A Life of Sir Francis Galton: From African Exploration to the Birth of Eugenics
Few scientists have made lasting contributions to as many fields as Francis Galton. He was an important African explorer, travel writer, and geographer. He was the meteorologist who discovered the anticyclone, a pioneer in using fingerprints to identify individuals, the inventor of regression and correlation analysis in statistics, and the founder of the eugenics movement. Now, Nicholas Gillham paints an engaging portrait of this Victorian polymath. The book traces Galton's ancestry (he was the grandson of Erasmus Darwin and the cousin of Charles Darwin), upbringing, training as a medical apprentice, and experience as a Cambridge undergraduate. It recounts in colorful detail Galton's adventures as leader of his own expedition in Namibia. Darwin was always a strong influence on his cousin and a turning point in Galton's life was the publication of the Origin of Species. Thereafter, Galton devoted most of his life to human heredity, using then novel methods such as pedigree analysis and twin studies to argue that talent and character were inherited and that humans could be selectively bred to enhance these qualities. To this end, he founded the eugenics movement which rapidly gained momentum early in the last century. After Galton's death, however, eugenics took a more sinister path, as in the United States, where by 1913 sixteen states had involuntary sterilization laws, and in Germany, where the goal of racial purity was pushed to its horrific limit in the "final solution." Galton himself, Gillham writes, would have been appalled by the extremes to which eugenics was carried. Here then is a vibrant biography of a remarkable scientist as well as a superb portrait of science in the Victorian era.
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albino ancestral Andersson Anthropological Institute Anthropometric became began Biometrika British Association Burton Cambridge Candolle chapter character Charles Darwin College color Committee correlation Damara Darbishire Darwin Edgeworth eminent Erasmus Erasmus Darwin evolution expedition Explorer in Tropical Faulds fingerprints Francis Galton Galton wrote gemmules genetic height Hereditary Genius heredity heritability History of Statistics human hypothesis Ibid IIIA individuals Jonker Karl Pearson Lake Ngami Lake Tanganyika later lecture letter Livingstone London Louisa mathematics measurements Memories Mendel's Mendelian mental method mice mid-parent Murchison Nangoro Natural Inheritance natural selection Nile normal distribution observed original Ovampo pangenesis paper parents pedigree Press probably problem Proc progeny Psychology published race regression remarked reported Review river Royal Geographical Society Royal Society scientific scientists seeds Speke Stanley Stanley's Tertius theory tion travelled Tropical South Africa twins University variation weather Weldon William Bateson women
Non-representational Theory: Space, Politics, Affect
N. J. Thrift
No preview available - 2008
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