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encouraging answer, of which Raleigh did not fail to make a proper use. His progress in the queen's favour was very great ; nor was he less acceptable to her ministers, who perceived that he possessed both talents and a disposition to render his country eminent service. To the honour of Raleigh, he did not suffer himself to be intoxicated with the luxuries and vanities of a court life. It was his ambition not only to enjoy, but to merit the smiles of his sovereign ; and aco cordingly he obtained her letters patent to make a voyage of discovery on the coast of America, where he established a colony, to which the queen herself gave the name of Virginia. He had so great a share in the glorious defeat of the Spanish armada, that the queen, in addition to his former grant of a patent of wines, made an augmentation of tonnage and poundage upon these liquors... About this time he set up an office of Address, which was an institution somewhat resembling our modern register offices. But from some hints which we have of this establishment, it appears to have been formed upon a more enlarged and liberal principle, and had for its object not only the convenience of persons in the way of business, but the advancement of science, and the pro. inotion of schemes for the public good. During the remainder of this reign, Raleigh lived in a style of magnificence, and without experiencing any material diminution of the royal favour. He was, indeed, for a little while under a cloud, on



account of his intrigue with one of the maids of honour ; but having made the only reparation in bis power, by marrying the lady, he was soon reestablished in the good graces of the queen. The ensuing reign made a sad change in his fortune. Sir Walter's enterprizing genius was offensive to the pacific disposition of James; and his having been the enemy of the unfortunate earl of Essex, contributed to heighten this dislike. The hatred of the crafty Cecil hastened Raleigh's ruin, and he was accused of being concerned in a treasonable conspiracy with lord Cobham. Though nothing was proved in support of the charge, the jury found him guilty at Winchester, and he was condemned to die November 17, 1603. He was, however, reprieved, and kept a prisoner in the Tower till 1615, when he obtained his release.-Nothing, perhaps, can niore exactly pourtray the corrupt state of the English court at that time, than the circumstance that Raleigh was indebted for his liberty, not to a just regard for his merits or pity for his sufferings, but to the influence of money. The sum given to Sir William St. John, and Sir Edward Villiers, for obtaining this favour, was fifteen hundred pounds. The next year he made a voyage to Guiana, in search of a gold mine which he affirmed to be there, but not discovering it, he burnt the Spanish town of St. Thome, and then returned to England, where the complaints of the court of Madrid had preceded him.-Though Raleigh had acted by a commission from

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the king, he was taken up and received judgment to die by virtue of his foriner sentence. He was accordingly beheaded in the Old Palace, Yard, October 29, 1618. Thus fell Sir Walter Raleigh, the ornament of his country, whose.whole life was a series of the most brilliant services ; who enlarged commerce and opened new sources of industry ; who, by his sword and his pen conferred honour on the reign of Elizabeth, and who, by the injustice of his trial, imprisonment, and exe. cution, is the greatest blot in that of her pusillanimous successor.

One of the most prominent qualities in this illustrious man's character, was a bold'adventurous spirit. He was superior to fear, and an enemy to inactivity. This spirit very early distinguished him ; and he gives us an account of an adventure in wliich he was engaged when he served as a volunteer in France, at the age of seventeen. The story is as follows: being inforined that a party of the enemy had fortified themselves in some caves which had but a narrow entrance cut in the midway of the high rocks, he and his company made an attempt upon the place; but all their efforts proving ineffectual, they had recourse to . the expedient of scaling the height, and letting down,' says he, an iron chain, with a weighty stone in the midst, about which were fastened


bundles of lighted straw, which nearly smothered. the besieged, and forced them to surrender.'*

His whole life is a proof of his active mind and undaunted courage. What his ideas were of the superiority of a man of war, may be learnt from an observation contained in his · History of the World.' • The fort St. Philip terrified not us in the year (3596, when we entered the port of Cadiz; neither

did the fort at Puntal when we were entered, beat * us from our anchoring by it, though it played upon us with four demi-cannons, within point-blank, from six in the morning, till twelve at noon."*

To Sir Walter we are indebted for the introduction of tobacco into England, and the smoking of it. This practice soon became quite the fashion even at court, and it is said that the queen would sometimes indulge herself with a pipe. It is, however, certain that several of the nobility and the court ladies too, amused themselves with smoking. A very humorous story is related of Sir Walter, and his servant, soon after the return of the former from his voyage to America.

He used to smoke privately in his study, and when the servant brought him in his tankard of ale and nutmeg, the poor fellow seeing the smoke pouring forth in clouds from his mouth, threw

* Oldys's Life of Raleigh.



all the contents of the tankard in his face, and ran down stairs, exclaiming that his master was on fire, and before they could get to him, would be burnt to ashes.'.

This simplicity reminds one of the Indians who having taken a quantity of gunpowder, sowed it for grain, with full expectation of reaping a plentiful crop of combustion by the next harvest, whereby they should be enabled to destroy their enemies.

The box in which Raleigh kept his tobacco was carefully preserved, and at last came into the hands of the late Mr. Thoresby, of Leeds. It resembled a modern snuff case, with a cavity for a glass or metal receiver, big enough to hold a pound of tobacco, the edge at the top being joined to that of the box, by a collar pierced with six or eight holes, for pipes. *

We may be permitted to remark here that the mortal antipathy of king James to tobacco, and his dislike of all persons who made use of it, may have aggravated his enmity to the man who first introduced it into England. The sapient monarch went so far as to write a quarto volume, entitled, “A Counterblast to Tobacco,' and he even endeavoured to prevent the importation of an article, which proved of so much consequence to bis revenue.

· * Oldys's Life of Raleigh.


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