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to be an apprentice, or, at the best, the foreman of a shop; but we never heard more of him. I asked the doctor, what he thought, when he saw the congregation running away from him? “I thought,” said he, “ they did not like me or my sermon, and I have no reason to be them for that.”—“But what was your opinion," said I, “ of the apprentice?"_“I take hiin," replied he,“ to be a very civil person, and if I could meet with him, I would present him with a bottle of wine." There were then in the parish a company of formal, gravé, and wealthy citizens, who having been many years under famous ministers, as Dr. Wilkins, Bishop Ward, Bishop Reynolds, Mr. Vines, &c. had a great opinion of their skill in divinity, and their ability to judge of the goodness and badness of sermons. Many of these came in a body to Dr. Wilkins, to expostulate with him, why he suffered such an ignorant, scandalous fellow, meaning Dr. Barrow, to have the use of his pulpit. I cannot precisely tell whether it was the same day, or some time after in that week, but I am certain it happened to be when Mr. Baxter was with Dr. Wilkins. They came, as I said before, in full cry, saying, they wondered he should permit such a man to preach before them, who looked like a starved cavalier, who had been long sequestered, and out of his living for delinquency, and came up to London to beg, now that the king was restored ; and much more to this purpose. He let them run them- . selves out of breath; and when they had done he replied to them in this manner.

angry with

sclves

" The

person you thus despise, I assure you, is a pious man, an eminent scholar, and an excellent preacher; for the truth of the last, I appeal to Mr. Baxter here present, who heard the sermon you so much vilify. I am sure you believe Mr. Baxter is a competent judge, and will pronounce according to truth.” Then turning to him, “ Pray, Sir, said he,“ do me the favour to declare your opinion concerning the sermon now in controversy, which you heard at our church last Sunday.” Then did Mr. Baxter very candidly give the sermon the praise it deserved; nay, more, he said " that he could willingly have been his auditor all day long.

- When they heard Mr. Baxter give liim this high encomium, they were pricked in their hearts, and all of them became ashamed, confounded, and speechless; for though they had a good opinion of themselves, yet they durst not pretend to be equal to Mr. Baxter. But at length, after some pause, they all, one after another, confessed, they did not hear one word of the sermon, but were carried to mislike it, by his unpromising garb and mien, the reading of his prayer, and the going away of the congregation;" for they would not, by any means, have it thought, if they had heard the sermon, they should not have concurred with the judgment of Mr. Baxter. After their shaine was a little over, they earnestly desired Dr. Wilkins to procure Dr. Barrow to preach again, en

gaging themselves to make him amends, by bringing to his sermon their wives and children, their men servants, and maid-servants, in a word, their whole families, and to enjoin them not to leave the church till the blessing was pronounced. Dr. Wilkins promised to use his utmost endeavour for their satisfaction, and accordingly solicited Dr. Barrow to appear once more upon that stage, but all in vain; for he could not, by any persuasions, be prevailed upon to comply with the request of such conceited hypocritical coxcombs.”

His sermons, for richness of matter, variety of illustration, and closeness of reasoning, are among the first in the English language; and he was so careful in the composition of them, that he generally transcribed them three or four times, bis greatest difficulty being always to please himself.

He left little behind him except his books, which were so well chosen, that they sold for more than they first cost. Though he never could be prevailed upon to sit for his picture, some of his friends contrived to have it taken without his knowlege, whilst they diverted him with such discourse as fixed his attention. This picture was painted by the ingenious Mrs. Beale, and from it the engraved portrait of the doctor was taken. He was of a healthy constitution, and very fond of tobacco, which he used to call his panpharmacon, or universal medicine, and fancied that a pipe helped to compose and regulate

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his thoughts. As a mathematician he ranked in the first order; and in the compass of invention, he was never excelled by any, his pupil, perhaps, the great Sir Isaac Newton, only excepted. Dr. Barrow, though a profound and universal scholar, was of a sportive fancy, and had a very ready wit.

The celebrated Lord Rochester meeting him one day in the Park, and willing, as he said, to put down the rusty piece of divinity, accosted him, by taking off his hat, and with a profound bow, said "Doctor, I am your's to my shoe-tie.”—The doctor perceiving his aim, returned the salute with equal ceremony, saying, “ My lord, I am your's to the ground.”—His lordship then making a deeper congee, said, “ Doctor I ain your's to the centre." Barrow replied, with the same formality, “My lord, I am your's to the Antipodes; "—on which Rochester made another attempt, by exclaiming,

Doctor, I am your's to the lowest pit of hell." -" There, my lord,” said Barrow, “ I leave you," and immediately walked away.

THOMAS

269

THOMAS HOBBES,

THE “ Philosopher of Malmsbury," as he hath been called, was born in that town, on Good Friday, in 1588. He was educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, after which he travelled into France and Italy with the eldest son of William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire; as he did also with the son of Sir Gervas Clifton. Just before the breaking out of the rebellion, Hobbes, who was always a very timorous man, went to Paris, that he might follow his studies in quietness, and converse with his friends Mersennus, Gassendus, and other men of eminent learning. While there, a nobleman of Languedoc, invited him to live at his house, but he chose rather to remain in that city, as tutor in the mathematics to the exiled Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles the Second. In the course of that employment, he wrote his celebrated treatise, entitled, “ Leviathan, or the Matter, Form, and Power of a Commonwealth," which he procured to be printed at London, in a small folio, 1651. The leading principles he lays down in his book are, that sovereignty derives from the people; that parents have no natural right of dominion over their children; and that whatever be the power established, or however it may be ob

tained,

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