumftances of hiking σε τοις Ρυθμους και Μελεσι. In this point his brittling mane," and " breaking the of view poetry and music are kindred Spear fixed in his fide," are well conceived, arts : and the analogy with respect to and expressed with great vigour, rlayme, expreslicn, and effect, is much

I Mall add another pictare of a fiinilar closer than many imagine. kind, from Homer, chiefly on account of Sound has an influence on passion; an the accurate minuteness with which it influence not connected with an affociarepresents the chace of a wild beast, as tion of ideas, but with the tendency of still practised in various countries. certain tones to excite particular move

As when amid the throng of dogs and men ments in the nerves. This is true of A Boar or Lion fiercely glaring stands; musical sounds; it is also true of metri. Close wedgʻd in troops, che hunters round ad- cal. These move:fents, however, are yance,

not always produiced in verlè, b* causes And launch the frequent spear; yet undif- uniformly the fame ; fometimes it is by may'd,

a particular movement of the verse, as Nor fear nor flight his generous heart allows, that of Homer, But fours him to his fate : the bands of foes Oft turning he assails; as oft the focs Ητοι ο μες σκηρυπτομενος χερσιντι ποσιντο Where'er he rushes, yield.

II. xii. 41.

Λααν ανω ωθισκι, &c. The application is to Hector trying

Or

comantes

ento:

IN

Mr. Dyeron English Versification.

115 Or that of Milton-..

and this line is quoted to fliew, that the -Him th' Almighty Power

observation of a shrewd modern w. iter is Hurl'd headlong flaming from the ethereal not quite accurate, “ that to place three sky,

long syllabk's consecutively in English, is a With hideous ruín and combustion down great difficulty.' To bottomless perdition, &c.

The English lambic also admits a Sometimes it is produced by a single Dactyl, that is, a foot of three ty!!ables, word, ulularunt, howl, hifs, rau, &c. with the first tyllable long, and the latt This is what Mr. Walth very properly thoit, as in that line of Waller’s, calls, the style of stund.

Cuŭld or I děr teach and their 1 high spirits : This effect is produced by the applica

cỏ neoc tion of the tule of the acute and

grave

as “ High spirits''. accents; the acute making stronger, the And a Pyrrhic, that is, a foot of two grave weaker vibrations; from an artful fort, as in the above verse, “ ănd their.” management of the letters, considered as It will alto admit of an Anaprít, that liquids, consonants, single, or double, is a foot of three fyllables, the two vowels, dipthongs, open vowels, &c. first short, and the last long; and of a From regarding the proper places for the Trochee, a foot of two fyllables, with pause, transposition, interrogation, &c. the first long, and last short; which the

I am not yet speaking of any parti- Greek Iambic never admitted: though cular fpecies of verlification, but of the it may be generally observed, the more effect of sound in general, in producing lambics the verle contains, it will be so motion or passion. When the poet wilhes much the purer. to express, and to raise in the breast of With respect to long and mort, it his reader, the softer or more lively pai- should be noticed, though Englith verse fions of love, hope, desire, &c. his verse is not regulated by position, it is not so hould study correspondent movements; loose as to let afide quantity, it should be foft, and accompanied with

Sure there are poets who did never dream all the arts of infinuation ; it should move Upon Parnafsus, nor did taste the stream fprightly, and with an air of triumph Of Helicon, &c. and exultation, &c.---on the other hand, when he would express grief, pride, re- . be turned into an Iambic, as répūte, rě

Suppose Počts, which is a Trochee, to sentment, &c. the language should express depression, indignation; Sudden plate, and we shall fee that the harmony transition, &c.

is instantly broken; or fuppose Părnāls

füs, which is an Amphibrachys, that is, It is unnecessary to exemplify what has

a foot of three syllables, the first syllable been so frequently exemplified in books

on each side short, the middle long, be on rhetoric and poetry : ---a few hints on read as an amphimacer, with each lyllathe mechanical part of the different spe. ble on the tide long, and the middle cies of English versification, will be more thort, we shall then likewise fee that the to the purpose of your correspondent L.

rules of quantity are violated, The following rules seem to apply to the lambic, or Heroic, a verle of five

“On ParnăsTūs top, nor did taste the stream." feet,' which may be with or without The next observation relates to the rhyme : called lambic, because the prin- Paule; a consideration of great importcipal foot contained in it is an Iambic, a in verfe, και εςι λεξις κράτν τη foot of two lyllables, with the first fyl- TATWY, 7TuS QUI EX os cavaltavaces x 2 peslable hort, the last long. Ex. of the Tambonas aguonos *. The force of this Iambic with rhyme, .

observation will be obvious by contiHěre thou | Greăt An\nă, whõm | thrée dering what has already been noticed realms obēy,

----the correspondence of poetry with Dót lômeltimes coūníěl take, I and some music. Music requires variety of movetimestēa.

ments, no less than sweetnets of found: I take these lines as affording an ex

and without this variety, both poetry ample of an inaccurate rhyme, which I and music will be accompanied with a hall notice presently. At present, I ob difgufting monotony. ferve, that the last line is an example of

In Mr. Walsh's " Letter to Mr.Pope," it perfect lambic.

is obferved, there is naturally a pause The Heroic or Iambic admits other at the fourth, fifth, or fixth fyllables. feet besides the lambic. The first of “ It is upon these the ear rests, upon the these lines in the fourth place has taken a

Dionyf. Hal. De Struct. Orat. Spondee, or a foot of two long syllables :

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